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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Oct, 2011, Vol.43(10), p.1995(17)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.06.014 Byline: Oliver Spott (a), Rolf Russow (a), Claus Florian Stange (b) Abstract: At the end of the 19th century an experimental study had already reported N gas production during microbial nitrate reduction, which significantly exceeded the amount of nitrate N supplied to the microorganism. The observed excess gas production was suggested to be caused by a reaction of nitrous acid (produced during microbial nitrate reduction) with amino acids contained in the nutrient solution. Since the 1980's a number of.sup.15N tracer experiments revealed that this biotic excess gas production was based on the formation of hybrid N.sub.2O and/or hybrid N.sub.2. It was shown that the N-N linkage forms due to a microbially mediated N-nitrosation reaction by which one N atom of nitrite or nitric oxide combines via a nitrosyl intermediate with one N atom of another N species (e.g., amino compound). Because of its cooccurrence with conventional denitrification this process was later on termed "codenitrification". Although the phenomenon of N.sub.2O and N.sub.2 formation by codenitrification was recognised over a century ago its impact on global N cycling is still unclear today. Nonetheless, the present literature review reveals codenitrification as a potentially important process of biospheric N cycling since (i) most codenitrifying species are already known as typical denitrifiers (e.g., Pseudomonas sp., Fusarium sp. etc.) and (ii) codenitrification was already reported to occur within the three domains archaea, bacteria, and eukarya (kingdom fungi). Furthermore, the present literature suggests that codenitrification acts not only as an additional source of N gas formation due to a mobilisation of organic N by N-nitrosation, but also acts as an N immobilising process due to a bonding of inorganic N (e.g., from NO.sub.3.sup.- or NO.sub.2.sup.-) onto organic compounds due to e.g., N- or even C-nitrosation reactions. From this it can be concluded that N gas formation by codenitrification represents a sub-phenomenon of a variety of possible biotic nitrosation reactions. Moreover, the review reveals that biotic nitrosation also occurs among nitrifying species, even under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, recent studies support the assumption that even anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) appears to be based on biotically mediated N-nitrosation. Therefore, we propose to introduce the term BioNitrosation, which includes all biotically mediated nitrosation reactions resulting either in N gas release or in N immobilisation, independently from the acting microbial species or the environmental conditions. Author Affiliation: (a) Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department Soil Physics, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle/Saale, Germany (b) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover, Germany Article History: Received 22 December 2010; Revised 16 June 2011; Accepted 17 June 2011
    Keywords: Denitrification ; Natural Gas ; Nitrogen Oxides ; Soil Biology
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Feb, 2014, Vol.69, p.320(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.11.014 Byline: Marianne Schutt, Werner Borken, Oliver Spott, Claus Florian Stange, Egbert Matzner Abstract: Climate models predict warmer winter in temperate regions, but little is known about the temperature sensitivity of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization at low temperatures. Here, we assess the temperature sensitivities of gross ammonification, gross nitrification, C and net N mineralization of top soil horizons, under a European beech and a Norway spruce temperate forest. We tested the hypotheses that (1) substrate quality affects the temperature sensitivity of C and N mineralization and (2) that temperature sensitivity of C mineralization is higher than of gross ammonification. Soil incubations were conducted at constant temperatures of -4, -1, +2, +5 and +8 [degrees]C. Gross ammonification and nitrification were measured by the.sup.15N pool dilution technique. Temperature sensitivities of C, gross and net N mineralization were calculated using the Arrhenius equation and C mineralization was taken as proxy for substrate quality. Gross ammonification and C mineralization was much larger in the beech than in the spruce soil, while gross nitrification was in the same order of magnitude. Gross ammonification, nitrification and C mineralization almost ceased at -4 [degrees]C, but already increased at -1 [degrees]C. Net ammonification in Oi/Oe horizons was low at -4 and -1 [degrees]C and increased strongly between +2 and +8 [degrees]C. Net nitrification was low in both soils, but increased in the spruce soil at temperatures 〉2 [degrees]C whereas no temperature response occurred in the beech soil. Apparent Q.sub.10 values of gross ammonification and C mineralization in the temperature range of -4 to +8 [degrees]C were in the range of 3-18. Q.sub.10 were lowest in soil horizons of low substrate quality. The ratio of C mineralization to gross ammonification varied between 0.5 and 2.9, suggesting preferential mineralization of N rich organic substrates or rapid turnover of the N pool in microbial biomass. Rising winter temperatures might have substantial effects on net N mineralization, but effects decrease with soil depth, likely due to decreasing substrate quality of soil organic matter. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Soil Ecology, University of Bayreuth, 95448 Bayreuth, Germany (b) Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, UFZ, 06120 Halle/Saale, Germany (c) Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Fachbereich B2.4 "Boden als Ressource - Stoffeigenschaften und -dynamik", 30655 Hannover, Germany Article History: Received 21 June 2013; Revised 7 November 2013; Accepted 14 November 2013
