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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 01 February 2002, Vol.168(3), pp.1328-37
    Description: The ability of macrophages to release cytokines is crucial to the host response to intracellular infection. In particular, macrophage-derived TNF plays an important role in the host response to infection with the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In mice, TNF is indispensable for the formation of tuberculous granulomas, which serve to demarcate the virulent bacterium. TNF is also implicated in many of the immunopathological features of tuberculosis. To investigate the role of TNF in the local immune response, we infected human alveolar macrophages with virulent and attenuated mycobacteria. Infection with virulent strains induced the secretion of significantly higher levels of bioactive TNF than attenuated strains correlating with their ability to multiply intracellularly. Treatment of infected macrophages with neutralizing anti-TNF Abs reduced the growth rate of intracellular bacteria, whereas bacterial replication was augmented by addition of exogenous TNF. Infected and uninfected macrophages contributed to cytokine production as determined by double-staining of M. tuberculosis and intracellular TNF. The induction of TNF by human alveolar macrophages at the site of infection permits the multiplication of intracellular bacteria and may therefore present an evasion mechanism of human pathogens.
    Keywords: Macrophages, Alveolar -- Immunology ; Mycobacterium Tuberculosis -- Immunology ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha -- Biosynthesis
    ISSN: 0022-1767
    E-ISSN: 15506606
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 01 April 2005, Vol.174(7), pp.4203-9
    Description: Dendritic cells (DCs) are a key part of host defense against microbial pathogens, being part of the innate immune system, but also instructing the adaptive T cell response. This study was designed to evaluate whether human DCs directly contribute to innate immunity by killing intracellular bacteria, using tuberculosis as a model. DCs were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage samples indicating that DCs are available for immediate interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tb) after inhalation of the pathogen. The phenotype of DC in bronchoalveolar lavage closely resembles monocyte-derived immature DC (iDC) according to the expression of CD1a, CD83, and CCR7. The antimicrobial activity of iDC against intracellular M. Tb inversely correlated with TNF-alpha-release and was enhanced by treatment with anti-TNF-alpha Abs. Differentiation of iDC into mature DC by addition of TNF-alpha or activation via Toll-like receptors further reduced killing of M. Tb. The antibacterial activity against intracellular M. Tb of all DCs was significantly lower than alveolar macrophages. Therefore, the maintenance of a pool of DCs at the site of disease activity in tuberculosis, and the maturation of these DC by TNF-alpha provides a mechanism by which M. Tb escapes the innate immune system.
    Keywords: Cell Differentiation ; Immunity, Innate ; Bacteria -- Immunology ; Dendritic Cells -- Cytology
    ISSN: 0022-1767
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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