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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 16 December 2011, Vol.334(6062), pp.1565-9
    Description: The molecular machinery mediating the fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at presynaptic active zone (AZ) membranes has been studied in detail, and several essential components have been identified. AZ-associated protein scaffolds are viewed as only modulatory for transmission. We discovered that Drosophila Rab3-interacting molecule (RIM)-binding protein (DRBP) is essential not only for the integrity of the AZ scaffold but also for exocytotic neurotransmitter release. Two-color stimulated emission depletion microscopy showed that DRBP surrounds the central Ca(2+) channel field. In drbp mutants, Ca(2+) channel clustering and Ca(2+) influx were impaired, and synaptic release probability was drastically reduced. Our data identify RBP family proteins as prime effectors of the AZ scaffold that are essential for the coupling of SVs, Ca(2+) channels, and the SV fusion machinery.
    Keywords: Carrier Proteins -- Physiology ; Drosophila Proteins -- Physiology ; Neurotransmitter Agents -- Metabolism ; Presynaptic Terminals -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    In: Nature Neuroscience, 2011, Vol.14(2), p.124
    Keywords: Animals–Physiology ; Drosophila–Metabolism ; Hunger–Physiology ; Motor Neurons–Metabolism ; Neuronal Plasticity–Metabolism ; Octopamine–Metabolism ; Octopamine;
    ISSN: 1097-6256
    E-ISSN: 15461726
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature, August 11, 2016, Vol.536(7615), p.151(2)
    Description: [...]Tang and colleagues asked if the nanocolumns could be a stable architectural motif or whether they are involved in the regulatory changes in synaptic strength that are crucial for cognitive functions. [...]retrograde signals that mediate the upregulation of presynaptic release in response to postsynaptic...
    Keywords: Synapses -- Physiological Aspects ; Nanomedicine -- Research ; Neurological Research
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 2011, Vol.21(1), pp.144-150
    Description: The presynaptic active zone (AZ) membrane is the site where vesicle fusion mediates information transfer between connected neurons. Reaching into the cytoplasm, an electron-dense cytomatrix (CAZ) is found to decorate the AZ membranes. CAZ architectures are meant not only to regulate the synaptic vesicle exocycle/endocycle, but also to structurally stabilize the presynaptic site. The CAZ is composed of a set of large scaffold proteins, many of which are evolutionarily conserved. Recently, several signaling factors controlling the developmental assembly of CAZs were found by unbiased genetics in and . At the same time, post-translational modification of CAZ proteins was implicated in changing the strength of mammalian brain synapses. Studying how processes of structural and functional CAZ plasticity get integrated within circuit remodeling remains an important challenge.
    Keywords: Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0959-4388
    E-ISSN: 1873-6882
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Current Opinion in Neurobiology, February 2018, Vol.48, pp.113-121
    Description: The maintenance of neuronal homeostasis is severely threatened by aging, probably partially due to compromised autophagic clearance. Hence, rejuvenating autophagy in aging neurons is considered a promising strategy to restore cognitive performance. Research in recent years has shown that autophagosome biogenesis takes place mainly in distal axons and, thus, close to presynaptic specializations, and that efficient macro-autophagy is essential for neuronal homeostasis and survival. Retrograde transport of autophagosomes might play a role in neuronal signaling processes, promoting neuronal complexity and preventing neurodegeneration. Here, we discuss recent advances concerning the intersection of aging, neurodegeneration and autophagy, and try to create a unified view of how neuronal autophagy and proteostasis might control synaptic aging and disease.
    Keywords: Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0959-4388
    E-ISSN: 1873-6882
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Current Biology, 03 March 2014, Vol.24(5), pp.R192-R194
    Description: Neurotransmitter release can be evoked by action potentials or occur spontaneously, but the relationship between those modes has been unclear. The direct visualization of release events has now shown that individual synapses display preferences for evoked spontaneous transmission that are determined by the release machinery at active zones.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0960-9822
    E-ISSN: 1879-0445
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Current Biology, 17 November 2014, Vol.24(22), pp.R1076-R1080
    Description: Synapses are specialized asymmetric cell–cell connections permitting the controlled transfer of an electrical or chemical signal between a presynaptic neuronal cell and a postsynaptic target cell (e.g. neuron or muscle). Adequate synapse function is an essential prerequisite of all neuronal processing, including higher cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. At synapses, neurotransmitters (e.g. amino acids, amines, peptides, and acetylcholine) are released from synaptic vesicles into the synaptic cleft in response to action potentials. The Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 2013 was awarded to James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof “for their discoveries of the machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”. This included crucial revelations, such as the identification of the core machinery of synaptic vesicle fusion. However, in contrast to the advances concerning the organization of the core functions of the synapse, our current understanding of the processes of synapse formation and maintenance — i.e. ‘synaptogenesis’ — is still somewhat fragmentary. Here, we will outline the current status and future directions of the field of synaptogenesis, primarily from the perspective of the presynaptic release site. Here Petzoldt and Sigrist discuss our current understanding of the processes involved in synapse formation and maintenance.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0960-9822
    E-ISSN: 1879-0445
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Neuron, 10 October 2018, Vol.100(1), pp.6-8
    Description: Neurexins have been established as a major coordinator of synapse assembly, functioning through interactions with postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules. now show that a “dwarf neurexin” lacking its extracellular interaction domains can conduct synapse formation independent of postsynaptic partners. Neurexins have been established as a major coordinator of synapse assembly, functioning through interactions with postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules. Kurshan et al. now show that a “dwarf neurexin” lacking its extracellular interaction domains can conduct synapse formation independent of postsynaptic partners.
    Keywords: Biology ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0896-6273
    E-ISSN: 1097-4199
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Neuron, 06 May 2015, Vol.86(3), pp.603-604
    Description: Neuronal response or adaption to a changing environment relies on the modulation of synaptic function. How this modulation is achieved remains controversial. In this issue of , now report that active zones of photoreceptors undergo activity-dependent changes in their molecular composition. Neuronal response or adaption to a changing environment relies on the modulation of synaptic function. How this modulation is achieved remains controversial. Sugie et al. (2015) now report that active zones of photoreceptors undergo activity-dependent changes in their molecular composition.
    Keywords: Biology ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0896-6273
    E-ISSN: 1097-4199
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  • 10
    In: Nature Neuroscience, 2013, Vol.16(7), p.790
    Description: Light microscopy can be applied in vivo and can sample large tissue volumes, features crucial for the study of single neurons and neural circuits. However, light microscopy per se is diffraction-limited in resolution, and the substructure of core signaling compartments of neuronal circuits--axons, presynaptic active zones, postsynaptic densities and dendritic spines--can be only insufficiently characterized by standard light microscopy. Recently, several forms of super-resolution light microscopy breaking the diffraction-imposed resolution limit have started to allow highly resolved, dynamic imaging in the cell- biologically highly relevant 10-100 nanometer range ('mesoscale'). New, sometimes surprising answers concerning how protein mobility and protein architectures shape neuronal communication have already emerged. Here we start by briefly introducing super- resolution microscopy techniques, before we describe their use in the analysis of neuronal compartments. We conclude with long- term prospects for super-resolution light microscopy in the molecular and cellular neurosciences.
    Keywords: Fluorescence Microscopy – Methods ; Synaptic Transmission – Research ; Neurophysiology – Research;
    ISSN: 1097-6256
    E-ISSN: 15461726
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