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  • 1
    Description: A tool to explore RNA binding proteins....
    Source: DataCite
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 June 2017, Vol.114(26), pp.6824-6829
    Description: The functions of many bacterial RNA-binding proteins remain obscure because of a lack of knowledge of their cellular ligands. Although well-studied cold-shock protein A (CspA) family members are induced and function at low temperature, others are highly expressed in infection-relevant conditions. Here, we have profiled transcripts bound in vivo by the CspA family members of serovar Typhimurium to link the constitutively expressed CspC and CspE proteins with virulence pathways. Phenotypic assays in vitro demonstrated a crucial role for these proteins in membrane stress, motility, and biofilm formation. Moreover, double deletion of and fully attenuates in systemic mouse infection. In other words, the RNA ligand-centric approach taken here overcomes a problematic molecular redundancy of CspC and CspE that likely explains why these proteins have evaded selection in previous virulence factor screens in animals. Our results highlight RNA-binding proteins as regulators of pathogenicity and potential targets of antimicrobial therapy. They also suggest that globally acting RNA-binding proteins are more common in bacteria than currently appreciated.
    Keywords: RNA-Binding Protein ; Salmonella ; Bacterial Pathogenesis ; Cold-Shock Protein ; Stress Response ; Bacterial Proteins ; Cold Shock Proteins and Peptides ; Heat-Shock Proteins ; RNA-Binding Proteins ; Salmonella Infections ; Salmonella Typhimurium ; Virulence Factors
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, 20 June 2017, Vol.45(11), pp.e96
    Description: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been established as core components of several post-transcriptional gene regulation mechanisms. Experimental techniques such as cross-linking and co-immunoprecipitation have enabled the identification of RBPs, RNA-binding domains (RBDs) and their regulatory roles in the eukaryotic species such as human and yeast in large-scale. In contrast, our knowledge of the number and potential diversity of RBPs in bacteria is poorer due to the technical challenges associated with the existing global screening approaches. We introduce APRICOT, a computational pipeline for the sequence-based identification and characterization of proteins using RBDs known from experimental studies. The pipeline identifies functional motifs in protein sequences using position-specific scoring matrices and Hidden Markov Models of the functional domains and statistically scores them based on a series of sequence-based features. Subsequently, APRICOT identifies putative RBPs and characterizes them by several biological properties. Here we demonstrate the application and adaptability of the pipeline on large-scale protein sets, including the bacterial proteome of Escherichia coli. APRICOT showed better performance on various datasets compared to other existing tools for the sequence-based prediction of RBPs by achieving an average sensitivity and specificity of 0.90 and 0.91 respectively. The command-line tool and its documentation are available at https://pypi.python.org/pypi/bio-apricot.
    Keywords: Sequence Analysis, Protein ; Software ; RNA-Binding Proteins -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 03051048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of cell biology, 03 April 2017, Vol.216(4), pp.1071-1089
    Description: Obligate intracellular bacteria such as depend on metabolites of the host cell and thus protect their sole replication niche by interfering with the host cells' stress response. Here, we investigated the involvement of host microRNAs (miRNAs) in maintaining the viability of -infected primary human cells. We identified miR-30c-5p as a prominently up-regulated miRNA required for the stable down-regulation of p53, a major suppressor of metabolite supply in infected cells. Loss of miR-30c-5p led to the up-regulation of Drp1, a mitochondrial fission regulator and a target gene of p53, which, in turn, severely affected chlamydial growth and had a marked effect on the mitochondrial network. Drp1-induced mitochondrial fragmentation prevented replication of even in p53-deficient cells. Additionally, maintain mitochondrial integrity during reactive oxygen species-induced stress that occurs naturally during infection. We show that require mitochondrial ATP for normal development and hence postulate that they preserve mitochondrial integrity through a miR-30c-5p-dependent inhibition of Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission.
    Keywords: Chlamydia Infections -- Microbiology ; Chlamydia Trachomatis -- Genetics ; DNA Replication -- Genetics ; Micrornas -- Genetics ; Mitochondria -- Microbiology ; Mitochondrial Dynamics -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00219525
    E-ISSN: 1540-8140
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  • 5
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    Zenodo
    Description: This folder contains the basic files required to run the APRICOT pipeline for tutorial and demonstration purpose. APRICOT is a computational pipeline for the identification of specific functional classes of interest in large protein sets. The pipeline uses efficient sequence-based algorithms and predictive models like signature motifs of protein families for the characterization of user-provided query proteins with specific functional features. The dynamic framework of APRICOT allows the identification of unexplored functional classes of interest in the large protein sets or the entire proteome. The step-by-step tutorial that requires this dataset is available at: https://github.com/malvikasharan/APRICOT/blob/master/APRICOT_tutorial.md The source codes of APRICOT are available via git https://github.com/malvikasharan/APRICOT and pip https://pypi.python.org/pypi/bio-apricot....
