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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: 한국토양비료학회 세미나, 2012, Vol.2012(6), pp.43-50
    Source: DBpia - 디비피아 (Nurimedia)
    Source: DBpia (Nurimedia)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, June, 2013, Vol.130, p.128(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2013.02.005 Byline: Xiaoning Zhao (a), Kelin Hu (b), Karl Stahr (a) Keywords: EPIC model; Irrigation; Fertilization; Tillage; SOC content; SOC storage; The North China Plain Abstract: a* The EPIC model was used to simulate SOC content and storage in agricultural topsoil. a* Optimal irrigation and fertilization, and reduced tillage improved SOC storage. a* SOC simulation in different irrigation and fertilization treatments showed a good performance. a* Simulated results showed a reliable SOC change trend. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Hohenheim University, Emil-Wolff-Str. 27, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany (b) Department of Soil and Water Science, China Agricultural University, 100193 Beijing, China Article History: Received 2 February 2013; Accepted 16 February 2013
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Catena, February 2016, Vol.137, pp.581-582
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2015.10.007 Byline: Daniela Sauer, Rosa M. Poch, Karl Stahr Article History: Received 13 August 2015; Accepted 13 August 2015
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2010, Vol.10(6), pp.1092-1102
    Description: Byline: Andreas Lehmann (1), Karl Stahr (2) Keywords: Soil functions; Soil evaluation history; Sustainable land use; TUSEC Abstract: Purpose Since application of ecological soil evaluation is not widely introduced in planning processes, a need for harmonisation of soil evaluation methods and spatial planning is evident. Conflicts are caused by the discrepancy between a holistic and site-specific approach of soil evaluation and the demand of spatial planners for easy-to-handle planner-oriented evaluation methods. Planners require less differentiation of pedological aspects but a detailed consideration of land use aspects. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the evolution of the concept of soil function and the development of the understanding of the soil functionality with time, respectively. This is reflected before the background of its applicability for spatial planning. Restrictions and deficits are highlighted, and strategies for further research work are sketched. The relation of soil functions and soil evaluation is examined exemplarily with algorithms of the TUSEC method applied for typical but fictive planning situations. Main features An introduction comprising the early history of soil evaluation and the widening of the view on soil functionality with time is given. Since 1978, the restriction on the function of soil to biomass productivity was overcome, and today, a set of ecological functions ensuring a sustainable land use is introduced. This process is reflected here by drawing a time order of definitions of soil functions, whereas the function of soil as carbon stock and genetic pool are the most recently accepted ones. In addition, functions of special meaning for the environmental quality in urban areas are highlighted. The multi-functionality of soil is reflected as a basic principle of the modern understanding of soils. It is explained here that the complexity of the concept of multi-functionality of soils does not fit directly to the administrative sight on the belongings of soil protection. Therefore, the chapters in this paper dealing with principle aspects of soil functions are followed by passages focusing on the application of soil functions, its practice, problems and perspectives. Results and discussion Strategies for future adaptations of soil evaluation to the requirements of spatial planning are discussed. Thus, strategies to summarise soil functions are sketched, and a reasonable land use specified soil evaluation is proposed. Conclusions Spatial planning needs a method for soil evaluation allowing a multi-level approach and some simplifications to meet the goals of rational land-use planning. Further work on this topic is strongly necessary to make efforts in soil protection and to support sustainable land use or, if anything, to bring sustainability into effect. Author Affiliation: (1) Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation (310), University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstrasse 47, 70593, Stuttgart, Germany (2) Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation (310), University of Hohenheim, Emil-Wolff-Strasse 27, 70593, Stuttgart, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 22/02/2010 Received Date: 19/02/2009 Accepted Date: 20/02/2010 Online Date: 31/03/2010 Article note: Responsible editor: Jean Louis Morel
    Keywords: Soil functions ; Soil evaluation history ; Sustainable land use ; TUSEC
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2015, Vol.15(6), pp.1437-1453
    Description: Byline: Daniela Sauer (1), Christine Stein (2), Stephan Glatzel (4), Jurgen Kuhn (3), Mehdi Zarei (2), Karl Stahr (2) Keywords: Duricrusts; Opal-A; Opal-CT; Palygorskite; Portugal; Silica Abstract: Purpose This paper reports on extremely thick and massive duricrusts in soils of two basins in the Alentejo (southern Portugal). Since different types of duricrusts (calcretes, silcretes and palycretes) have been reported from other regions in the Mediterranean, the purpose of this study was to identify the cementing agents in the duricrusts and to compare their composition in the two basins. Moreover, the study aimed at identifying the processes involved in duricrust formation, and especially the role of topography and lateral water and element transport in the landscape, and drawing conclusions about environmental conditions and time of duricrust formation. Materials and methods After studying an extensive number of road cuts in the field and mapping soil patterns in parts of the two basins by manual augering, ten pedons were selected for detailed description and sampling. Thin sections were analysed under a petrographic microscope, focusing on the micromorphology and optical properties of the cementing