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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Oct, 2011, Vol.43(10), p.1995(17)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.06.014 Byline: Oliver Spott (a), Rolf Russow (a), Claus Florian Stange (b) Abstract: At the end of the 19th century an experimental study had already reported N gas production during microbial nitrate reduction, which significantly exceeded the amount of nitrate N supplied to the microorganism. The observed excess gas production was suggested to be caused by a reaction of nitrous acid (produced during microbial nitrate reduction) with amino acids contained in the nutrient solution. Since the 1980's a number of.sup.15N tracer experiments revealed that this biotic excess gas production was based on the formation of hybrid N.sub.2O and/or hybrid N.sub.2. It was shown that the N-N linkage forms due to a microbially mediated N-nitrosation reaction by which one N atom of nitrite or nitric oxide combines via a nitrosyl intermediate with one N atom of another N species (e.g., amino compound). Because of its cooccurrence with conventional denitrification this process was later on termed "codenitrification". Although the phenomenon of N.sub.2O and N.sub.2 formation by codenitrification was recognised over a century ago its impact on global N cycling is still unclear today. Nonetheless, the present literature review reveals codenitrification as a potentially important process of biospheric N cycling since (i) most codenitrifying species are already known as typical denitrifiers (e.g., Pseudomonas sp., Fusarium sp. etc.) and (ii) codenitrification was already reported to occur within the three domains archaea, bacteria, and eukarya (kingdom fungi). Furthermore, the present literature suggests that codenitrification acts not only as an additional source of N gas formation due to a mobilisation of organic N by N-nitrosation, but also acts as an N immobilising process due to a bonding of inorganic N (e.g., from NO.sub.3.sup.- or NO.sub.2.sup.-) onto organic compounds due to e.g., N- or even C-nitrosation reactions. From this it can be concluded that N gas formation by codenitrification represents a sub-phenomenon of a variety of possible biotic nitrosation reactions. Moreover, the review reveals that biotic nitrosation also occurs among nitrifying species, even under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, recent studies support the assumption that even anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) appears to be based on biotically mediated N-nitrosation. Therefore, we propose to introduce the term BioNitrosation, which includes all biotically mediated nitrosation reactions resulting either in N gas release or in N immobilisation, independently from the acting microbial species or the environmental conditions. Author Affiliation: (a) Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department Soil Physics, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle/Saale, Germany (b) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover, Germany Article History: Received 22 December 2010; Revised 16 June 2011; Accepted 17 June 2011
    Keywords: Denitrification ; Natural Gas ; Nitrogen Oxides ; Soil Biology
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Feb, 2014, Vol.69, p.320(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.11.014 Byline: Marianne Schutt, Werner Borken, Oliver Spott, Claus Florian Stange, Egbert Matzner Abstract: Climate models predict warmer winter in temperate regions, but little is known about the temperature sensitivity of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization at low temperatures. Here, we assess the temperature sensitivities of gross ammonification, gross nitrification, C and net N mineralization of top soil horizons, under a European beech and a Norway spruce temperate forest. We tested the hypotheses that (1) substrate quality affects the temperature sensitivity of C and N mineralization and (2) that temperature sensitivity of C mineralization is higher than of gross ammonification. Soil incubations were conducted at constant temperatures of -4, -1, +2, +5 and +8 [degrees]C. Gross ammonification and nitrification were measured by the.sup.15N pool dilution technique. Temperature sensitivities of C, gross and net N mineralization were calculated using