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  • 1
    In: Bioanalysis, July 2013, Vol.5(13), p.1677-1689
    Description: Electronic laboratory notebooks increase opportunities for collaboration and information exchange when compared with paper records. Depending on the degree of implementation, a laboratory- or enterprise-wide system can unify the collection, review and dissemination of data to improve laboratory efficiency and productivity. The advantages of an electronic laboratory notebook for speeding data review in bioanalysis are discussed, through the use of validated templates and organizational constructs to block errors in real-time and reduce manual audit tasks.
    Keywords: Software ; Chemistry Techniques, Analytical -- Methods ; Electronic Data Processing -- Methods ; Laboratories -- Organization & Administration;
    ISSN: 1757-6180
    E-ISSN: 1757-6199
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Analytical Chemistry, 06/1982, Vol.54(7), pp.1163-1169
    Description: Liquid chromatography/electrochemistry (LCEC) was optimized for the analysis of trace phenols in the 100 parts per trillion (pptr) to 500 parts per million (ppm) concentration range. Direct injection, off-line and on-line trace enrichment, and liquid/liquid extractions were examined as viable sample preparation schemes. For wastewater samples with phenol concentrations greater than 20 ppb, direct injection was satisfactory. Municipal drinking water used for beverage production was analyzed for trace phenols and chlorophenols in the 0.1-10 parts per billion (ppb) range using trace enrichment. For viscous materials such as shale oil, simple liquid-liquid extraction into base was sufficient to guarantee measurement selectivity when coupled to LCEC. Dual electrode detection provided additional information on peak identity through comparison of current response ratios for both extracts and standards.
    Keywords: Analysenmesstechnik ; Fluessigkeitschromatographie ; Spurenanalyse ; Phenole ; Umweltbelastung ; Empfindlichkeit ; Optimierung ; Wasser ; Verschmutzung ; Umweltschutz ; Literatur ; Probenanreicherung ; Anreicherung;
    ISSN: 0003-2700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Analytical Chemistry, 01/1983, Vol.55(1), pp.8-12
    Description: Thiols and disulfides were determined simultaneously by using liquid chromatography/electrochemistry (LCEC) with thin-layer dual mercury amalgam electrodes in the series mode. After liquid chromatographic separation of all species, disulfides were first converted to the corresponding thiols at an upstream electrode at -1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Both thiols and disulfides were then detected as thiols downstream at +0.15 V via their catalytic oxidation of the mercury surface. Only the downstream electrode current need be monitored. The high selectivity of the mercury surface-specific detector reaction ensures a low probability of interferences. Cysteine, glutathione, penicillamine, and the pure disulfides were used as test solutes. The dual electrode detector has been applicable to the determination of oxidized and reduced glutathione in human blood and citrus leaf homogenate.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Chemistry;
    ISSN: 0003-2700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Chromatography A, 1983, Vol.255, pp.533-544
    Description: To enhance the selectivity of liquid chromatographic—electrochemical assays for biogenic amines and metabolites in brain tissue, multiple electrode transducers were investigated. Two configurations of dual working electrodes were examined: parallel—adjacent and series arrangements. Using the raw detector currents with each configuration, peak-height ratios from simultaneously generated chromatograms were calculated to assess the selectivity of the instrument for direct injections of brain tissue supernatant. Ratios were consistent with injections of standards. Nearly coeluting peaks such as norepinephrine and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol were resolved by using dual detector electrodes in series; only the catecholamines were detected at the downstream electrode owing to their electrochemical reversibility. The scheme was applicable to the assay of norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, dopamine, homovanillic acid, serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid in brain tissue in less than 15 min.
