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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Pensions: An International Journal, 2011, Vol.16(1), p.33
    Description: To date, investment risk has largely been the Cinderella of Defined Contribution (DC) investment default design--at least in the growth phase of the journey--with its more glamorous sister, investment return, tending to steal the limelight. But all this has changed in the wake of the recent financial market turmoil. Investment risk is now fast becoming the belle of the ball. Part of the reason behind this relative neglect of investment risk is the fact that it has not really been fully understood or defined in an appropriate way for DC savings. Taking a long-term, perhaps over 30-40 years, view and modelling the level and variability of outcomes has generally always suggested that the price of managing risk has always been too great for the benefit that it brings. Lifestyling has traditionally been the medicine for dealing with investment risk, which is fine in the run up to retirement, although lifestyle programmes and glide-path designs can be greatly improved where the additional complexity can outweigh the operational cost that it brings. Traditionally, however, lifestyling has done little to manage risk for those members who are not in this pre-retirement phase of their life. In this short opinion piece, we go back to basics and redefine investment risk in a DC context, suggesting new DC-specific measures to help us get a handle on investment risk, and exploring how DC plan fiduciaries can assess how much risk should be built into a default investment programme and how a defaulting member's exposure to that risk can be more effectively managed over their DC journey. We hypothecate that DC plan fiduciaries have a vital role to play and that they need to subtly, but quite fundamentally change the way that they approach the setting of their default investment strategy--focusing more on understanding their membership, its retirement outcome objectives, its investment return needs and its investment risk tolerances, as well as focusing more on managing the default programme more proactively against some clear strategic objectives. doi: 10.1057/pm.2010.35 Keywords: defined contribution; investment; risk; fiduciary
    Keywords: Risk Management -- Research ; Pensions -- Research ; Defined Contribution Plans -- Research ; Return On Investment -- Research ; Fiduciary Duties -- Research;
    ISSN: 1478-5315
    E-ISSN: 1750208X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics, September 2011, Vol.128(3), pp.455-62
    Description: To examine the epidemiological features of pediatric injuries related to falls from windows. By using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, emergency department (ED) data for pediatric injury cases associated with window falls in 1990-2008 were reviewed. An estimated 98 415 children (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82 416-114 419) were treated in US hospital EDs for window fall-related injuries during the 19-year study period (average: 5180 patients per year [95% CI: 4828-5531]). The mean age of children was 5.1 years, and boys accounted for 58.1% of cases. One-fourth (25.4%) of the patients required admission to the hospital. The annual injury rate decreased significantly during the study period because of a decrease in the annual injury rate among 0- to 4-year-old children. Children 0 to 4 years of age were more likely to sustain head injuries (injury proportion ratio [IPR]: 3.22 [95% CI: 2.65-3.91]) and to be hospitalized or to die (IPR: 1.65 [95% CI: 1.38-1.97]) compared with children 5 to 17 years of age. Children who landed on hard surfaces were more likely to sustain head injuries (IPR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.53-2.74]) and to be hospitalized or to die (IPR: 2.23 [95% CI: 1.57-3.17]) compared with children who landed on cushioning surfaces. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate window fall-related injuries treated in US hospital EDs by using a nationally representative sample. These injuries are an important pediatric public health problem, and increased prevention efforts are needed, including development and evaluation of innovative prevention programs.
    Keywords: Accidental Falls -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Wounds and Injuries -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 00314005
    E-ISSN: 1098-4275
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics, April 2012, Vol.129(4), pp.721-7
    Description: The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics and secular trends of stair-related injuries among children aged 〈5 years treated in US emergency departments. A retrospective analysis was conducted of data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 1999 through 2008 by using sample weights to estimate national numbers and rates of stair-related injuries. An estimated 931 886 children aged 〈5 years were treated for stair-related injuries from 1999 through 2008, averaging 93 189 injuries per year and 46.5 injuries per 10 000 population annually. The number of injuries per year decreased significantly by 11.6% from 1999 to 2008. The rate of stair-related injuries also decreased significantly from 53.0 to 42.4 per 10 000 population from 1999 to 2008. Soft tissue injuries accounted for 34.6% of cases. Approximately three-fourths (76.3%) of children had injuries to the head and neck region, and 2.7% of patients were hospitalized. Children who were being carried at the time of injury accounted for 24.5% of injuries among children 〈1 year and were more than 3 times more likely to be hospitalized than children injured by other mechanisms. Stair-related injuries are on the decline but still represent an important source of injury to young children. Increased prevention efforts are needed, including parental education and improved stairway design, to decrease stair-related injuries among young children.