the Arrhenius equation and C mineralization was taken as proxy for substrate quality. Gross ammonification and C mineralization was much larger in the beech than in the spruce soil, while gross nitrification was in the same order of magnitude. Gross ammonification, nitrification and C mineralization almost ceased at -4 [degrees]C, but already increased at -1 [degrees]C. Net ammonification in Oi/Oe horizons was low at -4 and -1 [degrees]C and increased strongly between +2 and +8 [degrees]C. Net nitrification was low in both soils, but increased in the spruce soil at temperatures 〉2 [degrees]C whereas no temperature response occurred in the beech soil. Apparent Q.sub.10 values of gross ammonification and C mineralization in the temperature range of -4 to +8 [degrees]C were in the range of 3-18. Q.sub.10 were lowest in soil horizons of low substrate quality. The ratio of C mineralization to gross ammonification varied between 0.5 and 2.9, suggesting preferential mineralization of N rich organic substrates or rapid turnover of the N pool in microbial biomass. Rising winter temperatures might have substantial effects on net N mineralization, but effects decrease with soil depth, likely due to decreasing substrate quality of soil organic matter. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Soil Ecology, University of Bayreuth, 95448 Bayreuth, Germany (b) Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, UFZ, 06120 Halle/Saale, Germany (c) Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Fachbereich B2.4 "Boden als Ressource - Stoffeigenschaften und -dynamik", 30655 Hannover, Germany Article History: Received 21 June 2013; Revised 7 November 2013; Accepted 14 November 2013
    Keywords: Soil Biology -- Analysis ; Nitrification -- Analysis ; Soil Ecology -- Analysis ; Forest Soils -- Analysis ; Soil Carbon -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, February 2011, Vol.43(2), pp.333-338
    Description: Changes in the soil water regime, predicted as a consequence of global climate change, might influence the N cycle in temperate forest soils. We investigated the effect of decreasing soil water potentials on gross ammonification and nitrification in different soil horizons of a Norway spruce forest and tested the hypotheses that i) gross rates are more sensitive to desiccation in the Oa and EA horizon as compared to the uppermost Oi/Oe horizon and ii) that gross nitrification is more sensitive than gross ammonification. Soil samples were adjusted by air drying to water potentials from about field capacity to around −1.0 MPa, a range that is often observed under field conditions at our site. Gross rates were measured using the N pool dilution technique. To ensure that the addition of solute label to dry soils and the local rewetting does not affect the results by re-mineralization or preferential consumption of N, we compared different extraction and incubation times. T times ranging from 10 to 300 min and incubation times of 48 h and 72 h did not influence the rates of gross ammonification and nitrification. Even small changes of water potential decreased gross ammonification and nitrification in the O horizon. In the EA horizon, gross nitrification was below detection limit and the response of the generally low rates of gross ammonification to decreasing water potentials was minor. In the Oi/Oe horizon gross ammonification and nitrification decreased from 37.5 to 18.3 mg N kg  soil d and from 15.4 to 5.6 mg N kg  soil d when the water potential decreased from field capacity to −0.8 MPa. In the Oa horizon gross ammonification decreased from 7.4 to 4.0 mg N kg  soil d when the water potential reached −0.6 MPa. At such water potential nitrification almost ceased, while in the Oi/Oe horizon nitrification continued at a rather high level. Hence, only in the Oa horizon nitrification was more sensitive to desiccation than ammonification. Extended drought periods that might result from climate change will cause a reduction in gross N turnover rates in forest soils even at moderate levels of soil desiccation. ► Even small changes of water potential decreased gross N turnover rates in the O horizon. ► Only in the Oa horizon gross nitrification was more sensitive to desiccation than ammonification. ► A reduction in gross N turnover rates can be expected in forest soils even at moderate desiccation.
