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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 18 June 2013, Vol.110(25), pp.10234-9
    Description: Clinical and epidemiological synergy exists between the globally important sexually transmitted infections, gonorrhea and HIV. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes gonorrhea, is particularly adept at driving HIV-1 expression, but the molecular determinants of this relationship remain undefined. N. gonorrhoeae liberates a soluble factor that potently induces expression from the HIV-1 LTR in coinfected cluster of differentiation 4-positive (CD4(+)) T lymphocytes, but this factor is not a previously described innate effector. A genome-wide mutagenesis approach was undertaken to reveal which component(s) of N. gonorrhoeae induce HIV-1 expression in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. A mutation in the ADP-heptose biosynthesis gene, hldA, rendered the bacteria unable to induce HIV-1 expression. The hldA mutant has a truncated lipooligosaccharide structure, contains lipid A in its outer membrane, and remains bioactive in a TLR4 reporter-based assay but did not induce HIV-1 expression. Mass spectrometry analysis of extensively fractionated N. gonorrhoeae-derived supernatants revealed that the LTR-inducing fraction contained a compound having a mass consistent with heptose-monophosphate (HMP). Heptose is a carbohydrate common in microbes but is absent from the mammalian glycome. Although ADP-heptose biosynthesis is common among Gram-negative bacteria, and heptose is a core component of most lipopolysaccharides, N. gonorrhoeae is peculiar in that it effectively liberates HMP during growth. This N. gonorrhoeae-derived HMP activates CD4(+) T cells to invoke an NF-κB-dependent transcriptional response that drives HIV-1 expression and viral production. Our study thereby shows that heptose is a microbial-specific product that is sensed as an innate immune agonist and unveils the molecular link between N. gonorrhoeae and HIV-1.
    Keywords: Coinfection ; Inflammation ; Microbial-Associated Molecular Pattern ; Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern ; Sexually Transmitted Disease ; Gonorrhea ; HIV Infections ; Coinfection -- Immunology ; HIV-1 -- Enzymology ; Heptoses -- Immunology ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2010, Vol. 192(1), p.208
    Description: The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Neisseria meningitidis contains heptose (Hep) residues that are modified with phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) at the 3 (3-PEtn) and/or 6 (6-PEtn) position. The lpt3 (NMB2010) and lpt6 (NMA0408) genes of N. meningitidis, which are proposed to encode the required HepII 3- and 6-PEtn transferases, respectively, were cloned and overexpressed as C-terminally polyhistidine-tagged fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and found to localize to the inner membrane, based on sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Lpt3-[His.sub.6] and Lpt6-[His.sub.6] were purified from Triton X-100-solubilized membranes by nickel chelation chromatography, and dot blot analysis of enzymatic reactions with 3-PEtn- and 6-PEtn-specific monocional antibodies demonstrated conclusively that Lpt3 and Lpt6 are phosphatidylethanolamine-dependent LOS HepH 3- and 6-PEtn transferases, respectively, and that both enzymes are capable of transferring PEtn to both fully acylated LOS and de-O-acylated (de-O-Ac) LOS. Further enzymatic studies using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrated that both Lpt3 and Lpt6 are capable of transferring PEtn to de-O-Ac LOS molecules already containing PEtn at the 6 and 3 positions of HepH, respectively, demonstrating that there is no obligate order of PEtn addition in the generation of 3,6-di-PEtn LOS moieties in vitro. doi: 10.1128/JB.00558-09
    Keywords: Oligosaccharides -- Chemical Properties ; Oligosaccharides -- Physiological Aspects ; Neisseria Meningitidis -- Physiological Aspects ; Transferases -- Chemical Properties ; Transferases -- Physiological Aspects;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, May 2011, Vol.79(5), pp.1971-83
    Description: Signaling mechanisms used by Haemophilus influenzae to adapt to conditions it encounters during stages of infection and pathogenesis are not well understood. The ArcAB two-component signal transduction system controls gene expression in response to respiratory conditions of growth and contributes to resistance to bactericidal effects of serum and to bloodstream infection by H. influenzae. We show that ArcA of nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHI) activates expression of a glycosyltransferase gene, lic2B. Structural comparison of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of a lic2B mutant to that of the wild-type strain NT127 revealed that lic2B is required for addition of a galactose residue to the LOS outer core. The lic2B gene was crucial for optimal survival of NTHI in a mouse model of bacteremia and for evasion of serum complement. The results demonstrate that ArcA, which controls cellular metabolism in response to environmental reduction and oxidation (redox) conditions, also coordinately controls genes that are critical for immune evasion, providing evidence that NTHI integrates redox signals to regulate specific countermeasures against host defense.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Immunology ; Complement System Proteins -- Immunology ; Haemophilus Infections -- Immunology ; Haemophilus Influenzae -- Pathogenicity ; Immune Evasion -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2011, Vol. 79(5), p.1971