    Keywords: Chemistry
    ISSN: 0021-9673
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Analytical Biochemistry, 1991, Vol.197(1), pp.69-76
    Description: A new HPLC electrochemical detector that can be used to detect selectively and simultaneously both thiol- and disulfide-containing peptides is described. One electrode responds only to thiol-containing peptides, while a second electrode located downstream from a third electrode responds to thiol- as well as disulfide-containing peptides. All three electrodes are located in a single block and sample the HPLC effluent simultaneously. Since the electrochemical detector responds only to peptides that contain thiol or disulfide functionalities, it is ideal for detecting these types of peptides when they are present in complex mixtures. Peptides can be identified by their retention times if reference peptides are available, or by their molecular weights if the appropriate chromatographic fractions are collected and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The utility of the three-electrode electrochemical detector for detecting thiol- and disulfide-containing peptides in a single chromatographic analysis is illustrated with proteolytic digests of bovine alpha A-crystallin and partially reduced bovine insulin.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0003-2697
    E-ISSN: 1096-0309
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Analytical Chemistry, 03/1980, Vol.52(3), pp.483-487
    ISSN: 0003-2700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Analytical Chemistry, 02/1981, Vol.53(2), pp.156-159
    Keywords: Norepinephrine -- Blood;
    ISSN: 0003-2700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Analytical Chemistry, 11/1982, Vol.54(13), pp.1417A-1434A
    Description: Since 1972, over 600 reports concerning the development or utilization of liquid chromatography/electrochemistry (LCEC) have been published. This rapid increase in the use of LCEC during the past decade attests to the capabilities of the technique. An approach to electrochemcal detection that is currently the focus of growing inteest is the simultaneous use of two or more working electrodes in LCEC, rather than only one. Dual-electro dedetection can be used to improve selectivity, detection limits, and peak identification. It can also extend the accessible potential range of an electrochemical detector. Multiple-electrode detection in a variety of formats will help sustain the growth in LCEC applications during the next several years. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to dual-electrode detection for liquid chromatography. Dual-electrode instrumentation and detector cell designs considerations are briefly described, with additional emphasis on the improvements that can be manifested by using two detectors instead of one.
    Keywords: Analysenmesstechnik ; Fluessigkeitschromatographie ; Detektor (Chromatograph) ; Messprinzip ; Elektrochemische Analyse ; Elektrode ; Selektivitaet ; Literatur ; Eigenschaft ; Untersuchung;
    ISSN: 0003-2700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Analytical Chemistry, 06/1984, Vol.56(7), pp.1089-1096
    Keywords: Aldehydes–Analysis ; Amines–Analysis ; Animals–Methods ; Beer–Methods ; Brain Chemistry–Methods ; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid–Methods ; Electrochemistry–Methods ; Male–Methods ; Rats–Methods ; Rats, Inbred Strains–Methods ; O-Phthalaldehyde–Methods ; Aldehydes ; Amines ; O-Phthalaldehyde;
    ISSN: 0003-2700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Analytical Chemistry, 07/1985, Vol.57(8), pp.1541-1546
    Description: Dual-electrode thin-layer amperometric detectors have been shown to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of electrochemical detectors for liquid chromatography. Most applications have monitored the signal at each electrode individually. This report demonstrates several advantages that can be achieved by recording the difference in the response of the two electrodes. In the parallel adjacent configuration, selectivity can be increased by monitoring a small potential window using this difference mode. In the series configuration, sensitivity can be increased for chemically reversible species through redox cycling. Alternatively, base line interferences can be diminished by equipotential operation in the series configuration. Improved signal-to-noise ratios can be obtained in both the parallel-adjacent and series configurations from attenuation of base line interferences. The determination of phenolic acids in commercial beer samples is used to demonstrate these techniques. 12 references, 9 figures, 3 tables.
    Keywords: Inorganic, Organic, Physical And Analytical Chemistry ; Environmental Sciences ; Beverages ; Quantitative Chemical Analysis ; Organic Acids ; Amperometry ; Sensitivity ; Thin-Layer Chromatography ; Phenol ; Alcohols ; Electrochemistry ; Electrodes ; Experimental Data ; Redox Reactions ; Signal-To-Noise Ratio ; Trace Amounts ; Aromatics ; Chemical Analysis ; Chemical Reactions ; Chemistry ; Chromatography ; Data ; Food ; Hydroxy Compounds ; Information ; Numerical Data ; Organic Compounds ; Phenols ; Separation Processes ; Titration ; 400102 - Chemical & Spectral Procedures ; 520200 - Environment, Aquatic- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport- (-1989) ; 400301 - Organic Chemistry- Chemical & Physicochemical Properties- (-1987) ; 400400 - Electrochemistry ; Environmental Sciences ; Chemistry;
    ISSN: 0003-2700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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