    Keywords: 15n Pool Dilution Technique ; Norway Spruce ; Forest Soil ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2011, Vol.43(10), pp.1995-2011
    Description: At the end of the 19th century an experimental study had already reported N gas production during microbial nitrate reduction, which significantly exceeded the amount of nitrate N supplied to the microorganism. The observed excess gas production was suggested to be caused by a reaction of nitrous acid (produced during microbial nitrate reduction) with amino acids contained in the nutrient solution. Since the 1980’s a number of N tracer experiments revealed that this biotic excess gas production was based on the formation of hybrid N O and/or hybrid N . It was shown that the N–N linkage forms due to a microbially mediated N-nitrosation reaction by which one N atom of nitrite or nitric oxide combines via a nitrosyl intermediate with one N atom of another N species (e.g., amino compound). Because of its cooccurrence with conventional denitrification this process was later on termed “codenitrification”. Although the phenomenon of N O and N formation by codenitrification was recognised over a century ago its impact on global N cycling is still unclear today. Nonetheless, the present literature review reveals codenitrification as a potentially important process of biospheric N cycling since (i) most codenitrifying species are already known as typical denitrifiers (e.g., sp., sp. etc.) and (ii) codenitrification was already reported to occur within the three domains , , and (kingdom ). Furthermore, the present literature suggests that codenitrification acts not only as an additional source of N gas formation due to a mobilisation of organic N by N-nitrosation, but also acts as an N immobilising process due to a bonding of inorganic N (e.g., from NO or NO ) onto organic compounds due to e.g., N- or even C-nitrosation reactions. From this it can be concluded that N gas formation by codenitrification represents a sub-phenomenon of a variety of possible biotic nitrosation reactions. Moreover, the review reveals that biotic nitrosation also occurs among nitrifying species, even under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, recent studies support the assumption that even anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) appears to be based on biotically mediated N-nitrosation. Therefore, we propose to introduce the term BioNitrosation, which includes all biotically mediated nitrosation reactions resulting either in N gas release or in N immobilisation, independently from the acting microbial species or the environmental conditions. ► Codenitrification is a barely known process of biotic nitrosation. ► It only occurs concomitantly with microbial denitrification. ► The process is proven for archaea, bacteria, and fungi. ► Biotic nitrosation can result in either hybrid N O/N formation or N immobilisation. ► Research on its impact on N cycling within the biosphere is urgently required.
    Keywords: Denitrification ; Codenitrification ; Anammox ; Nitrosation ; N-Immobilisation ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2011, Vol.43, pp.333-338
    Description: Changes in the soil water regime, predicted as a consequence of global climate change, might influence the N cycle in temperate forest soils. We investigated the effect of decreasing soil water potentials on gross ammonification and nitrification in different soil horizons of a Norway spruce forest and tested the hypotheses that i) gross rates are more sensitive to desiccation in the Oa and EA horizon as compared to the uppermost Oi/Oe horizon and ii) that gross nitrification is more sensitive than gross ammonification. Soil samples were adjusted by air drying to water potentials from about field capacity to around −1.0 MPa, a range that is often observed under field conditions at our site. Gross rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique. To ensure that the addition of solute label to dry soils and the local rewetting does not affect the results by re-mineralization or preferential consumption of 15N, we compared different extraction and incubation times. T0 times ranging from 10 to 300 min and incubation times of 48 h and 72 h did not influence the rates of gross ammonification and nitrification. Even small changes of water potential decreased gross ammonification and nitrification in the O horizon. In the EA horizon, gross nitrification was below detection limit and the response of the generally low rates of gross ammonification to decreasing water potentials was minor. In the Oi/Oe horizon gross ammonification and nitrification decreased from 37.5 to 18.3 mg N kg−1 soil d−1 and from 15.4 to 5.6 mg N kg−1 soil d−1 when the water potential decreased from field capacity to −0.8 MPa. In the Oa horizon gross ammonification decreased from 7.4 to 4.0 mg N kg−1 soil d−1 when the water potential reached −0.6 MPa. At such water potential nitrification almost ceased, while in the Oi/Oe horizon nitrification continued at a rather high level. Hence, only in the Oa horizon nitrification was more sensitive to desiccation than ammonification. Extended drought periods that might result from climate change will cause a reduction in gross N turnover rates in forest soils even at moderate levels of soil desiccation. ; Includes references ; p. 333-338.