    Keywords: Dataset ; Tutorial ; Bioinformatics ; Rna-Binding ; Large Scale Analysis
    Source: DataCite
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Description: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been extensively studied in eukaryotes, where they post-transcriptionally regulate many cellular events including RNA transport, translation, and stability. Experimental techniques, such as cross-linking and co-purification followed by either mass spectrometry or RNA sequencing has enabled the identification and characterization of RBPs, their conserved RNA-binding domains (RBDs), and the regulatory roles of these proteins on a genome-wide scale. These developments in quantitative, high-resolution, and high-throughput screening techniques have greatly expanded our understanding of RBPs in human and yeast cells. In contrast, our knowledge of number and potential diversity of RBPs in bacteria is comparatively poor, in part due to the technical challenges associated with existing global screening approaches developed in eukaryotes. Genome- and proteome-wide screening approaches performed in silico may circumvent these technical issues to obtain a broad picture of the RNA interactome of bacteria and identify strong RBP candidates for more detailed experimental study. Here, I report APRICOT (“Analyzing Protein RNA Interaction by Combined Output Technique”), a computational pipeline for the sequence-based identification and characterization of candidate RNA-binding proteins encoded in the genomes of all domains of life using RBDs known from experimental studies. The pipeline identifies functional motifs in protein sequences of an input proteome using position-specific scoring matrices and hidden Markov models of all conserved domains available in the databases and then statistically score them based on a series of sequence-based features. Subsequently, APRICOT identifies putative RBPs and characterizes them according to functionally relevant structural properties. APRICOT performed better than other existing tools for the sequence-based prediction on the known RBP data sets. The applications and adaptability of the software was demonstrated on several large bacterial RBP data sets including the complete proteome of Salmonella Typhimurium strain SL1344. APRICOT reported 1068 Salmonella proteins as RBP candidates, which were subsequently categorized using the RBDs that have been reported in both eukaryotic and bacterial proteins. A set of 131 strong RBP candidates was selected for experimental confirmation and characterization of RNA-binding activity using RNA co-immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (RIP-Seq) experiments. Based on the relative abundance of transcripts across the RIP-Seq libraries, a catalogue of enriched genes was established for each candidate, which shows the RNA-binding potential of 90% of these proteins. Furthermore, the direct targets of few of these putative RBPs were validated by means of cross-linking and co-immunoprecipitation (CLIP) experiments. This thesis presents the computational pipeline APRICOT for the global screening of protein primary sequences for potential RBPs in bacteria using RBD information from all kingdoms of life. Furthermore, it provides the first bio-computational resource of putative RBPs in Salmonella, which could now be further studied for their biological and regulatory roles. The command line tool and its documentation are available at https://malvikasharan.github.io/APRICOT/. RNA-bindende Proteine (RBPs) wurden umfangreich in Eukaryoten erforscht, in denen sie viele Prozesse wie RNA-Transport, -Translation und -Stabilität post-transkriptionell regulieren. Experimentelle Methoden wie Cross-linking and Koimmunpräzipitation mit nachfolgedener Massenspektromentrie / RNA-Sequenzierung ermöglichten eine weitreichende Charakterisierung von RBPs, RNA-bindenden Domänen (RBDs) und deren regulatorischen Rollen in eukaryotischen Spezies wie Mensch und Hefe. Weitere Entwicklungen im Bereich der hochdurchsatzbasierten Screeningverfahren konnten das Verständnis von RBPs in Eukaryoten enorm erweitern. Im Gegensatz dazu ist das Wissen über die Anzahl und die potenzielle Vielfalt von RBPs in Bakterien dürftig. In der vorliegenden Arbeit präsentiere ich APRICOT, eine bioinformatische Pipeline zur sequenzbasierten Identifikation und Charakterisierung von Proteinen aller Domänen des Lebens, die auf RBD-Informationen aus experimentellen Studien aufbaut. Die Pipeline nutzt Position Specific Scoring Matrices und Hidden-MarkovModelle konservierter Domänen, um funktionelle Motive in Proteinsequenzen zu identifizieren und diese anhand von sequenzbasierter Eigenschaften statistisch zu bewerten. Anschließend identifiziert APRICOT mögliche RBPs und charakterisiert auf Basis ihrer biologischeren Eigenschaften. In Vergleichen mit ähnlichen Werkzeugen übertraf APRICOT andere Programme zur sequenzbasierten Vorhersage von RBPs. Die Anwendungsöglichkeiten und die Flexibilität der Software wird am Beispiel einiger großer RBP-Kollektionen, die auch das komplette Proteom von Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 beinhalten, dargelegt. APRICOT identifiziert 1068 Proteine von Salmonella als RBP-Kandidaten, die anschließend unter Nutzung der bereits bekannten bakteriellen und eukaryotischen RBDs klassifiziert wurden. 131 der RBP-Kandidaten wurden zur Charakterisierung durch RNA co-immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (RIP-seq) ausgewählt. Basierend auf der relativen Menge an Transkripten in den RIP-seq-Bibliotheken wurde ein Katalog von angereicherten Genen erstellt, der auf eine potentielle RNA-bindende Funktion in 90% dieser Proteine hindeutet. Weiterhin wurden die Bindungstellen einiger dieser möglichen RBPs mit Cross-linking and Co-immunoprecipitation (CLIP) bestimmt. Diese Doktorarbeit beschreibt die bioinformatische Pipeline APRICOT, die ein globales Screening von RBPs in Bakterien anhand von Informationen bekannter RBDs ermöglicht. Zudem enthält sie eine Zusammenstellung aller potentieller RPS in Salmonella, die nun auf ihre biologsche Funktion hin untersucht werden können. Das Kommondozeilen-Programm und seine Dokumentation sind auf https://malvikasharan.github.io/APRICOT/ verfügbar.
