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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 06 July 2012, Vol.337(6090), pp.104-9
    Description: Tumors exhibit numerous recurrent hemizygous focal deletions that contain no known tumor suppressors and are poorly understood. To investigate whether these regions contribute to tumorigenesis, we searched genetically for genes with cancer-relevant properties within these hemizygous deletions. We identified STOP and GO genes, which negatively and positively regulate proliferation, respectively. STOP genes include many known tumor suppressors, whereas GO genes are enriched for essential genes. Analysis of their chromosomal distribution revealed that recurring deletions preferentially overrepresent STOP genes and underrepresent GO genes. We propose a hypothesis called the cancer gene island model, whereby gene islands encompassing high densities of STOP genes and low densities of GO genes are hemizygously deleted to maximize proliferative fitness through cumulative haploinsufficiencies. Because hundreds to thousands of genes are hemizygously deleted per tumor, this mechanism may help to drive tumorigenesis across many cancer types.
    Keywords: Cell Proliferation ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Genes, Neoplasm ; Haploinsufficiency ; Sequence Deletion ; Neoplasms -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(2)
    Description: Background The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D) images has raised concern about possible adverse side effects on viewers. Methods and Findings A prospective carryover observational study was designed to assess the effect of exposure (3D vs. 2D movie views) on self reported symptoms of visually induced motion sickness. The standardized Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was self administered on a convenience sample of 497 healthy adult volunteers before and after the vision of 2D and 3D movies. Viewers reporting some sickness (SSQ total score〉15) were 54.8% of the total sample after the 3D movie compared to 14.1% of total sample after the 2D movie. Symptom intensity was 8.8 times higher than baseline after exposure to 3D movie (compared to the increase of 2 times the baseline after the 2D movie). Multivariate modeling of visually induced motion sickness as response variables pointed out the significant effects of exposure to 3D movie, history of car sickness and headache, after adjusting for gender, age, self reported anxiety level, attention to the movie and show time. Conclusions Seeing 3D movies can increase rating of symptoms of nausea, oculomotor and disorientation, especially in women with susceptible visual-vestibular system. Confirmatory studies which include examination of clinical signs on viewers are needed to pursue a conclusive evidence on the 3D vision effects on spectators.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Social And Behavioral Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, August 2013, Vol.50(4), pp.1010-1018
    Description: Beta diversity is the compositional heterogeneity of biotic assemblages among sites, and biotic homogenization is the decrease in beta diversity, facilitated by an increase in similarity of biotic communities over time. Environmental harshness decreases the importance of stochastic processes in structuring assemblages, resulting in a homogenization of the biota. We investigated if increasing nutrient enrichment, land‐use pressure, and within‐lake habitat alteration would decrease the beta diversity of macroinvertebrates in 46 lakes across Europe. Beta diversity was calculated using global multivariate dispersion. We utilized a structural equation modelling approach to account for hierarchical interdependence between potential impacts, that is the direct effects and correlations among the different impacts. We found clear indications that European macroinvertebrate communities are being homogenized by ongoing lake shore development. Increasing land‐use pressure in the form of residential and commercial development had a direct negative effect on beta diversity (standardized coefficient = −0·40), as did roadways, albeit indirectly through an increase in engineering structures (standardized coefficient = −0·31). Increasing within‐lake silt levels also homogenized macroinvertebrate communities (standardized coefficient = −0·18), independent of near shore land use. Our results indicate the negative effect of both the near shore land‐use pressure and the within‐lake habitat alteration on macroinvertebrate beta diversity, with significant interactions between these pressures. Habitat protection should take a more holistic approach to assessing lake development pressure, over a range of scales, as a solely site specific approach is not always biologically meaningful. Thus, future management plans should carefully control and mitigate ongoing development pressure if lake ecosystem health and resilience is to be maintained. Synthesis and applications. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate European‐wide homogenization of littoral macroinvertebrate lake communities with increasing habitat alteration and land‐use pressure. Significant interactions occur between different habitat scales, with no one scale entirely accounting for the homogenization effect. To avoid further biotic homogenization, development pressure must be carefully managed at multiple scales, and where possible, minimized. This presents a challenge, as globally there is an increasing expansion of the human population and a consequent increase in anthropogenic pressure across all habitats. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate European‐wide homogenization of littoral macroinvertebrate lake communities with increasing habitat alteration and land‐use pressure. Significant interactions occur between different habitat scales, with no one scale entirely accounting for the homogenization effect. To avoid further biotic homogenization, development pressure must be carefully managed at multiple scales, and where possible, minimized. This presents a challenge, as globally there is an increasing expansion of the human population and a consequent increase in anthropogenic pressure across all habitats.