    Keywords: Forest Soils ; Coniferous Forests ; Soil Water Content ; Detection Limit ; Acid Soils ; Forest Trees ; Climate Change ; Drought ; Ammonification ; Nitrogen ; Biogeochemical Cycles ; Soil Horizons ; Nitrification ; Soil Water Regimes ; Mineralization ; Picea Abies ; Temperate Forests ; Soil Water Potential ; Soil Desiccation
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, February 2014, Vol.69, pp.320-327
    Description: Climate models predict warmer winter in temperate regions, but little is known about the temperature sensitivity of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization at low temperatures. Here, we assess the temperature sensitivities of gross ammonification, gross nitrification, C and net N mineralization of top soil horizons, under a European beech and a Norway spruce temperate forest. We tested the hypotheses that (1) substrate quality affects the temperature sensitivity of C and N mineralization and (2) that temperature sensitivity of C mineralization is higher than of gross ammonification. Soil incubations were conducted at constant temperatures of −4, −1, +2, +5 and +8 °C. Gross ammonification and nitrification were measured by the N pool dilution technique. Temperature sensitivities of C, gross and net N mineralization were calculated using the Arrhenius equation and C mineralization was taken as proxy for substrate quality. Gross ammonification and C mineralization was much larger in the beech than in the spruce soil, while gross nitrification was in the same order of magnitude. Gross ammonification, nitrification and C mineralization almost ceased at −4 °C, but already increased at −1 °C. Net ammonification in Oi/Oe horizons was low at −4 and −1 °C and increased strongly between +2 and +8 °C. Net nitrification was low in both soils, but increased in the spruce soil at temperatures 〉2 °C whereas no temperature response occurred in the beech soil. Apparent values of gross ammonification and C mineralization in the temperature range of −4 to +8 °C were in the range of 3–18. were lowest in soil horizons of low substrate quality. The ratio of C mineralization to gross ammonification varied between 0.5 and 2.9, suggesting preferential mineralization of N rich organic substrates or rapid turnover of the N pool in microbial biomass. Rising winter temperatures might have substantial effects on net N mineralization, but effects decrease with soil depth, likely due to decreasing substrate quality of soil organic matter.
    Keywords: Winter Soil Temperatures ; Gross and Net N Mineralization ; Co2 Production ; Forest Soil ; Q10 ; Substrate Quality ; Substrate Availability ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, October 2014, Vol.77, pp.315-315
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry, 06 June 2017, Vol.89(11), pp.6076-6081
    Description: An automated sample preparation unit for inorganic nitrogen (SPIN) coupled to a membrane inlet quadrupole mass spectrometer (MIMS) was developed for automated and sensitive determination of the N abundances and concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium in aqueous solutions without any sample preparation. The minimum N concentration for an accurate determination of the N abundance is 7 μmol/L for nitrite and nitrate, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeated measurements of 〈1%, and 70 μmol/L with an RSD 〈 0.4% in the case of ammonium. The SPIN-MIMS system provides a wide dynamic range (up to 3500 μmol/L) for all three N species for both isotope abundance and concentration measurements. The comparison of parallel measurements of N-labeled NH and NO from soil extracts with the denitrifier method and the SPIN-MIMS system shows a good agreement between both methods.
