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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 12 December 2014, Vol.346(6215), pp.1293-4
    Description: The photoelectric effect, the emission of electrons from a metal surface after absorbing light, was explained by Einstein's model ( 1 ), where light particles (photons) must have a minimum energy (frequency) to ionize atoms (see the figure inset). The number of excited atoms is proportional to the intensity (the number of photons delivered). However, when the light is supplied by very intense, very fast pulses from lasers, the number of ionized atoms will depend on the electric field strength—the amplitude of the light seen as an electromagnetic wave. This change occurs because ionization occurs via quantum tunneling through the relevant energy barrier during a short time window near the maxima of the electric field ( 2 ). Isolated attosecond pulses ( 3 ) recently enabled studies of the dynamics of tunneling ionization of atoms in gases ( 4 ). On page 1348 of this issue, Schultze et al. ( 5 ) experimentally show that atoms in a solid are also excited via the tunneling process.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Biology;
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Business Research, April 2013, Vol.66(4), pp.499-505
    Description: This article aims to reconcile some inconsistencies on the three constructs of advertising involvement, advertising relevance and media engagement. Then it develops a scale to holistically measure overall advertising involvement. Three previously measured types of involvement (message, media, and creative) are regrouped into one multidimensional structure with three correlated dimensions. The scale is then used to show that overall advertising involvement is capable of shaping attitudes leading to various consumer outcomes. Contributing to the literature on advertising involvement, this research confirms that overall advertising involvement is both situational and enduring. From a professional perspective, the research proposes a measurement tool better suited to understanding the scope of overall consumer involvement with advertising.
    Keywords: Overall Advertising Involvement ; Message Involvement ; Media Involvement ; Creative Involvement ; Scale Development ; Business ; Economics
    ISSN: 0148-2963
    E-ISSN: 1873-7978
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Business Research, 2014, Vol.67(4), p.434(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.03.029 Byline: Nathalie Spielmann, Mathilde Delvert Abstract: International advertisers often wonder whether to adapt their copy to each country they operate in or to globally standardize their message, especially in non-Anglophone markets. While the current business lingua franca is English, how easily can it be introduced into advertising without alienating consumers, and would a simpler English message work better? Does the culture of a brand also influence the impact of English use in non-Anglophone markets? This research examines the interaction between language choice and brand culture in a non-Anglophone market. Specifically, the studies review the value of Globish, a non-cultural form of English. The results suggest that using standardized English copy has relevance in non-Anglophone countries for global brands, but that Globish can also be useful for local brands seeking to upgrade their value in a local market. Globish is shown to be an interesting alternative option in adapting or standardizing advertising strategies. Managerial implications close the paper. Article History: Received 1 September 2012; Revised 1 February 2013; Accepted 1 March 2013 Article Note: (footnote) [star] The authors acknowledge the help of John B. Ford and Camille Parisot Spielmann for their constructive input and their presence during the editing and review process.
    ISSN: 0148-2963
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Marketing, 19 August 2014, Vol.48(9/10)
    Description: Purpose Humor mechanisms influencing consumer behaviors seem relatively under-researched. In consequence the effectiveness of humorous appeals is often questioned and research has yet to provide clear guidelines regarding why, for whom and when these appeals work. After uncovering ads that contain the two main types of humor mechanisms, the distraction and combined-influence hypotheses are tested in combination with dispositional and situation involvement. Design/methodology/approach Using a focus group to define the ways consumers perceive humor, two pre-tests established a measure to identify arousal-safety and incongruity resolution humor mechanisms. Two main studies (n=486) test these mechanisms for two types of consumer groups (low and high NFC) in studies meant to replicate content-free and content-based media contexts. Findings The results show that consumers are likely to have higher attitudes towards the humor ads that contain arousal-safety. When considering the type of ad mechanism used, the results support the distraction hypotheses even for consumers with high NFC and even when in high situational involvement. No support for the combined-influence hypothesis is uncovered. Originality/value It is shown that humorous mechanism is an important consideration when creating humor ads. The results also add more detailed support for the distraction hypothesis. From these results, marketers have a better understanding of humor mechanisms and practitioners of how to position their humorous advertising depending on the outcome behaviors they wish to encourage. Marketers are also advised to create humorous advertising that is simple rather than complex.
    Keywords: Business
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    E-ISSN: 1758-7123
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Business Research, March 2016, Vol.69(3), pp.1130-1137
    Description: For numerous products, brand cues are used to signal the origin of the product. Yet, in some cases, consumers are faced with products carrying brand cues that are not necessarily congruous with the origin of the product. For example, Belvedere is Polish vodka but has an English name and a castle symbol; neither cues may be considered stereotypically Polish. This research tests how origin-typicality interacts with origin-typical brand cues on products. It shows that completely origin-congruous brand cues are more effective in improving attitudes than mild incongruity between brand cues. It also shows that product typicality is a significant factor influencing consumers' evaluations of origin products with origin-congruous/incongruous brand cues. Using multiple studies across two product categories, this research demonstrates that origin-typical products should brand with origin-congruent cues whereas origin-atypical products should avoid using origin-congruent cues in their branding. The implications of the findings for international brand management are discussed.