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    Source: American Society of Microbiology
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, 01 February 2015, Vol.21(2), pp.273-279
    Description: In the post-Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine era that began in the 1980's, H. influenzae type a (Hia) emerged as a prominent cause of invasive disease in North American Aboriginal populations. To test whether a lack of naturally acquired antibodies may underlie increased rates of invasive Hia disease, we compared serum bactericidal activity against Hia and Hib and IgG and IgM against capsular polysaccharide between Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal healthy and immunocompromised adults. Both healthy and immunocompromised Aboriginal adults exhibited significantly higher bactericidal antibody titers against Hia than did non-Aboriginal adults (p = 0.042 and 0.045 respectively), with no difference in functional antibody activity against Hib. IgM concentrations against Hia were higher than IgG in most study groups; the inverse was true for antibody concentrations against Hib. Our results indicate that Aboriginal adults possess substantial serum bactericidal activity against Hia that is mostly due to IgM antibodies. The presence of sustained IgM against Hia suggests recent Hia exposure.
    Keywords: Antibody ; Igm ; Igg ; Bacteria ; Bactericidal ; Haemophilus Influenzae Type a ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1080-6040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 6
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2010, Vol. 78(9), p.3669
    Description: Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of a number of diseases in animals, including fowl cholera. P. multocida strains simultaneously express two lipopolysaccharide (LPS) glycoforms (glycoforms A and B) that differ only in their inner core structure. Glycoform A contains a single 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) residue that is phosphorylated by the Kdo kinase, KdkA, whereas glycoform B contains two unphosphorylated Kdo residues. We have previously shown that P. multocida mutants lacking the heptosyltransferase, HptA, produce full-length glycoform B LPS and a large amount of truncated glycoform A LPS, as they cannot add heptose to the glycoform A inner core. These hptA mutants were attenuated in chickens because the truncated LPS made them vulnerable to host defense mechanisms, including antimicrobial peptides. However, here we show that birds inoculated with high doses of the hptA mutant developed fowl cholera and the P. multocida isolates recovered from diseased birds no longer expressed truncated LPS. Sequencing analysis revealed that the in vivo-derived isolates had mutations in kdkA, thereby suppressing the production of glycoform A LPS. Interestingly, a number of the spontaneous KdkA mutant strains produced KdkA with a single amino acid substitution (A112V, R123P, H168Y, or D193N). LPS structural analysis showed that complementation of a P. multocida kdkA mutant with wild-type kdkA restored expression of glycoform A to wild-type levels, whereas complementation with any of the mutated kdkA genes did not. We conclude that in P. multocida KdkA, the amino acids A112, R123, H168, and D193 are critical for Kdo kinase function and therefore for glycoform A LPS assembly.
    Keywords: Chickens -- Microbiology ; Lipopolysaccharides -- Chemistry ; Pasteurella Multocida -- Pathogenicity ; Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) -- Chemistry;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, Nov, 2013, Vol.195(21-22), p.4854(11)
    Description: Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative multispecies pathogen and the causative agent of fowl cholera, a serious disease of poultry which can present in both acute and chronic forms. The major outer membrane component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is both an important virulence factor and a major immunogen. Our previous studies determined the LPS structures expressed by different P. multocida strains and revealed that a number of strains belonging to different serovars contain the same LPS biosynthesis locus but express different LPS structures due to mutations within glycosyltransferase genes. In this study, we report the full LPS structure of the serovar 4 type strain, P1662, and reveal that it shares the same LPS outer core biosynthesis locus, L3, with the serovar 3 strains P1059 and Pm70. Using directed mutagenesis, the role of each glycosyltransferase gene in LPS outer core assembly was determined. LPS structural analysis of 23 Australian field isolates that contain the L3 locus revealed that at least six different LPS outer core structures can be produced as a result of mutations within the LPS glycosyltransferase genes. Moreover, some field isolates produce multiple but related LPS glycoforms simultaneously, and three LPS outer core structures are remarkably similar to the globo series of vertebrate glycosphingolipids. Our in-depth analysis showing the genetics and full range of P. multocida lipopolysaccharide structures will facilitate the improvement of typing systems and the prediction of the protective efficacy of vaccines.
