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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Social Science & Medicine, September 2011, Vol.73(6), pp.889-896
    Description: This article investigates the social and moral dimensions of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, asking what ADHD means in UK children’s everyday lives, and what children do with this diagnosis. Drawing on interviews with over 150 children, the analysis examines the influence of a UK state school-based culture of aggression on the form and intensity of diagnosed children’s difficulties with behavioral self-control. Diagnosed children’s mobilization of ADHD behaviors and their exploitation of the diagnosis shows how children’s active moral agency can support and compromise cognitive, behavioral and social resilience. The findings support a proposal for a complex sociological model of ADHD diagnosis and demonstrate the relevance of this model for national policy initiatives related to mental health and wellbeing in children. ► In the UK, ADHD is understood to be a disorder of anger and aggression. ► A UK state school-based culture of aggression intensifies children’s difficulty controlling their behavior. ► Children use ADHD diagnosis and symptomatic behaviors to social and moral ends. ► Children rely on friendships to help manage their difficulty with self-control. ► Mental health policy should address the social and moral, as well as the cognitive aspects of ADHD diagnosis.
    Keywords: United Kingdom ; Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ; ADHD ; Diagnosis ; Stigma ; Aggression ; Bullying ; Mental Capital ; Children ; Medicine ; Social Sciences (General) ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0277-9536
    E-ISSN: 1873-5347
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Institute of Medical Ethics
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Medical Ethics, 28 June 2013, Vol.39(6), p.359
    Description: In this article, I examine children's reported experiences with stimulant drug treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in light of bioethical arguments about the potential threats of psychotropic drugs to authenticity and moral agency. Drawing on a study that involved over 150 families in the USA and the UK, I show that children are able to report threats to authenticity, but that the majority of children are not concerned with such threats. On balance, children report that stimulants improve their capacity for moral agency, and they associate this capacity with an ability to meet normative expectations. I argue that although under certain conditions stimulant drug treatment may increase the risk of a threat to authenticity, there are ways to minimise this risk and to maximise the benefits of stimulant drug treatment. Medical professionals in particular should help children to flourish with stimulant drug treatments, in good and in bad conditions.
    Keywords: Children ; Neuroethics ; Psychiatry ; Psychopharmacology ; Open Access ; Editor'S Choice
    ISSN: 0306-6800
    ISSN: 03066800
    E-ISSN: 1473-4257
    E-ISSN: 14734257
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, April 2017, Vol.58(4), pp.470-473
    Description: Jonsson et al.'s excellent review of the literature on quality of life (QoL) and childhood mental and behavioural disorders (Jonsson et al., [Jonsson, U., 2017]) highlights the need for studies that utilise child self‐reported QoL, in contrast to parent or proxy QoL measures, and further challenges the field to develop QoL measures that ‘put the child's own views and priorities first’. Read the full article at doi:
    Keywords: Quality of Life – Psychological Aspects ; Quality of Life – Health Aspects ; Quality of Life – Measurement ; Childhood Mental Disorders – Social Aspects;
    ISSN: 0021-9630
    E-ISSN: 1469-7610
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  • 4
    In: Nature, 2012, Vol.486(7404), p.473
    Keywords: Health Surveys ; Biomedical Enhancement -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Cognition -- Drug Effects ; Drug Utilization -- Statistics & Numerical Data;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 6/2012, Vol.486(7404), pp.473-473
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 6
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(10)
    Description: Use of ‘smart drugs’ among UK students is described in frequent media reports as a rapidly increasing phenomenon. This article reports findings from the first large-scale survey of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) among students in the UK and Ireland. Conducted from February to September 2012, a survey of a convenience sample of 877 students measured PCE prevalence, attitudes, sources, purposes and ethics. Descriptive and logistic regression statistical methods were used to analyse the data. Lifetime prevalence of PCE using modafinil, methylphenidate or Adderall was under 10%, while past regular and current PCE users of these substances made up between 0.3%–4% of the survey population. A substantial majority of students was unaware of and/or uninterested in PCE; however about one third of students were interested in PCE. PCE users were more likely to be male, British and older students; predictors of PCE use included awareness of other students using PCEs, ADHD symptomatology, ethical concerns, and alcohol and cannabis use. The survey addresses the need for better evidence about PCE prevalence and practices among university students in the UK. We recommend PCE-related strategies for universities based on the survey findings.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Science Policy ; Social Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Institute of Medical Ethics
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Medical Ethics, 24 June 2013, Vol.39(6), p.372
    Description: The VOICES study involved at least one radical move in the decades-old debates about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and stimulant drug treatments: to systematically investigate young people's perspectives and experiences so that these could be included as evidence in social, ethical and policy deliberations about the benefits and risks of these interventions. The findings reported in this article were both surprising and unsurprising to us as researchers. We were surprised at the consistency of children's positive responses to stimulant medication, and at the robustness of the experience of increased capacity for moral agency with medication. We were unsurprised (having conducted prior research with young people) at the insights many young people have into their own behaviours and that of others.
