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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 01 December 2016, Vol.214(11), pp.1615-1617
    Keywords: Cervicovaginal ; Gonorrhea ; Microbiome ; Sialidases ; Transmission ; Gonorrhea ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Business Ethics, 2015, Vol.126(1), pp.43-60
    Description: This study proposes and tests a model of the relations among corporate accountants’ perceptions of the ethical climate in their organization, the perceived importance of corporate ethics and social responsibility, and earnings management decisions. Based on a field survey of professional accountants employed by private industry in Hong Kong, we found that perceptions of the organizational ethical climate were significantly associated with belief in the importance of corporate ethics and responsibility. Belief in the importance of ethics and social responsibility was also significantly associated with accountants’ ethical judgments and behavioral intentions regarding accounting and operating earnings manipulation. These findings suggest that perceptions of ethical climate, usually presumed to reflect the “tone at the top” in the organization, lead accounting professionals to rationalize earnings management decisions by adjusting their attitudes toward the importance of corporate ethics and social responsibility. This is the first study to document a relationship between organizational ethical climate and professional accountants’ support for corporate ethics and social responsibility, and also the first study to document that industry accountants’ views toward corporate ethics and social responsibility are associated with their willingness to manipulate earnings. The findings have important implications, suggesting that organizational efforts to enhance the ethical climate and emphasize the importance of corporate ethics and social responsibility could reduce the prevalence of earnings manipulation.
    Keywords: Ethical climate ; Perceived importance of ethics and social responsibility ; Earnings management ; Hong Kong
    ISSN: 0167-4544
    E-ISSN: 1573-0697
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of business ethics : JOBE, 2015, Vol.126(1), pp. 61-63
    Description: In this discussion of Shafer's (J Bus Ethics, 2013, doi: 10.1007/s10551-013-1989-3 10.1007/s10551-013-1989-3 DOI ) empirical research published in this issue, I raise several issues for future research. For example, I encourage ethics research to more carefully consider their use of climate versus culture, and call for an elucidation of the different characteristics of the two constructs. Additionally, the relationship between corporate ethical climate and employees' perceptions of the importance of ethical behavior is complex. Because research commonly calls for organizations to improve their climate in order to improve ethical behavior, an exploration of the exit, voice, loyalty, or neglect options of employees in light of varying organizational ethical climates should be further explored. Reprinted by permission of Springer
    Keywords: Social Responsibility ; Earnings ; Ethics ; Empirical Research ; Loyalty ; Economics;
    ISSN: 01674544
    E-ISSN: 15730697
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  • 4
    In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, August 2011, Vol.12301(1), pp.E19-E28
    Description: The strict human pathogen has caused gonorrhea for thousands of years, and currently gonorrhea is the second most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Given the ancient nature of and its unique obligate relationship with humankind over the millennia, its remarkable ability to adapt to the host immune system and cause repeated infections, and its propensity to develop resistance to all clinically useful antibiotics, the gonococcus is an ideal pathogen on which to study the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis, including antimicrobial resistance, over the long term and within the host during infection. Recently, the first gonococcus displaying high‐level resistance to ceftriaxone, identified in Japan, was characterized in detail. Ceftriaxone is the last remaining option for empirical first‐line treatment, and now seems to be evolving into a true “superbug.” In the near future, gonorrhea may become untreatable in certain circumstances. Herein, the history of antibiotics used for treatment of gonorrhea, the evolution of resistance emergence in , the linkage between resistance and biological fitness of , lessons learned, and future perspectives are reviewed and discussed.
    Keywords: Neisseria Gonorrhoeae ; Gonorrhea ; Antimicrobial Resistance ; Genetics ; Evolution
    ISSN: 0077-8923
    E-ISSN: 1749-6632
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(2), p.e56097
    Description: The surface-exposed NadA adhesin produced by a subset of capsular serogroup B strains of Neisseria meningitidis is currently being considered as a vaccine candidate to prevent invasive disease caused by a hypervirulent lineage of meningococci. Levels of NadA are known to be controlled by both transcriptional regulatory factors and a component of human saliva, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Herein, we confirmed the capacity of a DNA-binding protein termed FarR to negatively control nadA expression. We also found that a known transcriptional regulator of farR in N. gonorrhoeae termed MtrR can have a negative regulatory impact on farR and nadA expression, especially when over-expressed. MtrR-mediated repression of nadA was found to be direct, and its binding to a target DNA sequence containing the nadA promoter influenced formation and/or stability of FarR::nadA complexes. The complexity of the multi-layered regulation of nadA uncovered during this investigation suggests that N. meningitidis modulates NadA adhesin protein levels for the purpose of interacting with host cells yet avoiding antibody directed against surface exposed epitopes.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: 2014, Vol.9(1), p.e87688
    Description: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strict human pathogen that causes the sexually transmitted infection termed gonorrhea. The gonococcus can survive extracellularly and intracellularly, but in both environments the bacteria must acquire iron from host proteins for survival. However, upon infection the host uses a defensive response by limiting the bioavailability of iron by a number of mechanisms including the enhanced expression of hepcidin, the master iron-regulating hormone, which reduces iron uptake from the gut and retains iron in macrophages. The host also secretes the antibacterial protein NGAL, which sequesters bacterial siderophores and therefore inhibits bacterial growth. To learn whether intracellular gonococci can subvert this defensive response, we examined expression of host genes that encode proteins involved in modulating levels of intracellular iron. We found that N. gonorrhoeae can survive in association (tightly adherent and intracellular) with monocytes and macrophages and upregulates a panel of its iron-responsive genes in this environment. We also found that gonococcal infection of human monocytes or murine macrophages resulted in the upregulation of hepcidin, NGAL, and NRAMP1 as well as downregulation of the expression of the gene encoding the short chain 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2); BDH2 catalyzes the production of the mammalian siderophore 2,5-DHBA involved in chelating and detoxifying iron. Based on these findings, we propose that N. gonorrhoeae can subvert the iron-limiting innate immune defenses to facilitate iron acquisition and intracellular survival.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2010, Vol. 78(7), p.3187
