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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, June 15, 2014, Vol.57, p.193(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.03.042 Byline: A. Spindler Abstract: Although data reconciliation is intensely applied in process engineering, almost none of its powerful methods are employed for validation of operational data from wastewater treatment plants. This is partly due to some prerequisites that are difficult to meet including steady state, known variances of process variables and absence of gross errors. However, an algorithm can be derived from the classical approaches to data reconciliation that allows to find a comprehensive set of equations describing redundancy in the data when measured and unmeasured variables (flows and concentrations) are defined. This is a precondition for methods of data validation based on individual mass balances such as CUSUM charts. The procedure can also be applied to verify the necessity of existing or additional measurements with respect to the improvement of the data's redundancy. Results are given for a large wastewater treatment plant. The introduction aims at establishing a link between methods known from data reconciliation in process engineering and their application in wastewater treatment. Author Affiliation: Institute of Water Quality and Resource Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226-1, 1040 Wien, Austria Article History: Received 23 September 2013; Revised 4 March 2014; Accepted 5 March 2014
    Keywords: Sewage Treatment ; Water Resource Management ; Waste Treatment Equipment ; Algorithms
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 15 June 2014, Vol.57, pp.193-201
    Description: Although data reconciliation is intensely applied in process engineering, almost none of its powerful methods are employed for validation of operational data from wastewater treatment plants. This is partly due to some prerequisites that are difficult to meet including steady state, known variances of process variables and absence of gross errors. However, an algorithm can be derived from the classical approaches to data reconciliation that allows to find a comprehensive set of equations describing redundancy in the data when measured and unmeasured variables (flows and concentrations) are defined. This is a precondition for methods of data validation based on individual mass balances such as CUSUM charts. The procedure can also be applied to verify the necessity of existing or additional measurements with respect to the improvement of the data's redundancy. Results are given for a large wastewater treatment plant. The introduction aims at establishing a link between methods known from data reconciliation in process engineering and their application in wastewater treatment.
    Keywords: Data Validation ; Gross Error Detection ; Mass Balancing ; Observability ; Redundancy ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forensic Science International, 2011, Vol.212(1), pp.150-157
    Description: Anecdotal evidence from forensic practitioners and studies conducted under controlled conditions have indicated that the reaction between 1,2-indanedione and the amino acids present in latent fingermark deposits is highly susceptible to ambient humidity. The addition of catalytic amounts of zinc chloride to the 1,2-indanedione working solution – usually in the order of 1:25 to 1:4 molar ratio (indanedione:zinc) – significantly improves the colour and luminescence of fingermarks treated under dry conditions but appears to have a negligible effect on fingermarks treated in humid environments. The results presented in this paper confirmed that zinc(II) ions added to the 1,2-indanedione working solution act as a Lewis acid catalyst, stabilising a key intermediate during a rate-limiting hydrolysis step. Furthermore, studying the reaction using a chromatography-grade cellulose substrate method previously reported confirmed that cellulose substrates play a major role in facilitating the indanedione-amino acid reaction by acting as a surface catalyst in the early stages of the reaction and by directing the formation of the desired luminescent product (Joullié’s Pink).
    Keywords: Fingermarks ; 1,2-Indanedione ; Indanedione–Zinc ; Amino Acids ; Joullié’s Pink ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0379-0738
    E-ISSN: 1872-6283
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    In: The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, 2012, Vol.94(22), pp.2093-2093
    ISSN: 0021-9355
    Source: Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/LWW%20logo.png style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume, 21 November 2012, Vol.94(22), pp.2093
    ISSN: 00219355
    E-ISSN: 1535-1386
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The journal of physical chemistry. B, 13 February 2014, Vol.118(6), pp.1545-54
    Description: Supported lipid bilayers have been studied intensively over the past two decades. In this work, we study the diffusion of single gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with diameter of 20 nm attached to GM1 ganglioside or DOPE lipids at different concentrations in supported DOPC bilayers. The indefinite photostability of GNPs combined with the high sensitivity of interferometric scattering microscopy (iSCAT) allows us to achieve 1.9 nm spatial precision at 1 ms temporal resolution, while maintaining long recording times. Our trajectories visualize strong transient confinements within domains as small as 20 nm, and the statistical analysis of the data reveals multiple mobilities and deviations from normal diffusion. We present a detailed analysis of our findings and provide interpretations regarding the effect of the supporting substrate and GM1 clustering. We also comment on the use of high-speed iSCAT for investigating diffusion of lipids, proteins, or viruses in lipid membranes with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution.