    Keywords: Population Surveillance ; Accidental Falls -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Emergency Service, Hospital -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Fractures, Bone -- Epidemiology ; Soft Tissue Injuries -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 00314005
    E-ISSN: 1098-4275
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics, June 2012, Vol.129(6), pp.1111-7
    Description: To investigate the epidemiology of battery-related emergency department (ED) visits among children 〈18 years of age in the United States. Using a nationally representative sample from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, battery-related ED visits in the United States from 1990 to 2009 were analyzed. Four battery exposure routes for patients were determined from diagnosis codes and case narratives: ingestion, mouth exposure, ear canal insertion, and nasal cavity insertion. An estimated 65788 (95% confidence interval: 54498-77078) patients 〈18 years of age presented to US EDs due to a battery-related exposure during the 20-year study period, averaging 3289 battery-related ED visits annually. The average annual battery-related ED visit rate was 4.6 visits per 100000 children. The number (P 〈 .001) and rate (P = .002) of visits increased significantly during the study period, with substantial increases during the last 8 study years. The mean age was 3.9 years (95% confidence interval: 3.5-4.2), and 60.2% of patients were boys. Battery ingestion accounted for 76.6% of ED visits, followed by nasal cavity insertion (10.2%), mouth exposure (7.5%), and ear canal insertion (5.7%). Button batteries were implicated in 83.8% of patient visits caused by a known battery type. Most children (91.8%) were treated and released from the ED. This study evaluated battery-related ED visits among US children using a nationally representative sample. Batteries pose an important hazard to children, especially those ≤ 5 years of age. The increasing number and rate of battery-related ED visits among children underscore the need for increased prevention efforts.
    Keywords: Accidents, Home -- Trends ; Electric Power Supplies -- Adverse Effects ; Emergency Service, Hospital -- Trends ; Foreign Bodies -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 00314005
    E-ISSN: 1098-4275
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics, July 2011, Vol.128(1), pp.45-52
    Description: The goal of this study was to describe the epidemiology of pediatric submersion events occurring in portable pools in the United States. A retrospective analysis of fatal and nonfatal submersion events involving children younger than 12 years in portable pools was conducted using injury and fatality data compiled by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 2001 through 2009. There were 209 fatal and 35 nonfatal submersion cases reported to the commission from 2001 through 2009. The majority (94%) involved children younger than 5 years, 56% involved boys, 73% occurred in the child's own yard, and 81% occurred during the summer months. The number of submersion events increased rapidly from 2001 to 2005 and then leveled off from 2005 to 2009. The use of portable pools in residential settings poses a significant risk of submersion-related morbidity and mortality to children, especially in the 〈5-year-old age group. No single strategy will prevent all submersion deaths and injuries; therefore, layers of protection are recommended. Industry is advised to engage in development of protective devices that are effective and affordable for portable pools, including isolation fencing, pool alarms, and safety covers. A strong and pervasive consumer education campaign is needed to make consumers aware of the dangers of portable pools, because these small, inexpensive, consumer-installed pools may not generate the same sense of risk as an in-ground pool.
    Keywords: Swimming Pools ; Accidents, Home -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Drowning -- Epidemiology ; Near Drowning -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 00314005
    E-ISSN: 1098-4275
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, February 2011, Vol.112(1), pp.55-60
    Description: In 2005, Abel and Kruger reported that, compared to the other 10 months of the year, Major League Baseball players are much less likely to commit suicide if they are born in July and much more likely to commit suicide if they are born in August. The data and statistical tests used to support this claim are both incorrect. A correct test applied to the complete, accurate data shows that there is no relationship between birth month and suicide for Major League Baseball players.
    Keywords: Psychology
    ISSN: 0031-5125
    E-ISSN: 1558-688X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, February 2011, Vol.112(1), pp.211-216
    Description: Abel and Kruger (2007) reported that Major League Baseball players whose names have positive initials (such as ACE or GOD) live an average of 13 years longer than do players with negative initials (such as ASS or BAD) or players with neutral initials (such as GHR or TSW). However, this conclusion is based on a very small sample, selective initials, and a flawed statistical test. There is no statistically significant relationship between initials and longevity for Major League Baseball players when a correct test is applied to independently selected initials.
    Keywords: Psychology
    ISSN: 0031-5125
    E-ISSN: 1558-688X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Death Studies, 01 February 2012, Vol.36(2), pp.182-189
    Description: It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010 ). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical...
    Keywords: Medicine ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0748-1187
    E-ISSN: 1091-7683
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Death Studies, 01 November 2011, Vol.35(10), pp.949-955
    Description: E. Abel and M. Kruger ( 2005 ) reported that the median life expectancy of Major League Baseball players after election to the Baseball Hall of Fame is 5 years shorter than that of players of the same age...
    Keywords: Medicine ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0748-1187
    E-ISSN: 1091-7683
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2012, Vol.103(2), pp.145-156
    Description: This paper compares the behavior of two competing models for the transmission of pseudorabies virus in feral swine in the USA. In first model, horizontal (non-sexual) density dependent transmission is the only transmission modality. In the second model, the only transmission modality is sexual transmission between mature males and females. The comparison of model behavior was carried out to test the hypothesis that preferential sexual transmission of PRV in feral swine can account for the seroprevalence observed in the field. The observed range of seroprevalence of PRV in mature feral swine in the USA is consistent with a preferential sexual transmission only if the feral swine mating system is a random mating system or a polygynous system in which there is a relatively large rate of acquisition of new mates. The observed range of seroprevalence of PRV in mature feral swine in the USA is not consistent with a preferential sexual transmission if there is mate guarding. This is important because the National Pseudorabies Surveillance Plan deems monitoring the risk of PRV introduction from feral swine to be a “minor objective” both in terms of the scope of the plan and with respect to the resources allocated. The rationale for this statement was derived from experimental studies, which suggested that the PRV indigenous to feral swine in the USA is preferentially sexually transmitted.
    Keywords: Pseudorabies ; Feral Swine ; Mathematical Model ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0167-5877
    E-ISSN: 1873-1716
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