    Description: Polyamines are biogenic polycationic molecules involved in key cellular functions. Extracellular polyamines found in bodily fluids or laboratory media can be imported by bacteria or bind to negatively charged bacterial surface structures, where they can impair binding of antimicrobials. We hypothesized that the presence of polyamines in fluids that bathe urogenital mucosal surfaces could alter the susceptibility of the sexually transmitted strict human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae to mediators of the innate host defense. Herein we report that polyamines can significantly increase gonococcal resistance to two structurally diverse cationic antimicrobial peptides (polymyxin B and LL-37) but not to antibiotics that exert activity in the cytosol or periplasm (e.g., ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin, or penicillin). The capacity of polyamines to increase gonococcal resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides was dose dependent, correlated with the degree of cationicity, independent of a polyamine transport system involving the polyamine permeases PotH and PotI, and was reversible. In addition, we found that polyamines increase gonococcal resistance to complement-mediated killing by normal human serum. We propose that polyamines in genital mucosal fluids may enhance gonococcal survival during infection by reducing bacterial susceptibility to host-derived antimicrobials that function in innate host defense.
    Keywords: Media (Transport) ; Mucosa ; Complement ; Survival ; Permease ; Antibiotics ; Pathogens ; Polymyxin B ; Infection ; Penicillin ; Antimicrobial Agents ; Ciprofloxacin ; Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides ; Polyamines ; Cytosol ; Spectinomycin ; Periplasm ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae ; Immunology ; Microorganisms & Parasites ; Antibiotics & Antimicrobials;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 8
    In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2010, Vol. 54(1), p.506
    Description: Neisseria meningitidis can produce a TolC-like protein needed for secretion of FrpC but not efflux of antimicrobials. We now report that expression of the meningococcal tolC gene in a TolC-deficient strain of Escherichia coli can restore properties of alpha-hemolysis and antimicrobial resistance known to involve efflux pumps.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology;
    ISSN: 0066-4804
    ISSN: 00664804
    E-ISSN: 10986596
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Sexually Transmitted Infections, 09/2015, Vol.91(Suppl 2), pp.A18.2-A18
    Description: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the cause of the sexually transmitted infection termed gonorrhoea, which afflicts over 100 million people worldwide each year. Since the mid-1940s, beginning with the availability of penicillin (Pen), antibiotic therapy has been the mainstay for curing infection and halting the spread of the gonococcus in the community. Unfortunately, gonococci developed resistance to Pen and many other antibiotics that were brought into clinical practice to counter act the growing problem of Pen (and other antibiotics) resistance. With the recent emergence of strains expressing resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins (cefixime and ceftriaxone) or other important antibiotics (macrolides and fluoroquinolones) there is considerable fear that without new antibiotics, gonorrhoea will become more difficult to treat; indeed, some have warned of the possibility of untreatable infections. In order to address this public health crisis of antibiotic resistant gonococci, it is essential that new bacterial targets are identified so as to facilitate the development of novel therapeutic drugs. I will discuss the role of the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux pump in the development of gonococcal resistance to antibiotics and host-derived antimicrobials (e.g., cationic antimicrobial peptides). These phenotypes are augmented in gonococcal strains that have mutations that result in enhanced transcription of the mtrCDE efflux pump gene complex. I will provide evidence that this efflux pump is critical for the ability of gonococci to resist certain antibiotics as well as surviving during infection. Against this background, I will propose that this pump offers new targets for drug development (efflux pump inhibitors) and vaccine development to combat antibiotic resistant gonococcal strains and to prevent infections.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 1368-4973
    E-ISSN: 1472-3263
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLOS ONE, 8/23/2018, Vol.13(8), p.e0202437
    Description: All Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains whose DNA sequences have been determined possess filamentous phage sequences representing their full genomes. The presence of filamentous phage DNA sequences in all sequenced N. gonorrhoeae strains suggest that purified phage particles might be used as a gonococcal vaccine. To test this hypothesis, we purified filamentous Ngo[PHI]fil phages and immunized rabbits subcutaneously. The elicited sera contained large quantities of anti-phage IgG and IgA antibodies that bound to the surface of N. gonorrhoeae cells, as shown by ELISA and flow cytometry. The elicited sera bound to the structural Ngo[PHI]6fil proteins present in phage particles and to N. gonorrhoeae cells. The sera did not react with gonococcal outer membrane proteins. The sera also had bactericidal activity and blocked adhesion of gonococci to tissue culture cells. These data demonstrate that Ngo[PHI]fil phage particles can induce antibodies with anti-gonococcal activity and may be a candidate for vaccine development.
    Keywords: Bacteriophages – Research ; Gene Expression – Research ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae – Genetic Aspects ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae – Research;
    ISSN: PLOS ONE
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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