    Keywords: Ddc:000 ; Ddc:570
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2017, Vol.7(1), pp.9328-9328
    Description: Many pathogenic bacteria utilize specialized secretion systems to deliver proteins called effectors into eukaryotic cells for manipulation of host pathways. The vast majority of known effector targets are host proteins, whereas a potential targeting of host nucleic acids remains little explored. There is only one family of effectors known to target DNA directly, and effectors binding host RNA are unknown. Here, we take a two-pronged approach to search for RNA-binding effectors, combining biocomputational prediction of RNA-binding domains (RBDs) in a newly assembled comprehensive dataset of bacterial secreted proteins, and experimental screening for RNA binding in mammalian cells. Only a small subset of effectors were predicted to carry an RBD, indicating that if RNA targeting was common, it would likely involve new types of RBDs. Our experimental evaluation of effectors with predicted RBDs further argues for a general paucity of RNA binding activities amongst bacterial effectors. We obtained evidence that PipB2 and Lpg2844, effector proteins of Salmonella and Legionella species, respectively, may harbor novel biochemical activities. Our study presenting the first systematic evaluation of the RNA-targeting potential of bacterial effectors offers a basis for discussion of whether or not host RNA is a prominent target of secreted bacterial proteins.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 8
    Description: A tool to explore RNA binding proteins....
    Source: DataCite
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: BMC bioinformatics, 06 August 2014, Vol.15, pp.263
    Description: Searching the orthologs of a given protein or DNA sequence is one of the most important and most commonly used Bioinformatics methods in Biology. Programs like BLAST or the orthology search engine Inparanoid can be used to find orthologs when the similarity between two sequences is sufficiently high. They however fail when the level of conservation is low. The detection of remotely conserved proteins oftentimes involves sophisticated manual intervention that is difficult to automate. Here, we introduce morFeus, a search program to find remotely conserved orthologs. Based on relaxed sequence similarity searches, morFeus selects sequences based on the similarity of their alignments to the query, tests for orthology by iterative reciprocal BLAST searches and calculates a network score for the resulting network of orthologs that is a measure of orthology independent of the E-value. Detecting remotely conserved orthologs of a protein using morFeus thus requires no manual intervention. We demonstrate the performance of morFeus by comparing it to state-of-the-art orthology resources and methods. We provide an example of remotely conserved orthologs, which were experimentally shown to be functionally equivalent in the respective organisms and therefore meet the criteria of the orthology-function conjecture. Based on our results, we conclude that morFeus is a powerful and specific search method for detecting remotely conserved orthologs. morFeus is freely available at http://bio.biochem.mpg.de/morfeus/. Its source code is available from Sourceforge.net (https://sourceforge.net/p/morfeus/).
    Keywords: Conserved Sequence ; Internet ; Sequence Homology ; Software ; Computational Biology -- Methods
    E-ISSN: 1471-2105
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  • 10
    In: Nature Communications, 2014, Vol.5
    Description: Increasing evidence suggests an important role for miRNAs in the molecular interplay between bacterial pathogens and host cells. Here we perform a fluorescence microscopy-based screen using a library of miRNA mimics and demonstrate that miRNAs modulate Salmonella infection. Several members of the miR-15 miRNA family were among the 17 miRNAs that more efficiently inhibit Salmonella infection. We discovered that these miRNAs are downregulated during Salmonella infection, through the inhibition of the transcription factor E2F1. Analysis of miR-15 family targets revealed that derepression of cyclin D1 and the consequent promotion of G1/S transition are crucial for Salmonella intracellular proliferation. In addition, Salmonella induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in infected cells, further promoting its replication. Overall, these findings uncover a mechanism whereby Salmonella renders host cells more susceptible to infection by controlling cell cycle progression through the active modulation of host cell miRNAs.
    Keywords: Host-Pathogen Interactions -- Genetics ; Micrornas -- Genetics ; Salmonella Infections -- Genetics;
    ISSN: 2041-1723
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