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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 07 January 2014, Vol.111(1), pp.409-14
    Description: A hypoxic microenvironment induces resistance to alkylating agents by activating targets in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The molecular mechanisms involved in this mTOR-mediated hypoxia-induced chemoresistance, however, are unclear. Here we identify the mTOR target N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) as a key determinant of resistance toward alkylating chemotherapy, driven by hypoxia but also by therapeutic measures such as irradiation, corticosteroids, and chronic exposure to alkylating agents via distinct molecular routes involving hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, p53, and the mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2)/serum glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1) pathway. Resistance toward alkylating chemotherapy but not radiotherapy was dependent on NDRG1 expression and activity. In posttreatment tumor tissue of patients with malignant gliomas, NDRG1 was induced and predictive of poor response to alkylating chemotherapy. On a molecular level, NDRG1 bound and stabilized methyltransferases, chiefly O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a key enzyme for resistance to alkylating agents in glioblastoma patients. In patients with glioblastoma, MGMT promoter methylation in tumor tissue was not more predictive for response to alkylating chemotherapy in patients who received concomitant corticosteroids.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating -- Pharmacology ; Brain Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Cell Cycle Proteins -- Metabolism ; Glioblastoma -- Drug Therapy ; Glioma -- Drug Therapy ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins -- Metabolism ; O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase -- Pharmacology ; Tor Serine-Threonine Kinases -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 07/01/2017, Vol.77(13 Supplement), pp.1803-1803
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 03 December 2015, Vol.528(7580), pp.93-8
    Description: Astrocytic brain tumours, including glioblastomas, are incurable neoplasms characterized by diffusely infiltrative growth. Here we show that many tumour cells in astrocytomas extend ultra-long membrane protrusions, and use these distinct tumour microtubes as routes for brain invasion, proliferation, and to interconnect over long distances. The resulting network allows multicellular communication through microtube-associated gap junctions. When damage to the network occurred, tumour microtubes were used for repair. Moreover, the microtube-connected astrocytoma cells, but not those remaining unconnected throughout tumour progression, were protected from cell death inflicted by radiotherapy. The neuronal growth-associated protein 43 was important for microtube formation and function, and drove microtube-dependent tumour cell invasion, proliferation, interconnection, and radioresistance. Oligodendroglial brain tumours were deficient in this mechanism. In summary, astrocytomas can develop functional multicellular network structures. Disconnection of astrocytoma cells by targeting their tumour microtubes emerges as a new principle to reduce the treatment resistance of this disease.
    Keywords: Astrocytoma -- Pathology ; Brain Neoplasms -- Pathology ; Gap Junctions -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of clinical investigation, February 2015, Vol.125(2), pp.593-606
    Description: For a targeted cancer vaccine to be effective, the antigen of interest needs to be naturally processed and presented on MHC by the target cell or an antigen-presenting cell (APC) in the tumor stroma. The presence of these characteristics is often assumed based on animal models, evaluation of antigen-overexpressing APCs in vitro, or assays of material-consuming immune precipitation from fresh solid tissue. Here, we evaluated the use of an alternative approach that uses the proximity ligation assay (PLA) to identify the presentation of an MHC class II-restricted antigen in paraffin-embedded tissue sections from patients with brain tumors. This approach required a specific antibody directed against the epitope that was presented. We used an antibody that specifically binds an epitope of mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase type 1 (IDH1R132H), which is frequently expressed in gliomas and other types of tumors. In situ PLA showed that the IDH1R132H epitope colocalizes with MHC class II in IDH1R132H-mutated glioma tissue. Moreover, PLA demonstrated colocalization between the class II epitope-containing melanoma antigen New York esophageal 1 and MHC class II. Collectively, our data suggest that PLA may be a useful tool to acquire information on whether an antigen is presented in situ, and this technique has potential to guide clinical studies that use antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy.