    Keywords: Benthic Macroinvertebrates ; Beta Diversity ; Biotic Homogenization ; Habitat Modification ; Hydromorphology ; Lake ; Multivariate Dispersion ; Structural Equation Modelling
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
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  • 4
    In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (Journal canadien des sciences halieutiques et aquatiques), 2011, Vol.68(1), pp.74-88
    Description: We compared the invertebrate production and stable isotope signatures of key ecosystem compartments of urban sites subjected to the input of tertiary-treated wastewater with those of upstream sites in an agricultural lowland stream. We detected a significant shift in the trophic basis of invertebrate production from upstream, natural and agricultural resources, to urban resources, i.e., wastewater-derived organic matter as well as autochthonous primary production based on wastewater-derived nutrients. Invertebrate production was higher at urban sites than at agricultural sites. However, the median contribution of the most important secondary producer, the shredder Gammarus roeseli , to total invertebrate production was lower at urban sites (9%) than at agricultural sites (61%). The low production of G. roeseli at urban sites was associated with the absence of allochthonous coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) habitats, rather than the loss of CPOM as a food resource. Our results suggest that contemporary urban stressors in developed countries affect secondary producers less severely than historically recorded, but still profoundly change the matter fluxes and ecosystem functioning of running waters. Restoration of the native riparian vegetation, channel naturalization, and adequate dilution of tertiary-treated wastewater may partially mitigate adverse effects on invertebrate communities and their secondary production.
    Description: Nous comparons la production d'invertbrs et les signatures d'isotopes stables de compartiments cls de l'cosystme dans des sites urbains soumis l'apport d'eaux uses de traitement tertiaire par comparaison des sites d'amont dans un cours d'eau agricole de plaine. Nous dtectons un changement significatif dans la base trophique de la production d'invertbrs, partir des ressources naturelles et agricoles en amont vers des ressources urbaines, c'est--dire de la matire organique drive des eaux uses, ainsi qu'une production primaire autochtone base sur des nutriments provenant des eaux uses. La production d'invertbrs est plus leve dans les sites urbains que dans les sites agricoles. Cependant, la contribution mdiane du producteur secondaire le plus important, le dchiqueteur Gammarus roeseli , la production totale des invertbrs est plus basse aux sites urbains (9 %) qu'aux sites agricoles (61 %). La faible production de G. roeseli aux sites urbains est associe l'absence d'habitats matire organique particulaire grossire (CPOM) allochtone, plutt qu' la perte de CPOM comme ressource alimentaire. Nos rsultats laissent croire que les facteurs urbains actuels de stress dans les pays dvelopps affectent les producteurs secondaires moins svrement que signal dans le pass, mais qu'ils modifient nanmoins profondment les flux de matire et le fonctionnement de l'cosystme dans les eaux courantes. La restauration de la vgtation riveraine indigne, la naturalisation du chenal et la dilution adquate des eaux uses aprs un traitement tertiaire peuvent en partie rduire les effets ngatifs sur les communauts d'invertbrs et leur production secondaire.
