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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2018, Vol.32(5), pp.1443-1455
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-018-1725-9 Byline: Jakob Sohrt (1), Cornelia Herschbach (2), Markus Weiler (1) Keywords: Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Foliar resorption efficiency; Foliar N:P ratio; Coniferous; Deciduous Abstract: Key message While there is evidence that foliar P concentration controls foliar P resorption efficiency, this is not found for N. Likewise, the foliar N:P ratio affects P, but not N resorption. Abstract This study focuses on foliar nutrient resorption efficiency, which describes the proportion of foliar nutrients that is resorbed before abscission. The two main tree types of temperate forests--deciduous and coniferous--are compared in this context. The aim of this meta-analysis is to describe the foliar resorption efficiency of N and P as a function of absolute and relative concentrations of these nutrients in mature foliage, which may serve as a proxy for the plants nutritional status. In addition to prior work on this subject which has focused mainly on single-nutrient resorption efficiency, the effects of relative- and absolute foliar N and P levels are decoupled and analyzed separately. P resorption efficiency was significantly higher at lower absolute foliar P concentration and strongly tied to the original foliar P concentration for both deciduous trees and conifers. In addition, a significant correlation between P resorption efficiency and the foliar N:P ratio was found for deciduous but not for coniferous trees. In contrast, the N resorption efficiency did not relate to the foliar N concentration, nor to the foliar N:P ratio for deciduous and coniferous trees. The results of this study provide strong evidence, that the decoupling of absolute and relative N- and P concentrations in mature foliage is a critical factor for assessing the effect of relative N:P nutrition on nutrient resorption from foliage. If the statistical dependency among absolute and relative foliar N and P concentrations is not considered, the effect of relative N:P nutrition on single nutrient resorption efficiency is likely over-estimated. Overall the results point towards trees of temperate forests being P limited rather than N limited. Author Affiliation: (1) grid.5963.9, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Friedrichstra[sz]e 39, 79098, Freiburg, Germany (2) grid.5963.9, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Georges-Kohler-Allee 53/54, 79110, Freiburg, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 16/06/2018 Received Date: 17/02/2018 Accepted Date: 15/06/2018 Online Date: 21/06/2018 Article note: Communicated by H. Rennenberg. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-018-1725-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Nitrogen ; Phosphorus ; Foliar resorption efficiency ; Foliar N:P ratio ; Coniferous ; Deciduous
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Catena, Dec, 2014, Vol.123, p.1(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.003 Byline: Jakob Sohrt, Fabian Ries, Martin Sauter, Jens Lange Abstract: In many semi-arid environments, the surface materials are frequently characterized by thin soils and large proportions of bare rock, both of which are expected to considerably influence infiltration and groundwater recharge processes. In this study, small plot scale irrigation experiments in combination with dye tracer application, as well as real-time and subsequent soil moisture measurements and soil particle size analysis, were conducted to investigate the significance of preferential flow at the rock soil interface. Large scale assessments of soil depth and surface type distribution were used to upscale the findings of the irrigation experiments to the scale of a complete hillslope and, further, to estimate percolation properties of a hypothetical rainfall event. The two experimental plots were each located in the West Bank Mountains close to Ramallah. Each irrigation experiment was designed with 50mm of precipitation, applied on an area of 1m.sup.2 during the course of ca. 2.5h. Each irrigation plot had a surface share of approximately 50% rock outcrop and 50% soil surface. Percolation properties were investigated by subsequent soil moisture measurements at high spatial resolution on vertical soil profiles on the irrigated plot. Dye tracer application on the rock outcrop during the sprinkling allowed for tracking of resulting outcrop runoff in the subsurface. The soil depth survey included 2100 measurement points on 7 transects, which allowed the estimation of local soil depth distribution. Results of the irrigation experiments showed that precipitation-induced runoff from rock outcrops continued below ground as preferential flow along the rock-soil interface, while water from the soil surface percolated mainly vertically and much more homogeneously. This was evident from the high density soil moisture measurements, as well as from the dye tracer patterns. Outcrop runoff percolated faster and to greater depths than water infiltrating directly from the soil surface, thus possessing a greater potential for groundwater recharge. Article History: Received 27 January 2014; Revised 13 June 2014; Accepted 11 July 2014