    Keywords: Soil Biology -- Analysis ; Nitrification -- Analysis ; Soil Ecology -- Analysis ; Forest Soils -- Analysis ; Soil Carbon -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2011, Vol.43(10), pp.1995-2011
    Description: At the end of the 19th century an experimental study had already reported N gas production during microbial nitrate reduction, which significantly exceeded the amount of nitrate N supplied to the microorganism. The observed excess gas production was suggested to be caused by a reaction of nitrous acid (produced during microbial nitrate reduction) with amino acids contained in the nutrient solution. Since the 1980’s a number of N tracer experiments revealed that this biotic excess gas production was based on the formation of hybrid N O and/or hybrid N . It was shown that the N–N linkage forms due to a microbially mediated N-nitrosation reaction by which one N atom of nitrite or nitric oxide combines via a nitrosyl intermediate with one N atom of another N species (e.g., amino compound). Because of its cooccurrence with conventional denitrification this process was later on termed “codenitrification”. Although the phenomenon of N O and N formation by codenitrification was recognised over a century ago its impact on global N cycling is still unclear today. Nonetheless, the present literature review reveals codenitrification as a potentially important process of biospheric N cycling since (i) most codenitrifying species are already known as typical denitrifiers (e.g., sp., sp. etc.) and (ii) codenitrification was already reported to occur within the three domains , , and (kingdom ). Furthermore, the present literature suggests that codenitrification acts not only as an additional source of N gas formation due to a mobilisation of organic N by N-nitrosation, but also acts as an N immobilising process due to a bonding of inorganic N (e.g., from NO or NO ) onto organic compounds due to e.g., N- or even C-nitrosation reactions. From this it can be concluded that N gas formation by codenitrification represents a sub-phenomenon of a variety of possible biotic nitrosation reactions. Moreover, the review reveals that biotic nitrosation also occurs among nitrifying species, even under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, recent studies support the assumption that even anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) appears to be based on biotically mediated N-nitrosation. Therefore, we propose to introduce the term BioNitrosation, which includes all biotically mediated nitrosation reactions resulting either in N gas release or in N immobilisation, independently from the acting microbial species or the environmental conditions. ► Codenitrification is a barely known process of biotic nitrosation. ► It only occurs concomitantly with microbial denitrification. ► The process is proven for archaea, bacteria, and fungi. ► Biotic nitrosation can result in either hybrid N O/N formation or N immobilisation. ► Research on its impact on N cycling within the biosphere is urgently required.
    Keywords: Denitrification ; Codenitrification ; Anammox ; Nitrosation ; N-Immobilisation ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 01 May 2015, Vol.74, pp.203-212
    Description: Constructed wetlands are important ecosystems with respect to nitrogen cycling. Here we studied the activity and abundance of nitrogen transforming bacteria as well as the spatial distribution of nitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and denitrification processes in a horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland. The functional genes of the nitrogen cycle were evenly distributed in a linear way along the flow path with prevalence at the superficial points. The same trend was observed for the nitrification and denitrification turnover rates using isotope labeling techniques. It was also shown that only short-term incubations should be used to measure denitrification turnover rates. Significant nitrate consumption under aerobic conditions diminishes nitrification rates and should therefore be taken into account when estimating nitrification turnover rates. This nitrate consumption was due to aerobic denitrification, the rate of which was comparable to that for anaerobic denitrification. Consequently, denitrification should not be considered as an exclusively anaerobic process. Phylogenetic analysis of hydrazine synthase ( ) gene clones indicated the presence of and anammox species in the constructed wetland. Although anammox bacteria were detected by molecular methods, anammox activity could not be measured and hence this process appears to be of low importance in nitrogen transformations in these freshwater ecosystems.