    Keywords: Metal Nanoparticles ; Cell Membrane -- Metabolism ; Gold -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 15206106
    E-ISSN: 1520-5207
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 18 July 2016, Vol.109(3)
    Description: Recent defect calculations suggest that the open circuit voltage of CuGaSe{sub 2} solar cells can be limited by deep intrinsic electron traps by Ga{sub Cu} antisites and their complexes with Cu-vacancies. To gain experimental evidence, two radiative defect transitions at 1.10 eV and 1.24 eV are characterized by steady-state photoluminescence on epitaxial-grown CuGaSe{sub 2} thin films. Cu-rich samples are studied, since they show highest crystal quality, exciton luminescence, and no potential fluctuations. Variations of the laser intensity and temperature dependent measurements suggest that emission occurs from two deep donor-like levels into the same shallow acceptor. At 10 K, power-law exponents of 1 (low excitation regime) and 1/2 (high excitation regime) are observed identically for both transitions. The theory and a fitting function for the double power law is derived. It is concluded that the acceptor becomes saturated by excess carriers which changes the exponent of all transitions. Activation energies determined from the temperature quenching depend on the excitation level and show unexpected values of 600 meV and higher. The thermal activation of non-radiative processes can explain the distortion of the ionization energies. Both the deep levels play a major role as radiative and non-radiative recombination centers for electrons and can be detrimental for photovoltaic applications.
    Keywords: Classical And Quantum Mechanics, General Physics ; Condensed Matter Physics, Superconductivity And Superfluidity ; Activation Energy ; Copper Selenide Solar Cells ; Defects ; Electric Potential ; Electrons ; Epitaxy ; Excitation ; Fluctuations ; Ionization ; Mev Range 100-1000 ; Photoluminescence ; Photovoltaic Effect ; Quenching ; Steady-State Conditions ; Temperature Dependence ; Thin Films ; Vacancies ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Forensic Science International, 2015, Vol.250, p.8(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2015.02.019 Byline: Xanthe Spindler, Ronald Shimmon, Claude Roux, Chris Lennard Abstract: Author Affiliation: (a) Centre for Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia (b) National Centre for Forensic Studies, University of Canberra, Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia Article History: Received 2 December 2014; Revised 12 February 2015; Accepted 16 February 2015
    Keywords: Reagents – Research ; Fingerprints – Chemical Properties ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – Usage ; Amino Acids – Research
    ISSN: 0379-0738
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: The American economic review, 2017, Vol.107(5), pp. 270-273
    Description: We present the L2Boosting algorithm and two variants, namely post-Boosting and orthogonal Boosting. Building on results in Ye and Spindler (2016), we demonstrate how boosting can be used for estimation and inference of low-dimensional treatment effects. In particular, we consider estimation of a treatment effect in a setting with very many controls and in a setting with very many instruments. We provide simulations and analyze two real applications. We compare the results with Lasso and find that boosting performs quite well. This encourages further use of boosting for estimation of treatment effects in high-dimensional settings.
    Keywords: Simulation ; Economic Theory ; Algorithms;
    ISSN: 00028282
    E-ISSN: 19447981
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Regulation, Fall, 2011, Vol.34(3), p.42(7)
    Description: The past decade has witnessed an impressive turnaround in academic thought on executive pay. In the economic fallout of the financial panic, the leading school of thought on executive compensation has shifted from prescribing greater performance-based compensation to prescribing compensation systems designed to limit risk-taking and managerial short-termism. With regard to the substantive components of pay, while not abandoning completely the pre-2008 mantra of pay for performance, these compensation reforms would focus (sometimes exclusively) on long-term results in determining an executive's variable pay. The focus on long-term pay can have great costs: managers may seek to limit their own risk in ways that harm the firm and the economy, while constraining compensation to ignore short-term results means that useful information about managerial performance is being ignored. This article shows that some of the mandated reforms may not be all that much different than present-day practices and that, to the extent that these reforms do create substantive differences, they are not necessarily preferable.
    Keywords: Corporate Governance -- Evaluation ; Banking Industry -- Laws, Regulations And Rules ; Executive Compensation -- Laws, Regulations And Rules
    ISSN: 0147-0590
    E-ISSN: 19310668
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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