    Keywords: Tracers (Biology) -- Analysis ; Soil Moisture -- Analysis ; Geomorphology -- Analysis ; Groundwater -- Analysis ; Rain -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2013, Vol.27(1), pp.37-52
    Description: In the search of timber species being tolerant towards summer droughts, which are expected to be more frequent in future, Douglas-fir is often discussed as a potential alternative for spruce in Central Europe. To assess physiological and growth reactions of Douglas-fir provenances towards climate- and weather-related environmental conditions we took advantage of a provenance trial with three sites in south-western Germany located along an elevation gradient. We examined six different provenances of Douglas-fir from North America for oxygen (δ 18 O) and carbon (δ 13 C) stable isotope composition in tree rings as well as for radial increment for a 7 year period and long-term height growth. Our results show that different Douglas-fir provenances clearly vary in their drought sensitivity at the driest and warmest site in the valley as shown by the radial growth decline in the extreme dry and hot year 2003. The growth decline in the provenances Pamelia Creek, Cameron Lake, Duncan Paldi and Conrad Creek could be clearly attributed to a reduction in stomatal conductance as assessed by the relations between δ 18 O and δ 13 C in the tree rings. These responses were not related to the long-term average climate at the places of origin of the provenances and the provenances with the lowest long-term (height) growth potential were the ones least affected in radial increment by the extreme drought of 2003. When selecting suitable Douglas-fir provenances, which are adapted to the climatic conditions projected for the future we thus might need to take into account the trade-off between the adaptation to extreme drought periods and the long-term growth performance. Site-specific evaluations of the probability of extreme drought events are thus needed to select the appropriate provenances.
    Keywords: Stable isotopes ; Intrinsic water use efficiency ; Stomatal conductance
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 4
    In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water, November 2017, Vol.4(6), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: We review the state‐of‐the‐art of cross‐disciplinary knowledge on phosphorus (P) cycling in temperate forest ecosystems, focused at studies from hydrology, biology, biogeochemistry, soil‐, and geosciences. Changes in soil P stocks during long‐term ecosystem development are addressed briefly; the general ranges of specific P pools and P fluxes within the ecosystem and the presumed underlying processes are covered more in depth. Wherever possible, we differentiate between coniferous and deciduous forests. As the most important P pools, mineral soil, forest floor, vegetation, and microbial biomass are described in terms of pool size, molecular composition, and turnover. Litterfall, soil water seepage, atmospheric deposition, and biotic uptake as the most studied P fluxes in the forest ecosystem are discussed in detail, spotlighting biogeochemical processes relevant for mobilization and retention of P in the rooting zone. Through a meta‐analysis of available literature, we build a dataset that allows the quantification of major P‐cycle components in temperate forests in terms of range and distribution, highlighting similarities and differences between coniferous and deciduous forests. The two forest types are notably distinct in their distribution of P within compartments of the plant biomass and forest floor. The possibility to construct closed local P balances is often hindered by missing information on fluxes of dissolved and particulate P across the ecosystem boundary, be it in the atmosphere, soil, or on the surface. These fluxes are irregular in space and time and feature large overall mass fluxes but comparatively small P fluxes, making the latter one difficult to quantify. 2017, 4:e1243. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1243 This article is categorized under: A schematic respresentation of the Phosphorus cycle in temperate forests. Pools and fluxes are scaled to their average size. See the full paper for more detailed information and data sources.