    Keywords: Nitrification ; Anammox ; Aerobic Denitrification ; Abundance ; Activity ; Constructed Wetland ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Atmospheric Environment, October 2016, Vol.143, pp.67-78
    Description: Process-oriented models have become important tools in terms of quantification of environmental changes, for filling measurement gaps, and building of future scenarios. It is especially important to couple model application directly with measurements for remote areas, such as Southern Amazonia, where direct measurements are difficult to perform continuously throughout the year. Processes and resulting matter fluxes may show combinations of steady and sudden reactions to external changes. The potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N O) is known for its sensitivity to e.g. precipitation events, resulting in intense but short-term peak events (hot moments). These peaks have to be captured for sound balancing. However, prediction of the effect of rainfall events on N O peaks is not trivial, even for areas under distinct wet and dry seasons. In this study, we used process-oriented models in both a pre-and post-measurement manner in order to (a) determine important periods for N O-N emissions under Amazonian conditions and (b) calibrate the models to Brazilian pastures based on measured data of environment conditions (soil moisture and C ) and measured N O-N fluxes. During the measurement period (early wet season), observed emissions from three cattle pastures did not react to precipitation events, as proposed by the models. Here both process understanding and models have to be improved by long-term data in high resolution in order to prove or disprove a lacking of N O-N peaks. We strongly recommend the application of models as planning tools for field campaigns, but we still suggest model combinations and simultaneous usage.
    Keywords: N2o-N Fluxes ; Modeling ; Cattle Pasture ; Southern Amazonia ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1352-2310
    E-ISSN: 1873-2844
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, May 2014, Vol.72, pp.44-54
    Description: A N tracing model was developed to analyse nitrous oxide (N O) dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems, which build on previous tracing models for the quantification of the main mineral nitrogen (N) transformations and soil nitrite (NO ) dynamics. The N O dynamics in the model are directly associated with three NO sub-pools. Four pathways for N O production in soil were considered in the model: i) reduction of NO associated with nitrification (NO → N O ), ii) reduction of NO associated with denitrification (NO → N O ), iii) reduction of NO associated with organic N (N ) oxidation (NO → N O ), and iv) codenitrification (N O ), a hybrid reaction where one N atom in N O originates from organic N and the other from NO . Soil N O can further be reduced to N and/or can be emitted to the atmosphere. The reaction kinetics and emission notations are based on first-order approaches. Parameter optimization was carried out with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique that is suitable for models with large number of parameters. The N tracing tool was tested with a data set from a N tracing study on grassland soil. Tracing model results showed that on average over a 12 day period N O , N O , N O and N O contributed 9%, 20%, 54% and 18% to the total N O emission, respectively. The results are in line with estimates based on analytical approaches that consider three N O emission pathways. The strength of this new N tracing tool is that for the first time four N O emission pathways, including a hybrid-reaction, can simultaneously be quantified. The analysis highlights that heterotrophic processes related to organic N turnover and neither autotrophic nitrification nor denitrification may be the prevailing pathways for N O production in old grassland soil. The underlying NO and N O reduction kinetics are in agreement with denitrification gene expressions and the calculated N /N O ratios are in the expected range. The tracing model provides insights on N dynamics which may occur in soil microsites. This information is important for the development of more realistic representations of soil N cycling in ecosystem models.
    Keywords: 15n Tracing ; Model ; Nitrite (No2−) ; Nitrous Oxide (N2o) ; Old Grassland ; Heterotrophic Nitrification ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, February 2014, Vol.69, pp.320-327
    Description: Climate models predict warmer winter in temperate regions, but little is known about the temperature sensitivity of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization at low temperatures. Here, we assess the temperature sensitivities of gross ammonification, gross nitrification, C and net N mineralization of top soil horizons, under a European beech and a Norway spruce temperate forest. We tested the hypotheses that (1) substrate quality affects the temperature sensitivity of C and N mineralization and (2) that temperature sensitivity of C mineralization is higher than of gross ammonification. Soil incubations were conducted at constant temperatures of −4, −1, +2, +5 and +8 °C. Gross ammonification and nitrification were measured by the N pool dilution technique. Temperature sensitivities of C, gross and net N mineralization were calculated using the Arrhenius equation and C mineralization was taken as proxy for substrate quality. Gross ammonification and C mineralization was much larger in the beech than in the spruce soil, while gross nitrification was in the same order of magnitude. Gross ammonification, nitrification and C mineralization almost ceased at −4 °C, but already increased at −1 °C. Net ammonification in Oi/Oe horizons was low at −4 and −1 °C and increased strongly between +2 and +8 °C. Net nitrification was low in both soils, but increased in the spruce soil at temperatures 〉2 °C whereas no temperature response occurred in the beech soil. Apparent values of gross ammonification and C mineralization in the temperature range of −4 to +8 °C were in the range of 3–18. were lowest in soil horizons of low substrate quality. The ratio of C mineralization to gross ammonification varied between 0.5 and 2.9, suggesting preferential mineralization of N rich organic substrates or rapid turnover of the N pool in microbial biomass. Rising winter temperatures might have substantial effects on net N mineralization, but effects decrease with soil depth, likely due to decreasing substrate quality of soil organic matter.