    Keywords: Rivers ; Isotopes ; Ecosystems ; Environmental Impact ; Pollution Effects ; Trophic Structure ; Particulate Organic Matter ; Freshwater Organisms ; Secondary Production ; Waste Water ; Agricultural Runoff ; Chemical Analysis ; Pollution ; Gammarus Roeseli ; Germany, Erpe R. ; Freshwater ; Mechanical and Natural Changes ; Productivity;
    ISSN: 0706-652X
    E-ISSN: 1205-7533
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC public health, 25 July 2015, Vol.15, pp.708
    Description: Exposure to particulate matter has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We evaluated the ecological correlation between standardized hospital discharges with diabetes in Italian provinces and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) adjusting for common risk factors, socioeconomic factors and differences in hospitalization appropriateness. We used cross sectional data aggregated at the province level and available from official institutional databases for years 2008-2010. Covariates included prevalence of adult overweight, obese, smokers, physically inactive, education and income (as average gross domestic product per person, GDP). We reduced the number of covariates to a smaller number of factors for the subsequent statistical model by extracting meaningful components using principal component analysis (PCA). Log-linear multiple regression analysis was used to model diabetes hospital discharges with PCA components and PM2.5 levels and hospitalization appropriateness for men and women. The first PCA components for both men and women were characterized by larger loadings of risk factors (obesity, overweight, physical inactivity, cigarette smoking) and lower socioeconomic factors (educational level and mean GDP). Diabetes hospitalization increases with the first PCA component and decreases with the index of hospitalization appropriateness. In fully adjusted models, diabetes hospitalizations increase with increasing annual PM2.5 concentrations, with a rise of 3.5 % (1.3 %-5.6 %) for men and of 4.0 % (1.5 %-6.4 %) for women per unit of PM2.5 increase. We found a significant ecological relationship between sex and age standardised hospital discharge with diabetes as principle diagnosis and mean annual PM2.5 concentrations in Italian provinces, once that covariates have been accounted for. The relationship was robust to different means of estimating PM2.5 exposure. A large portion of the variance of diabetes hospitalizations was linked to differences of hospital care appropriateness between Italian regions and this variable should routinely be included in ecological analyses of hospitalizations.
    Keywords: Air Pollutants -- Adverse Effects ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 -- Etiology ; Environmental Exposure -- Adverse Effects ; Hospitalization -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Particulate Matter -- Adverse Effects
    E-ISSN: 1471-2458
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare / Analyse non lineaire, 2016, Vol.12(3), p.319(19)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0294-1449(16)30159-7 Byline: Sergio Solimini Abstract: Some properties of "concentration-compactness type" are proved to the aim of characterizing the behaviour of bounded sequences of functions in a Sobolev Space with respect to Lorentz norms. Such properties are shown to exist as far as the embedding is not optimal with respect to the secundary index. Author Affiliation: Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Lecce Article Note: (footnote) Strada provinciale Lecce-Arnesano, 73100 Lecce, Italy.