    Keywords: Antigen Presentation ; Mutation, Missense ; Antigen-Presenting Cells -- Immunology ; Brain Neoplasms -- Immunology ; Glioma -- Immunology ; Immunohistochemistry -- Methods ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00219738
    E-ISSN: 1558-8238
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Toxicology Letters, 17 June 2012, Vol.211, pp.S65-S66
    Keywords: Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0378-4274
    E-ISSN: 1879-3169
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 6
    In: Neuro-Oncology, 2016, Vol. 18(4), pp.479-485
    Description: The recent discovery of distinct, ultra-long, and highly functional membrane protrusions in gliomas, particularly in astrocytomas, extends our understanding of how these tumors progress in the brain and how they resist therapies. In this article, we will focus on ideas on how to target these membrane protrusions, for which we have suggested the term “tumor microtubes” (TMs), and the malignant multicellular network they form. First, we discuss TM-specific features and their differential biological functions known so far. Second, the connection between 1p/19q codeletion and the inability to form functional TMs via certain neurodevelopmental pathways is presented; this could provide an explanation for the distinct clinical features of oligodendrogliomas. Third, the role of TMs for primary and potentially also adaptive resistance to cytotoxic therapies is highlighted. Fourth, avenues for therapeutic approaches to inhibit TM formation and/or function are discussed, with a focus on disruption (or exploitation) of network functionality. Finally, we propose ideas on how to use TMs as a biomarker in glioma patients. An increasing understanding of TMs in clinical and preclinical settings will show us whether they really are a long-sought-after Achilles' heel of treatment-resistant gliomas.
    Keywords: 1p/19q Codeletion ; Astrocytoma ; Glioblastoma ; Resistance ; Oligodendroglioma ; Tumor Microtubes
    ISSN: 1522-8517
    E-ISSN: 1523-5866
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 15 December 2016, Vol.22(24), pp.6078-6087
    Description: The role of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity for brain tumor biology and therapy is a matter of debate. We developed a new experimental approach using in vivo two-photon imaging of mouse brain metastases originating from a melanoma cell line to investigate the growth kinetics of individual tumor cells in response to systemic delivery of two PI3K/mTOR inhibitors over time, and to study the impact of microregional vascular permeability. The two drugs are closely related but differ regarding a minor chemical modification that greatly increases brain penetration of one drug. Both inhibitors demonstrated a comparable inhibition of downstream targets and melanoma growth in vitro In vivo, increased BBB permeability to sodium fluorescein was associated with accelerated growth of individual brain metastases. Melanoma metastases with permeable microvessels responded similarly to equivalent doses of both inhibitors. In contrast, metastases with an intact BBB showed an exclusive response to the brain-penetrating inhibitor. The latter was true for macro- and micrometastases, and even single dormant melanoma cells. Nuclear morphology changes and single-cell regression patterns implied that both inhibitors, if extravasated, target not only perivascular melanoma cells but also those distant to blood vessels. Our study provides the first direct evidence that nonpermeable brain micro- and macrometastases can effectively be targeted by a drug designed to cross the BBB. Small-molecule inhibitors with these optimized properties are promising agents in preventing or treating brain metastases in patients. Clin Cancer Res; 22(24); 6078-87. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Steeg et al., p. 5953.
    Keywords: Blood-Brain Barrier -- Pathology ; Brain -- Pathology ; Brain Neoplasms -- Pathology ; Cell Proliferation -- Physiology
    ISSN: 1078-0432
    E-ISSN: 15573265
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 19 July 2017, Vol.37(29), pp.6837-6850
    Description: Early and progressive colonization of the healthy brain is one hallmark of diffuse gliomas, including glioblastomas. We recently discovered ultralong (〉10 to hundreds of microns) membrane protrusions [tumor microtubes (TMs)] extended by glioma cells. TMs have been associated with the capacity of glioma cells to effectively invade the brain and proliferate. Moreover, TMs are also used by some tumor cells to interconnect to one large, resistant multicellular network. Here, we performed a correlative gene-expression microarray and imaging analysis, and identified novel molecular candidates for TM formation and function. Interestingly, these genes were previously linked to normal CNS development. One of the genes scoring highest in tests related to the outgrowth of TMs was (), which was highly expressed in a fraction of TMs in mice and patients. Ttyh1 was confirmed to be a potent regulator of normal TM morphology and of TM-mediated tumor-cell invasion and proliferation. Glioma cells with one or two TMs were mainly responsible for effective brain colonization, and Ttyh1 downregulation particularly affected this cellular subtype, resulting in reduced tumor progression and prolonged survival of mice. The remaining Ttyh1-deficient tumor cells, however, had more interconnecting TMs, which were associated with increased radioresistance in those small tumors. These findings imply a cellular and molecular heterogeneity in gliomas regarding formation and function of distinct TM subtypes, with multiple parallels to neuronal development, and suggest that Ttyh1 might be a promising target to specifically reduce TM-associated brain colonization by glioma cells in patients. In this report, we identify tweety-homolog 1 (Ttyh1), a membrane protein linked to neuronal development, as a potent driver of tumor microtube (TM)-mediated brain colonization by glioma cells. Targeting of Ttyh1 effectively inhibited the formation of invasive TMs and glioma growth, but increased network formation by intercellular TMs, suggesting a functional and molecular heterogeneity of the recently discovered TMs with potential implications for future TM-targeting strategies.