    Keywords: Winter Soil Temperatures ; Gross and Net N Mineralization ; Co2 Production ; Forest Soil ; Q10 ; Substrate Quality ; Substrate Availability ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, January 2017, Vol.104, pp.68-80
    Description: High concentrations of ammonium (NH ) in soil have been shown to inhibit nitrification, and fertilizer injection as conducted during CULTAN (controlled uptake long-term ammonium nutrition) management might thus have the potential to reduce N O emission from arable soil. We conducted an incubation experiment with different NH concentrations in soil that resembled concentrations as expected at and around injection spots (5000, 2250, 1000, 450, 0 mg NH -N kg soil) directly after fertilization and after dilution due to plant uptake or precipitation. N O emission was measured in dynamic soil mesocosms over a period of 21 days. Acetylene inhibition and N tracer approaches were used to calculate the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N O emission. An isotopomer approach was applied to gain further insight into N O producing processes. We expected lower contribution of nitrification-derived N O to total N O emission and a higher N O/NO ratio from nitrification with increasing NH levels. Nitrification indeed declined with increasing NH level, and no nitrification occurred in the 5000 mg NH -N kg soil treatment. A pool dilution approach showed that gross nitrification in 450 mg NH -N kg soil (nitrification rate: 4.96 mg NO -N kg soil d ) was by a factor of 2.6 and 6 higher than in 1000 and 2250 mg NH -N kg soil treatments. In the 5000 mg NH -N kg soil treatment, gross nitrification occurred at very small rates (0.1 mg NO -N kg soil d ). Similarly, N O emission declined with increasing NH level. The N O yield of nitrification was between 0.07 and 0.15% of NO production, but was not affected by increasing NH level. Nitrification was the dominant source of N O throughout the incubation at all NH levels, and there was no significant change in the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification with NH level or time. This finding indicates that denitrification derived N O emissions were similarly reduced at high NH levels. Applying the non-equilibrium technique to our N tracer data revealed heterogeneous distribution of denitrification in soil, with at least two distinct NO (NO  + NO ) pools and spatial separation of NO formation and consumption. The isotopomer approach provided reasonable results in comparison with the acetylene inhibition and N tracer approaches and indicated substantial contribution of nitrifier denitrification and/or coupled nitrification-denitrification (10–40%) to total N O production.
    Keywords: 15n Tracing ; N2o Isotopomers ; Nitrification ; Ammonium Fertilization ; Cultan ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, October 2014, Vol.77, pp.315-315
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2015, Vol.387(1), pp.37-47
    Description: Aims and background Release of 'non-exchangeable' N[H.sup.4+]-N from interlayers of 2:1 clay minerals is postulated to depend not only on soil solution N[H.sup.4+]-N concentration but also on the concentration of [K.sup.+] and [Ca.sup.2+]. Concentrations of all three cations are altered in rhizosphere compared to soil solution at larger distance from the root surface. Methods Non-exchangeable N[H.sup.4+]-N pool was labelled with [sup.15]N. Treatments including application of [K.sup.+], [Ca.sup.2+] and [K.sup.+] + [Ca.sup.2+] were established. In a compartment system approach we analysed changes in soil solution concentrations of [sup.15]N[H.sup.4+]-N, [sup.15]N[O.sup.-.sub.3]-N, [K.sup.+] and [Ca.sup.2+] in situ at different distances from the root surface over time and related them to the release of non-exchangeable [sup.15]N[H.sup.4+]-N and uptake of [sup.15]N by plants. Results and conclusions The [sup.15]N enrichment in plant tissue was significantly lower in treatments with [K.sup.+] application compared to those without. This was in line with smaller depletion of non-exchangeable [sup.15]N[H.sup.4+]-N in the rhizosphere for these treatments and also with lower [sup.15]N abundance in soil solution N[O.sub.-.sup.3]-N fraction. Hence, [K.sup.+] application hampered the release of N[H.sup.4+] from the interlayers. A promoting effect of increasing [Ca.sup.2+] concentrations on release of non-exchangeable N[H.sup.4+]-N could not be evaluated since the [Ca.sup.2+] concentration in soil solution was largely controlled by small amounts of carbonate contained in the substrate and thus the addition of [Ca.sup.2+] did not result in a relevant increase of soil solution [Ca.sup.2+] concentration as originally intended. The use of [sup.15]N to follow the fate of non-exchangeable N[H.sup.4+]-N proved very useful as it provides a higher sensitivity for all measured fractions compared to total N. However, as soil N fractions equilibrate with each other labelling one fraction exclusively is not possible. Keywords Clay minerals * Non-exchangeable N[H.sup.4+]-N Rhizosphere * Soil solution * Stable isotopes
    Keywords: Clay minerals ; Non-exchangeable NH -N ; Rhizosphere ; Soil solution ; Stable isotopes
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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