    Keywords: Origin ; Typicality ; Schema Congruity ; Experiment ; Business ; Economics
    ISSN: 0148-2963
    E-ISSN: 1873-7978
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  • 6
    In: Chemical Communications, 2011, Vol.47(43), pp.11945-11947
    Description: Reaction of DIPPnacnacAlH 2 with DIPPNH 2 BH 3 did not give the anticipated deprotonation but nucleophilic substitution at B was observed instead. The product DIPPnacnacAl(BH 4 ) 2 was isolated and structurally characterized. Nucleophilic displacement at B might play a role in mechanistic pathways related to metal amidoborane complexes.
    Keywords: Chemistry;
    ISSN: 1359-7345
    E-ISSN: 1364-548X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Business Research, December 2016, Vol.69(12), pp.5636-5643
    Description: This study explores mechanisms that lead to the creation of durable competitive territorial brands. An examination of research on origin-specific firms, umbrella branding, resource-based theory and co-opetition theory leads to questions regarding how firms that have strategically attached themselves to a place of origin add value to their own brands and obtain advantages for their firm. How can a co-created, non-proprietary territorial brand become a valuable marketing resource? Eight wine brands in the Champagne area of France are studied and the results show how ‘communal leverage’ occurs: a firm and its local co-opetitors engage in the ‘give and take’ of valuable marketing resources. Through communal leverage, multiple individual brands interact with an overarching territorial brand in order to sustain both territorial and individual brands. The research reveals a territorial brand to be a form of regional umbrella branding that is underpinned not by a top-down process as previous research would suggest but a bottom-up process. A territory's physical resources and capabilities are precursors of symbiotic marketing relationships for origin-specific firms.
    Keywords: Territorial Brand ; Co-Opetition ; Traceability ; Champagne ; Business ; Economics
    ISSN: 0148-2963
    E-ISSN: 1873-7978
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Business Research, July 2018, Vol.88, pp.255-264
    Description: Virtual tours are distinct from videos and other online communication tools in various ways. First, they require consumer-controlled interactions and input (e.g. clicking a mouse), rather than passive viewing. Second, virtual tours offer users a unique perspective – the consumer experiences the product in a quasi-realistic sense. Third, virtual tours may allow for an immersive state, or telepresence. This research examines how in virtual tours, user-driven interaction results in telepresence, leading to augmented attitudes towards the object. Studies 1 and 2 show that the relationship between online virtual tours and attitudes towards the objects are mediated by telepresence with user-driven interactivity as an antecedent. Study 3 finds cognitive load to be a moderator of the sequential mediation. This research provides insights into the process mechanisms that occur in virtual tours, contributing to research on online interactivity and the influence of consumer-driven online interactions on consumer perceptions and behavior.
    Keywords: Virtual Tours ; User-Driven Interactivity ; Telepresence ; Elaboration Likelihood Model ; Business ; Economics
    ISSN: 0148-2963
    E-ISSN: 1873-7978
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2013, Vol.105(6), pp.961-977
    Description: Although separate literatures have emerged on effects of social threats (i.e., rejection and negative evaluation) and rewards (i.e., connection and intimacy) on the process of commitment to a romantic relationship, no research has examined the influence of both simultaneously. Using an attachment framework, we examined the relation of social threats and rewards to investment model constructs (i.e., commitment, satisfaction, investment, quality of alternatives) in 3 studies. Study 1 ( N = 533) and Study 2 ( N = 866) assessed attachment styles, reward and threat perceptions, and investment model constructs, and data were analyzed using structural equation models. In Study 3 ( N = 358), reward and threat perceptions were experimentally manipulated followed by measurement of investment model constructs. Results showed that attachment avoidance was uniquely associated with lower perceptions of reward, whereas attachment anxiety was uniquely associated with stronger perceptions of threat. Stronger reward perceptions were associated with higher commitment, investment, and satisfaction, as well as lower quality of alternatives in all studies. Stronger threat perceptions were associated with lower satisfaction in all 3 studies. Stronger threat perceptions were also correlated with higher levels of investment and commitment, although these effects did not replicate in our experimental study. Thus, perceptions of reward appear unambiguously associated with higher levels of all facets of commitment, whereas perceptions of threat are most strongly associated with lower satisfaction. These results underscore the importance of considering the effects of rewards and threats simultaneously in commitment processes.
    Keywords: Adult Attachment ; Investment Model Of Commitment ; Romantic Relationships ; Social Reward ; Social Threat
    ISSN: 0022-3514
    E-ISSN: 1939-1315
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Business Research, July 2014, Vol.67(7), pp.1461-1467
    Description: While most brands belong to individual enterprises, some brands are collective and based in a single territory. This paper, based on qualitative research, examines the characteristics of these territorial brands using the case study of the wines of Champagne in France. Employing a series of primary data sets and past studies the paper first explores the nature of the territorial brand (including its overarching nature and emergent development), then develops an analysis of the preconditions for strong territorial brands. The proposition is that these include a specific type of brand manager, a definite willingness to co-operate, a common mythology and local engagement. The paper considers goods that are inseparable from their origin whereas prior literature focuses only on services of this type. This paper also provides insights for marketers of territorial products in terms of how to ensure their success both in local and global markets as well as how to leverage the origin appropriately.
    Keywords: Place Marketing ; Territorial Brand ; Champagne ; Coopetition ; Business ; Economics
    ISSN: 0148-2963
    E-ISSN: 1873-7978
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