materials. Selected samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to reconfirm the optical identification. The laboratory analyses included pH, carbonate contents, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Results and discussion The duricrusts in the eastern Sado basin are indurated by silica. Combination of XRD and thin section analysis allowed to identify opal-CT as a major component, while opal-A is present to a lesser extent, and chalcedony is very rare. The cementing materials of the duricrusts in the Oriola basin are palygorskite and calcite, which may occur alone or in combination within a soil profile. Conclusions The thick duricrusts formed in the basins through precipitation of calcite, palygorskite and silica from lateral water flows, which ran from the Serra de Portel into the basins, during short moist seasons in a generally warm, semi-arid climate with strong evapotranspiration. Lithology of the upper catchment areas (element sources) and topography control the spatial distribution of the different duricrusts. Their formation took place mainly during the Pliocene. Palygorskite transformation to smectite in the upper parts of the palycretes indicates that palygorskite is unstable in the present (more humid, typical Mediterranean) climate. This study demonstrates the potential role of lateral water and element transport in landscapes that need to be considered in pedological studies and concepts, and the use of mineral indicators of past climates such as palygorskite and the ageing stage of silica precipitations as tools for reconstructing environmental conditions and possible time of duricrust formation. Author Affiliation: (1) Institute of Geography, Dresden University of Technology, Helmholtzstr. 10, 01069, Dresden, Germany (2) Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, University of Hohenheim, Emil-Wolff-Str. 27, 70599, Stuttgart, Germany (3) Institute of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476, Potsdam-Golm, Germany (4) Geoecology Group, Department of Geography and Regional Research, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Article History: Registration Date: 12/01/2015 Received Date: 14/01/2014 Accepted Date: 12/01/2015 Online Date: 29/01/2015 Article note: Responsible editor: Arnaud Temme
    Keywords: Duricrusts ; Opal-A ; Opal-CT ; Palygorskite ; Portugal ; Silica
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 2014, Vol.98(2), pp.113-124
    Description: Field measurements of net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE) with high temporal resolution are essential to construct a meaningful ecosystem C balance. The objectives of this study were to monitor NEE in high temporal resolution in cropland and grassland between middle August and middle November (2006) at Kleinhohenheim, Germany and to evaluate NEE in autumn. A fully automated temperature controlled closed chamber system with an infrared CO 2 analyzer was used to measure NEE. The measured NEE varied between the two ecosystems depending on changes in above-ground vegetation and environmental factors. The diurnal NEE pattern of daytime CO 2 uptake and night time CO 2 release was evident in the grassland, but not in the cropland as the crops were harvested at the beginning of the measurement period. The grassland generally showed higher night time NEE, but lower daytime NEE than the cropland. Night time NEE showed exponential dependence on air and soil temperature, resulting in Q 10 of 1.8 and 1.9 (for air temperature), 2.3 and 2.4 (for soil temperature) in the grassland and cropland, respectively. The average daily NEE was 2.77 and 1.86 g CO 2 -C m −2  day −1 in the cropland and grassland, respectively. Both ecosystems were sources of CO 2 , during 3 months in autumn, but the grassland emitted less CO 2 by 87.9 g CO 2 -C m −2 than the cropland.
    Keywords: Net ecosystem CO exchange ; Automated closed chamber system ; Cropland ; Grassland ; Infrared CO analyzer
    ISSN: 1385-1314
    E-ISSN: 1573-0867
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2014, Vol.14(1), pp.10-22
    Description: Byline: Si-Yuan Liang (1), Andreas Lehmann (3), Ke-Ning Wu (2), Karl Stahr (3) Keywords: China; Land-use planning; Soil evaluation; Soil functions; TUSEC; Zhengzhou Abstract: Purpose The complex and multi-functional body of soil is crucial for land use therefore, soil evaluation should guide land-use planning. In regard to this, there is an urgent need for function-based soil evaluation, especially in highly developed and fast-growing countries. In China, there is no specified law which may protect soil comprehensively, and due to ignorance of certain soil functions, soil evaluation has not played a prominent role in land-use planning. In addition, soil evaluation must be brought into the practices of land-use planning in China to facilitate rational and sustainable land use. Materials and methods In this study, by analyzing the evidence of soil functions and the according algorithms for soil evaluation, the necessity and possibility of combining function-based soil evaluation and land-use planning are found. For this, existing application studies from China and Europe were used. Using the methods of TUSEC (Technique for Soil Evaluation and Categorization for Natural and Anthropogenic Soils), the results of function-based soil evaluation of Zhengzhou City are shown, and tentative suggestions for land-use planning are given. Through the summarization of the previous discussion and a case study of Zhengzhou City, the future possibilities and perspectives for soil evaluation in land-use planning in China are determined. Results and discussion At present, China's focus in soil evaluation is on agriculture thus, a lack of attention toward ecological balances in the environment has been found. In order to satisfy the reasonable planning of different land uses, a function-based framework of soil evaluation is required. TUSEC was found to be a suitable model for the evaluation method of soil functions, which China could adopt in its land-use planning. Function-based soil evaluation is necessary to improve land-use database and mapping to guide overall land-use planning, to optimize local ecological adjustment, and to monitor ecological sensitive areas. Conclusions As the awareness of sustainable development grows, the role of soil evaluation in the procedure of land-use planning is becoming increasingly important in China. A function-based soil evaluation may be adapted to this necessity. Author Affiliation: (1) School of Public Administration, Zhengzhou University, Science Road 100, 450001, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China (2) Department of Land Science and Technology, School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Xueyuan Street 29, 100083, Beijing, People's Republic of China (3) Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation (310), University of Hohenheim, Fruwirtstrasse 47, 70593, Stuttgart, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 30/09/2013 Received Date: 28/09/2011 Accepted Date: 30/09/2013 Online Date: 18/10/2013 Article note: Responsible editor: Gilbert C. Sigua