    Keywords: Ttyh1 ; Glioblastoma ; Glioma ; Invasion ; Migration ; Tumor Microtubes ; Brain Neoplasms -- Metabolism ; Glioblastoma -- Metabolism ; Membrane Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 02706474
    E-ISSN: 1529-2401
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Methods in cell biology, 2017, Vol.140, pp.277-301
    Description: Combining in vivo imaging with electron microscopy (EM) uniquely allows monitoring rare and critical events in living tissue, followed by their high-resolution visualization in their native context. A major hurdle, however, is to keep track of the region of interest (ROI) when moving from intravital microscopy (IVM) to EM. Here, we present a workflow that relies on correlating IVM and microscopic X-ray computed tomography to predict the position of the ROI inside the EM-processed sample. The ROI can then be accurately and quickly targeted using ultramicrotomy and imaged using EM. We outline how this procedure is used to retrieve and image tumor cells arrested in the vasculature of the mouse brain.
    Keywords: 3d Electron Microscopy ; 3d Registration ; Correlative Microscopy ; Intravital Imaging ; Metastasis ; Mouse Brain ; Tumor Cell ; X-Ray Microct ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional ; X-Ray Microtomography ; Microscopy, Electron -- Methods
    ISSN: 0091-679X
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Chemical research in toxicology, 18 February 2013, Vol.26(2), pp.252-61
    Description: Prostaglandins are endogenous mediators formed from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenases and prostaglandin synthases during inflammatory processes. The five-membered ring can be dehydrated, and α,β-unsaturated cyclopentenone PGs (cyPGs) are generated. Recent studies have been focused on their potential pharmacological use against inflammation and cancer. However, little is known so far about possible adverse health effects of cyPGs. We addressed the question whether selected cyPGs at a concentration range of 0.1-10 μM exhibit mutagenic and genotoxic properties in the hamster lung fibroblast V79 cell line and whether these effects are accompanied by a depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH). The cyPGs 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2) and prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) significantly induced DNA damage in V79 cells after 1 h of incubation. Furthermore, a more pronounced increase in formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, indicative of oxidative DNA-damage, was observed. The findings on DNA-damaging properties were supported by our results that 15dPGJ(2) acts as an aneugenic agent which induces the amount of kinetochore positive micronuclei associated with an increase of apoptosis. The strong potency of cyPGs to rapidly bind GSH measured in a chemical assay and to significantly reduce the GSH level after only 1 h of incubation may contribute to the observed oxidative DNA strand breaks, whereas directly induced oxidative stress via reactive oxygen species could be excluded. However, after an extended incubation time of 24 h no genotoxicity could be measured, this may contribute to the lack of mutagenicity in the hypoxanthine phosphorybosyltransferase (HPRT) assay. In conclusion, potential in vitro genotoxicity of cyPG and a strong impact on GSH homeostasis have been demonstrated, which may be involved in carcinogenesis mediated by chronic inflammation.
    Keywords: Cyclopentanes -- Toxicity ; Fibroblasts -- Drug Effects ; Glutathione -- Metabolism ; Mutagens -- Toxicity ; Prostaglandins -- Toxicity
    ISSN: 0893228X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5010
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