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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Immunotherapy, February 2012, Vol.4(2), pp.175-86
    Description: Although vaccination significantly reduces influenza severity, seasonal human influenza epidemics still cause more than 250,000 deaths annually. Vaccine efficacy is limited in high-risk populations such as infants, the elderly and immunosuppressed individuals. In the event of an influenza pandemic (such as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic), a significant delay in vaccine availability represents a significant public health concern, particularly in high-risk groups. The increasing emergence of strains resistant to the two major anti-influenza drugs, adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors, and the continuous circulation of avian influenza viruses with pandemic potential in poultry, strongly calls for alternative prophylactic and treatment options. In this review, we focus on passive virus neutralization strategies for the prevention and control of influenza type A viruses.
    Keywords: Influenza A Virus -- Immunology ; Influenza Vaccines -- Administration & Dosage ; Influenza in Birds -- Epidemiology ; Influenza, Human -- Epidemiology ; Pandemics -- Prevention & Control
    ISSN: 1750743X
    E-ISSN: 1750-7448
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  • 2
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2010, Vol. 84(7), p.3542
    Description: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) accessory protein 6 (p6) is a 63-amino-acid multifunctional Golgi-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated protein, with roles in enhancing virus replication and in evading the innate immune response to infection by inhibiting STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 1) translocation to the nucleus. Here, we demonstrate that p6 has an N-terminal region-cytoplasm-C-terminal region-cytoplasm configuration with residues 2 to 37 likely membrane embedded. Expression of p6, or of its N-terminal 41-amino-acid region, in the absence of other viral proteins, induced the formation of membranous structures, some of which were similar to double membrane vesicles involved in virus replication. Consistent with a role in virus replication, p6 partially colocalized with nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3), a marker for virus replication complexes. Further, while the C-terminal region is required for preventing STAT1 translocation to the nucleus, our results also indicated that the N-terminal 18 amino acids were necessary for maximal inhibition. Collectively, these results support the notion that p6 is a two-domain protein, although the function of each is not completely independent of the other.
    Keywords: Protein Transport ; Nuclear Transport ; Amino Acids ; Stat1 Protein ; Replication ; Transcription Factors ; Nonstructural Proteins ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ; Membrane Vesicles ; Membrane Proteins ; Immune Response ; Infection ; Sars Coronavirus ; Immunology ; Microorganisms & Parasites;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Virology Journal, 01 January 2011, Vol.8(1), p.31
    Description: Abstract Mass in ovo vaccination with live attenuated viruses is widely used in the poultry industry to protect against various infectious diseases. The worldwide outbreaks of low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza highlight the pressing need for the development of similar mass...
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 1743-422X
    E-ISSN: 1743-422X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 09 July 2002, Vol.99(14), pp.9310-5
    Description: Protein misfolding and aggregation are central features of the polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders, but the dynamic properties of expanded polyglutamine proteins are poorly understood. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) with green fluorescent protein fusion proteins to study polyglutamine protein kinetics in living cells. Our results reveal markedly divergent mobility states for an expanded polyglutamine protein, ataxin-3, and establish that nuclear inclusions formed by this protein are aggregates. Additional studies of green fluorescent protein-tagged cAMP response element binding protein coexpressed with either of two mutant polyglutamine proteins, ataxin-3 and huntingtin, support a model of disease in which coaggregation of transcriptional components contributes to pathogenesis. Finally, studies of a third polyglutamine disease protein, ataxin-1, reveal unexpected heterogeneity in the dynamics of inclusions formed by different disease proteins, a finding which may help explain disease-specific elements of pathogenesis in these neurodegenerative disorders.
    Keywords: Heredodegenerative Disorders, Nervous System -- Genetics ; Nerve Tissue Proteins -- Metabolism ; Peptides -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 5
    In: Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, February 2017, Vol.95(2), pp.353-358
    Description: The transesterification reactions to diphenyl carbonate (DPC) from dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and phenol are the key steps to the green production of polycarbonate polymers (PC). The transesterification equilibrium constants were determined under temperatures from 453.2 to 493.2 K, and the reaction kinetics catalyzed by single tetrabutyl titanate, dibutyltin oxide, and their combinations was measured. By taking into account the effect of catalyst, the simplified kinetic model was developed involving the transesterification of DMC and methyl phenyl carbonate (MPC) with phenol, the disproportionation of MPC, and the formation of byproduct anisole. The kinetic model fitted experiments well under various temperatures and had an excellent predictive ability on the effect of catalyst concentrations. The reverse reaction of MPC transesterification with phenol, as well as that of the disproportionation of MPC, was found to be independent of temperatures within the investigated conditions. The thermodynamic information and kinetic model reported here will provide valuable insight into the understanding of the transesterification process from DMC to DPC.
    Keywords: Transesterification ; Diphenyl Carbonate ; Polycarbonate Polymers ; Kinetic Model ; Equilibrium Constants
    ISSN: 0008-4034
    E-ISSN: 1939-019X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, 28 August 2018, Vol.24, pp.5980-5987
    Description: BACKGROUND We studies the expression of Coronin 1c and F-actin protein in breast cancer and explored their relationship with breast cancer metastasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 210 breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected from January 2013 to December 2014. The expressions of Coronin 1c and F-actin were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. We analyzed the relationship between Coronin 1c and F-actin and clinical data of breast cancer. RESULTS The expressions of Coronin 1c and F-actin in breast cancer tissues were positively correlated (r=0.926, P0.05), but were significantly correlated with HER-2 expression, histological grade, lymph node metastasis, molecular classification, and TNM (P〈0.05). The expression of HER-2 in breast cancer tissues was positively correlated with the expression of Coronin 1c (r=0.706, P〈0.05) and F-actin 1c, while F-actin protein in breast cancer tissues with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than in those without lymph node metastasis (P〈0.05). CONCLUSIONS Coronin 1c protein and F-actin protein are highly expressed in breast cancer and their expression may be related to the metastasis of breast cancer cells.