    Keywords: Phosphorus Cycle ; Phosphorus ; Phosphorus Cycle ; Compartments ; Phosphorus ; Uptake ; Biogeochemistry ; Biomass ; Plant Biomass ; Environmental Changes ; Soil Water ; Pools ; Soil Water ; Distribution ; Composition ; Forests ; Phosphorus Cycle ; Biogeochemistry ; Biogeochemistry ; Biomass ; Biology ; Phosphorus ; Forests ; Microorganisms ; Ecosystems ; Moisture Content ; Forest Floor ; Forest Ecosystems ; Forests ; Stocks ; Hydrology ; Forests ; Rooting ; Pools ; Seepage ; Components ; Hydrology ; Deciduous Forests ; Forest Floor ; Fluxes ; Atmospheric Pollutant Deposition ; Soils ; Hydrology ; Seepage ; Biomass ; Hydrology ; Forest Biomass;
    ISSN: 2049-1948
    E-ISSN: 2049-1948
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: SOIL Discussions, 06/04/2018, pp.1-20
    ISSN: SOIL Discussions
    E-ISSN: 2199-3998
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Catena, December 2014, Vol.123, pp.1-10
    Description: In many semi-arid environments, the surface materials are frequently characterized by thin soils and large proportions of bare rock, both of which are expected to considerably influence infiltration and groundwater recharge processes. In this study, small plot scale irrigation experiments in combination with dye tracer application, as well as real-time and subsequent soil moisture measurements and soil particle size analysis, were conducted to investigate the significance of preferential flow at the rock soil interface. Large scale assessments of soil depth and surface type distribution were used to upscale the findings of the irrigation experiments to the scale of a complete hillslope and, further, to estimate percolation properties of a hypothetical rainfall event. The two experimental plots were each located in the West Bank Mountains close to Ramallah. Each irrigation experiment was designed with 50 mm of precipitation, applied on an area of 1 m during the course of ca. 2.5 h. Each irrigation plot had a surface share of approximately 50% rock outcrop and 50% soil surface. Percolation properties were investigated by subsequent soil moisture measurements at high spatial resolution on vertical soil profiles on the irrigated plot. Dye tracer application on the rock outcrop during the sprinkling allowed for tracking of resulting outcrop runoff in the subsurface. The soil depth survey included 2100 measurement points on 7 transects, which allowed the estimation of local soil depth distribution. Results of the irrigation experiments showed that precipitation-induced runoff from rock outcrops continued below ground as preferential flow along the rock–soil interface, while water from the soil surface percolated mainly vertically and much more homogeneously. This was evident from the high density soil moisture measurements, as well as from the dye tracer patterns. Outcrop runoff percolated faster and to greater depths than water infiltrating directly from the soil surface, thus possessing a greater potential for groundwater recharge.
    Keywords: Infiltration ; Rock–Soil Interface ; Mediterranean Carbonate Rock Environment ; Sprinkling Experiment ; Dye Tracer ; Unsaturated Zone ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2016, Vol.179(4), pp.425-438
    Description: Understanding and quantification of phosphorus (P) fluxes are key requirements for predictions of future forest ecosystems changes as well as for transferring lessons learned from natural ecosystems to croplands and plantations. This review summarizes and evaluates the recent knowledge on mechanisms, magnitude, and relevance by which dissolved and colloidal inorganic and organic P forms can be translocated within or exported from forest ecosystems. Attention is paid to hydrological pathways of P losses at the soil profile and landscape scales, and the subsequent influence of P on aquatic ecosystems. New (unpublished) data from the German Priority Program 1685 “” were added to provide up‐to‐date flux‐based information. Nitrogen (N) additions increase the release of water‐transportable P forms. Most P found in percolates and pore waters belongs to the so‐called dissolved organic P (DOP) fractions, rich in orthophosphate‐monoesters and also containing some orthophosphate‐diesters. Total solution P concentrations range from ca. 1 to 400 µg P L, with large variations among forest stands. Recent sophisticated analyses revealed that large portions of the DOP in forest stream water can comprise natural nanoparticles and fine colloids which under extreme conditions may account for 40–100% of the P losses. Their translocation within preferential flow passes may be rapid, mediated by storm events. The potential total P loss through leaching into subsoils and with streams was found to be less than 50 mg P m a, suggesting effects on ecosystems at centennial to millennium scale. All current data are based on selected snapshots only. Quantitative measurements of P fluxes in temperate forest systems are nearly absent in the literature, probably due to main research focus on the C and N cycles. Therefore, we lack complete ecosystem‐based assessments of dissolved and colloidal P fluxes within and from temperate forest systems.
    Keywords: Forest Ecosystem ; Phosphorus ; Fluxes ; Soil ; Processes ; Hydrology
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 8
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