    Keywords: Drugs and Drug Industry
    ISSN: 0306-6800
    ISSN: 03066800
    E-ISSN: 1473-4257
    E-ISSN: 14734257
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Nature, July 9, 2009, Vol.460(7252), p.202(6)
    Keywords: Biological Markers -- Physiological Aspects ; Biological Markers -- Research ; Mental Disorders -- Drug Therapy ; Mental Disorders -- Research ; Mental Disorders -- Risk Factors ; Mental Disorders -- Diagnosis ; Children -- Psychological Aspects
    ISSN: 0028-0836
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  • 9
    In: Sociology of Health & Illness, July 2013, Vol.35(6), pp.813-827
    Description: This article examines children’s discourse about self, brain and behaviour, focusing on the dynamics of power, knowledge and responsibility articulated by children. The empirical data discussed in this article are drawn from the study of Voices on Identity, Childhood, Ethics and Stimulants, which included interviews with 151 US and UK children, a subset of whom had a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Despite their contact with psychiatric explanations and psychotropic drugs for their behaviour, children’s discursive engagements with the brain show significant evidence of agency and negotiated responsibility. These engagements suggest the limitations of current concepts that describe a collapse of the self into the brain in an age of neurocentrism. Empirical investigation is needed in order to develop agent‐centred conceptual and theoretical frameworks that describe and evaluate the harms and benefits of treating children with psychotropic drugs and other brain‐based technologies.
    Keywords: Adhd ; Brain ; Self ; Children ; Ritalin
    ISSN: 0141-9889
    E-ISSN: 1467-9566
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Social Science & Medicine, 2004, Vol.59(6), pp.1193-1205
    Description: In debates over diagnoses of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and use of the drug Ritalin among the American school age population, discussion often centers around who is to blame for rising diagnoses and increasing use of Ritalin. Parents have come under particular scrutiny by critics who associate ADHD behaviors in children with poor parenting and view Ritalin as a "quick-fix" for socially situated problems. Biologically oriented researchers of ADHD, on the other hand have posited organically based dysfunction as the cause of ADHD behaviors. This paper explores the problem of blame in relation to ADHD diagnoses and Ritalin use from the perspective of mothers of boys with ADHD. Qualitative interviews with mothers suggest that medicalization of problematic behaviors in young boys includes an inherent narrative of blame transformation; this transformation can be expressed as a binarism: mother-blame brainblame. The first two sections of the paper document mothers' experiences of blame for their sons' symptomatic behaviors against the background of a cultural mothering ideology. The third section considers the promise of absolution from mother-blame inherent in the transformative binary structure. I argue that medicalization of boys' problem behaviors supports and reconstitutes the potential for mother-blame and does little to pierce oppressive cultural mothering ideals. Keywords: ADHD; Ritalin; Mothering; Medicalization
    Keywords: ADHD ; Ritalin ; Mothering ; Medicalization ; Medicine ; Social Sciences (General) ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0277-9536
    E-ISSN: 1873-5347
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