    Keywords: Actins -- Biosynthesis ; Breast Neoplasms -- Metabolism ; Microfilament Proteins -- Biosynthesis
    ISSN: 12341010
    E-ISSN: 1643-3750
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, September 2016, Vol.24(9), pp.1290-1297
    Description: Poly( -xylylene adipamide)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (MXD6/PET) copolymers are synthesized by melt copolycondensation with 1–5 wt% low molecular weight PET oligomers into the MXD6 oligomers at 260 °C. FR-IR and H NMR analysis results indicate that the interchange reaction has occurred between MXD6 oligomers and PET oligomers. The thermal behavior of copolymers shows that the melting temperature of MXD6/PET copolymers decreases with the increasing of amount of PET oligomers, while the crystallization temperature accordingly increases. And the equilibrium temperature is evaluated to be 251.8 °C for the copolymers with 5 wt% PET oligomer adding, which is very close to that of neat MXD6. The tensile and impact strength of MXD6/PET copolymers are significantly improved than that of pure MXD6 by mechanical properties test, and the microfibril structure in the impact fracture sample's surface reveals the feature of ductile fracture.
    Keywords: Polymerization ; Poly(M-Xylylene Adipamide) ; Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) ; Crystallization ; Mechanical Properties ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1004-9541
    E-ISSN: 2210-321X
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2012, Vol.799, pp.169-84
    Description: Neisseria meningitidisis an organism whose environmental niche is limited to the human host. It can frequently colonize the human nasopharynx and has the ability to cause severe systemic infections. These infections can be sporadic, endemic or occur in outbreaks associated with more virulent meningococcal strains. Studies have demonstrated that the meningococcus can form biofilms both in vivo and ex vivo. In this chapter, we discuss methods to establish biofilms in the laboratory for in-depth biochemical, genetic, or microscopic studies.
    Keywords: Biofilms ; Neisseria Meningitidis ; Isotope Labeling -- Methods ; Nasopharynx -- Microbiology
    ISBN: 9781617793455
    ISSN: 10643745
    E-ISSN: 1940-6029
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Virology Journal, Jan 21, 2011, Vol.8, p.31
    Description: Mass in ovo vaccination with live attenuated viruses is widely used in the poultry industry to protect against various infectious diseases. The worldwide outbreaks of low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza highlight the pressing need for the development of similar mass vaccination strategies against avian influenza viruses. We have previously shown that a genetically modified live attenuated avian influenza virus (LAIV) was amenable for in ovo vaccination and provided optimal protection against H5 HPAI viruses. However, in ovo vaccination against other subtypes resulted in poor hatchability and, therefore, seemed impractical. In this study, we modified the H7 and H9 hemagglutinin (HA) proteins by substituting the amino acids at the cleavage site for those found in the H6 HA subtype. We found that with this modification, a single dose in ovo vaccination of 18-day old eggs provided complete protection against homologous challenge with low pathogenic virus in [greater than or equal to]70% of chickens at 2 or 6 weeks post-hatching. Further, inoculation of 19-day old egg embryos with 10.sup.6 .sup.EID.sub.50 of LAIVs improved hatchability to [greater than or equal to]90% (equivalent to unvaccinated controls) with similar levels of protection. Our findings indicate that the strategy of modifying the HA cleavage site combined with the LAIV backbone could be used for in ovo vaccination against avian influenza. Importantly, with protection conferred as early as 2 weeks post-hatching, with this strategy birds would be protected prior to or at the time of delivery to a farm or commercial operation.
    Keywords: Avian Influenza Viruses -- Health Aspects ; Avian Influenza Viruses -- Research ; Genetically Modified Organisms -- Usage ; Genetically Modified Organisms -- Research ; Influenza Vaccines -- Health Aspects ; Influenza Vaccines -- Research
    ISSN: 1743-422X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Virology Journal, Jan 21, 2011, Vol.8, p.31
    Description: Mass in ovo vaccination with live attenuated viruses is widely used in the poultry industry to protect against various infectious diseases. The worldwide outbreaks of low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza highlight the pressing need for the development of similar mass vaccination strategies against avian influenza viruses. We have previously shown that a genetically modified live attenuated avian influenza virus (LAIV) was amenable for in ovo vaccination and provided optimal protection against H5 HPAI viruses. However, in ovo vaccination against other subtypes resulted in poor hatchability and, therefore, seemed impractical. In this study, we modified the H7 and H9 hemagglutinin (HA) proteins by substituting the amino acids at the cleavage site for those found in the H6 HA subtype. We found that with this modification, a single dose in ovo vaccination of 18-day old eggs provided complete protection against homologous challenge with low pathogenic virus in [greater than or equal to]70% of chickens at 2 or 6 weeks post-hatching. Further, inoculation of 19-day old egg embryos with 10.sup.6 .sup.EID.sub.50 of LAIVs improved hatchability to [greater than or equal to]90% (equivalent to unvaccinated controls) with similar levels of protection. Our findings indicate that the strategy of modifying the HA cleavage site combined with the LAIV backbone could be used for in ovo vaccination against avian influenza. Importantly, with protection conferred as early as 2 weeks post-hatching, with this strategy birds would be protected prior to or at the time of delivery to a farm or commercial operation.
    Keywords: Avian Influenza Viruses -- Health Aspects ; Avian Influenza Viruses -- Research ; Genetically Modified Organisms -- Usage ; Genetically Modified Organisms -- Research ; Influenza Vaccines -- Health Aspects ; Influenza Vaccines -- Research
    ISSN: 1743-422X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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