    Keywords: Glycosyltransferases -- Research ; Lipopolysaccharides -- Research ; Mutagenesis -- Usage ; Pasteurella Multocida -- Research ; Pasteurella Multocida -- Physiological Aspects ; Pasteurella Multocida -- Genetic Aspects
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Glycoconjugate Journal, 2011, Vol.28(6), pp.397-410
    Description: Inner core lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to be conserved in the majority of veterinary strains from the species Mannheimia haemolytica , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida and as such is being considered as a possible vaccine antigen. The proof-in-principle that a LPS-based antigen could be considered as a vaccine candidate has been demonstrated from studies with monoclonal antibodies raised to the inner core LPS of Mannheimia haemolytica , which were shown to be both bactericidal and protective in a mouse model of disease. In this study we confirm and extend the candidacy of the inner core LPS by demonstrating that it is possible to elicit functional antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica wild-type strains following immunisation of rabbits with glycoconjugates elaborating the conserved inner core LPS antigen. The present study describes a conjugation strategy that uses amidases produced by Dictyostelium discoideum , targeting the amino functionality created by the amidase activity as the attachment point on the LPS molecule. To protect the amino functionality on the phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) residue of the inner core, we developed a novel blocking and unblocking strategy with t-butyl oxycarbonyl. A maleimide-thiol linker strategy with the thiol linker on the carboxyl residues of the carrier protein and the maleimide linker on the carbohydrate resulted in a high loading of carbohydrates per carrier protein. Immunisation derived antisera from rabbits recognised fully extended Mannheimia haemolytica LPS and whole cells from serotypes 1 and 2, despite a somewhat immunodominant response to the linkers also being observed. Moreover, bactericidal activity was demonstrated to a strain elaborating the immunising carbohydrate antigen and crucially to wild-type cells of serotypes 1 and 2, thus further supporting the consideration of inner core LPS as a potential vaccine antigen to combat disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica .
    Keywords: Mannheimia haemolytica ; Conjugate vaccine ; LPS
    ISSN: 0282-0080
    E-ISSN: 1573-4986
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  • 9
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2010, Vol. 78(5), p.2017
    Description: Although Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a significant cause of nosocomial infections worldwide, there have been few investigations describing the factors important for A. baumannii persistence and pathogenesis. This paper describes the first reported identification of a glycosyltransferase, LpsB, involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis in A. baumannii. Mutational, structural, and complementation analyses indicated that LpsB is a core oligosaccharide glycosyl transferase. Using a genetic approach, lpsB was compared with the lpsB homologues of several A. baumannii strains. These analyses indicated that LpsB is highly conserved among A. baumannii isolates. Furthermore, we developed a monoclonal antibody, monoclonal antibody 13C11, which reacts to an LPS core epitope expressed by approximately one-third of the A. baumannii clinical isolates evaluated to date. Previous studies describing the heterogeneity of A. baumannii LPS were limited primarily to structural analyses; therefore, studies evaluating the correlation between these surface glycolipids and pathogenesis were warranted. Our data from an evaluation of LpsB mutant 307::TN17, which expresses a deeply truncated LPS glycoform consisting of only two 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid residues and lipid A, suggest that A. baumannii LPS is important for resistance to normal human serum and confers a competitive advantage for survival in vivo. These results have important implications for the role of LPS in A. baumannii infections.
    Keywords: Acinetobacter Baumannii -- Enzymology ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Glycosyltransferases -- Metabolism ; Lipopolysaccharides -- Biosynthesis;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Carbohydrate Research, 30 June 2018, Vol.463, pp.37-39
    Description: is an anaerobic bacterium found in the human mouth where it causes periodontitis. It was also found in colorectal cancer tissues and is linked with pregnancy complications, including pre-term and still births. Cell surface structures of the bacterium could be implicated in pathogenesis. Here we report the following structure of the lipopolysaccharide O-chain of strain MJR 7757 B:where Lac is ( )-1-carboxyethyl (lactic acid residue); all monosaccharides are in the pyranose form. ManNAc4Lac, analogue of N-acetylmuramic acid, is found for the first time in natural sources.
    Keywords: Fusobacterium Nucleatum ; Lipopolysaccharide ; NMR Spectroscopy ; Polysaccharide ; Structure ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0008-6215
    E-ISSN: 1873-426X
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