    ISSN: 0294-1449
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Comptes rendus - Mathématique, October 2015, Vol.353(10), pp.899-903
    Description: Concentration compactness methods improve convergence for bounded sequences in Banach spaces beyond the weak-star convergence provided by the Banach–Alaoglu theorem. A further improvement of convergence, known as profile decomposition, is possible up to , a series of “elementary concentrations” defined relative to the action of some group of linear isometric operators. This note presents a general profile decomposition for uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach spaces, generalizing the result of one of the authors (S.S.) for Sobolev spaces and of the other (C.T. jointly with I. Schindler) for general Hilbert spaces. Unlike in the Hilbert space case, profile decomposition is based not on weak convergence, but on a different mode of convergence, called , which coincides with weak convergence if and only if the norm satisfies the known Opial condition, used in the context of fixed point theory for nonexpansive maps. Les méthodes de concentration-compacité permettent l'amélioration de la convergence des (sous-)suites bornées dans les espaces de Banach au-delà de la convergence faible étoile fournie par le théorème de Banach–Alaoglu. Une amélioration de la convergence est possible en tenant compte de l'action d'un groupe d'isométries. P.-L. Lions a étudié ce type d'amélioration dans des espaces de fonctions spécifiques avec les groupes des translations et des dilatations. Une analyse complète en décomposition en profils (des suites bornées) pour les espaces de Sobolev avec les groupes des translations et dilatations a été établie par l'un des auteurs (S.S.). L'autre auteur (avec I. Schindler) a démontré l'existence d'une décomposition en profils semblable dans un espace d'Hilbert général sur lequel agit un groupe d'isométrie satisfaisant certaines hypothèses. Ce cadre général a permis d'établir des décompositions en profils avec d'autres groupes d'isométries telles que des isométries sur des variétés sous-riemanniennes, des dilatations logarithmiques pour des espaces d'Orlicz et le groupe galiléen pour étudier l'équation de Schrödinger non linéaire (T. Tao). Ce travail généralise la décomposition en profils pour un espace de Banach uniformément convexe et uniformément régulier. Nous introduisons une autre définition de la convergence faible, dite convergence polaire. La convergence polaire coïncide avec la convergence faible si et seulement si la norme satisfait à la condition d'Opial, utilisée pour la théorie du point fixe dans le cas des applications non expansives. La convergence polaire est caractérisée par la dualité . Dans les espaces de Besov et de Triebel–Lizorkin (qui contiennent les espaces de Lebesgue et Sobolev), la condition d'Opial est satisfaite pour des normes équivalentes via la décomposition de Littlewood–Paley, ce qui donne une décomposition en profils avec un reste qui tend vers 0 en norme pour des suites bornées des espaces correspondants.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Mathematics
    ISSN: 1631-073X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 29 January 2013, Vol.110(5), pp.E407-14
    Description: Cancer develops through genetic and epigenetic alterations that allow unrestrained proliferation and increased survival. Using a genetic RNAi screen, we previously identified hundreds of suppressors of tumorigenesis and/or proliferation (STOP) genes that restrain normal cell proliferation. Our STOP gene set was significantly enriched for known and putative tumor suppressor genes. Here, we report a tumor-suppressive role for one STOP gene, phosphatase and actin regulator 4 (PHACTR4). Phactr4 is one of four members of the largely uncharacterized Phactr family of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-and actin-binding proteins. Our work suggests that Phactr4 restrains normal cell proliferation and transformation. Depletion of Phactr4 with multiple shRNAs leads to increased proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Phactr4 acts, in part, through an Rb-dependent pathway, because Rb phosphorylation is maintained upon growth factor withdrawal in Phactr4-depleted cells. Examination of tumor copy number analysis and sequencing revealed that PHACTR4 is significantly deleted and mutant in many tumor subtypes. Furthermore,cancer cell lines with reduced Phactr4 expression exhibit tumor suppressor hypersensitivity upon Phactr4 complementation,leading to reduced proliferation, transformation, and tumor formation. Thus, Phactr4 acts as a tumor suppressor that is deleted and mutant in several cancers.
    Keywords: Cell Proliferation ; Mutation ; Breast Neoplasms -- Genetics ; Tumor Suppressor Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of healthcare protection management : publication of the International Association for Hospital Security, 2012, Vol.28(1), pp.72-5
    Description: This article, based on the author's personal experience as a security officer/supervisor in the healthcare industry for the past ten years, frankly describes the pitfalls facing a female security officer in a male-dominated profession and how they can be overcome.
    Keywords: Health Facilities ; Personnel Selection ; Role ; Security Measures ; Women
    ISSN: 0891-7930
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(1), p.e0191112
    Description: Air pollution represents a serious threat to health on a global scale, being responsible for a large portion of the global burden of disease from environmental factors. Current evidence about the association between air pollution exposure and Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is still controversial. We...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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