    Keywords: China ; Land-use planning ; Soil evaluation ; Soil functions ; TUSEC ; Zhengzhou
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2001, Vol.231(1), pp.21-35
    Description: We examined the effect of fertilisation (200 kg cattle slurry-N ha −1 year −1 ) on the exchange of N 2 O and CH 4 in the soil–plant system of meadow agroecosystems in southern Germany. From 1996 to 1998, we regularly determined the gas fluxes (closed chamber method) and associated environmental parameters. N 2 O and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected by fertilisation. N 2 O fluxes at the unfertilised and fertilised plots were small, generally between 50 and –20 μg N m −2 h −1 . We identified some incidents of N 2 O uptake. CH 4 -C fluxes ranged from 1.3 to –0.2 mg m −2 h −1 and were not significantly different from 0 at both plots. We budgeted an annual net emission of 15.5 and 29.6 mg m −2 N 2 O-N and an annual CH 4 -C net emission of 184.2 and 122.7 mg m −2 at the unfertilised and fertilised plots, respectively. Apparently, rapid N mineralization and uptake in the densely rooted topsoil prevents N losses and the inhibition of CH 4 oxidation.
    Keywords: methane emissions ; nitrous oxide emissions ; nitrous oxide uptake ; N fertilisation ; grassland
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2010, Vol.42(5), pp.724-738
    Description: The objective of this study was to test whether soil types can be characterized by their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities. To answer this question, a well-defined study area in the temperate climatic zone of Central Europe was chosen with a large spectrum of soils and parent materials. Representative soil samples were taken from three soil types (Cambisol, Fluvisol and Leptosol) at in total 16 sites differing in agricultural land use intensity (9 grasslands and 7 arable lands). AMF spores were isolated and morphologically identified directly from field soils and after reproduction in trap cultures. AMF diversity and community composition strongly depended on soil type and land use intensity, and several AMF species were characteristic for a specific soil type or a specific land use type and hence had a specific niche. In contrast, other AM fungi could be considered as ‘generalists’ as they were present in each soil type investigated, irrespective of land use intensity. An estimated 53% of the 61 observed AMF species could be classified as ‘specialists’ as (almost) exclusively found in specific soil types and/or under specific land use intensities; 28% appeared to be ‘generalists’ and 19% could not be classified. Plant species compositions (either natural or planted) had only a subordinate influence on the AMF communities. In conclusion, land use intensity and soil type strongly affected AMF community composition as well as the presence and prevalence of many AM fungi. Future work should examine how the differences in AMF species compositions affect important ecosystem processes in different soils and to which extent the loss of specific groups of AM fungi affect soil quality.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhiza ; Glomeromycota ; Farming Systems ; Soil Quality ; Bioindicators ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2010, Vol.42, pp.724-738
    Description: The objective of this study was to test whether soil types can be characterized by their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities. To answer this question, a well-defined study area in the temperate climatic zone of Central Europe was chosen with a large spectrum of soils and parent materials. Representative soil samples were taken from three soil types (Cambisol, Fluvisol and Leptosol) at in total 16 sites differing in agricultural land use intensity (9 grasslands and 7 arable lands). AMF spores were isolated and morphologically identified directly from field soils and after reproduction in trap cultures. AMF diversity and community composition strongly depended on soil type and land use intensity, and several AMF species were characteristic for a specific soil type or a specific land use type and hence had a specific niche. In contrast, other AM fungi could be considered as ‘generalists’ as they were present in each soil type investigated, irrespective of land use intensity. An estimated 53% of the 61 observed AMF species could be classified as ‘specialists’ as (almost) exclusively found in specific soil types and/or under specific land use intensities; 28% appeared to be ‘generalists’ and 19% could not be classified. Plant species compositions (either natural or planted) had only a subordinate influence on the AMF communities. In conclusion, land use intensity and soil type strongly affected AMF community composition as well as the presence and prevalence of many AM fungi. Future work should examine how the differences in AMF species compositions affect important ecosystem processes in different soils and to which extent the loss of specific groups of AM fungi affect soil quality. ; Includes references ; p. 724-738.
    Keywords: Soil Types ; Mycorrhizal Fungi ; Agricultural Land ; Botanical Composition ; Temperate Zones ; Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae ; Soil Fungi ; Fungal Spores ; Grasslands ; Soil Quality ; Land Use ; Species Diversity ; Niches
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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