    Keywords: Measurement-Of-Parallelism ; Nitrates ; Nitrites ; Ammonium ; Sample-Preparation ; Standard-Deviation ; Concentration-Measurement ; Nitrogen ; Isotopes ; Mass-Spectrometers ; Membranes ; Quadrupole ; Aqueous-Solutions ; Mass-Spectrometry ; Parallelitätsmessung ; Nitrat ; Nitrit ; Ammonium ; Probenaufbereitung ; Standardabweichung ; Konzentrationsmessung ; Stickstoff ; Isotop ; Massenspektrometer ; Membran ; Quadrupol ; Wässrige Lösung ; Massenspektrometrie ; Engineering ; Chemistry;
    ISSN: 00032700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Biology and Fertility of Soils, July, 2011, Vol.47(5), p.483(12)
    Description: Byline: Nadine Jager (1), Claus Florian Stange (2), Bernard Ludwig (3), Heiner Flessa (4) Keywords: [N.sub.2]O; CO.sub.2; SOC; Long-term fertilization Abstract: Increasing organic matter stocks in soils reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2), but they may also promote emissions of nitrous oxide ([N.sub.2]O) by providing substrates for nitrification and denitrification and by increasing microbial O.sub.2 consumption. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of fertilization history, which had resulted in different soil organic matter stocks on (1) the emission rates of [N.sub.2]O and CO.sub.2 at a constant soil moisture content of 60% water-holding capacity, (2) the short-term fluxes of [N.sub.2]O and CO.sub.2 following the application of different fertilizers (KNO.sub.3 vs. farmyard manure from cattle) and (3) the response to a simulated heavy rainfall event, which increased soil moisture to field capacity. Soil samples from different treatments of three long-term fertilization experiments in Germany (Methau, Sproda and Bad Lauchstadt) were incubated in a laboratory experiment with continuous determination of [N.sub.2]O and CO.sub.2 emissions and a monitoring of soil mineral N. The long-term fertilization treatments included application of mineral N (Methau and Sproda), farmyard manure + mineral N (Methau and Sproda), farmyard manure deposition in excess (Bad Lauchstadt) and nil fertilization (Bad Lauchstadt). Long-term addition of farmyard manure increased the soil organic C (SOC) content by 55% at Methau (silt loam), by 17% at Sproda (sandy loam) and by 88% at Bad Lauchstadt (silt loam extreme treatment which does not represent common agricultural management). Increased soil organic matter stocks induced by long-term application of farmyard manure at Methau and Sproda resulted in slightly increased [N.sub.2]O emissions at a soil moisture content of 60% water-holding capacity. However, the effect of fertilization history and SOC content on [N.sub.2]O emissions was small compared to the short-term effects induced by the current fertilizer application. At Bad Lauchstadt, high [N.sub.2]O emissions from the treatment without fertilization for 25 years indicate the importance of a sustainable soil organic matter management to maintain soil structure and soil aeration. Emissions of [N.sub.2]O following the application of nitrate and farmyard manure differed because of their specific effects on soil nitrate availability and microbial oxygen consumption. At a soil moisture content of 60% water-holding capacity, fertilizer-induced emissions were higher for farmyard manure than for nitrate. At field capacity, nitrate application induced the highest emissions. Our results indicate that feedback mechanisms of soil C sequestration on [N.sub.2]O emissions have to be considered when discussing options to increase soil C stocks. Author Affiliation: (1) Soil Science of Temperate and Boreal Ecosystems, Busgen-Institute, University of Gottingen, Busgenweg 2, 37077, Gottingen, Germany (2) Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research--UFZ, Department Soil Physics, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120, Halle/Saale, Germany (3) Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, 37213, Witzenhausen, Germany (4) Institute of Agricultural Climate Research, Johann Heinrich von Thunen-Institut, Bundesallee 50, 38116, Braunschweig, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 03/03/2011 Received Date: 24/08/2010 Accepted Date: 03/03/2011 Online Date: 29/03/2011
    Keywords: Soil Carbon ; Green Technology ; Silt ; Soils ; Rain ; Soil Aeration ; Air Pollution Control ; Soil Moisture ; Ecosystems ; Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide ; Soil Structure ; Soil Microbiology ; Emissions (Pollution) ; Nitrous Oxide ; Denitrification ; Nitrification ; Organic Fertilizers
    ISSN: 0178-2762
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, March 2011, Vol.43(3), pp.551-558
    Description: Plant roots strongly influence C and N availability in the rhizosphere via rhizodeposition and uptake of nutrients. This study aimed at investigating the effect of resource availability on microbial processes and community structure in the rhizosphere. We analyzed C and N availability, as well as microbial processes and microbial community composition in rhizosphere soil of European beech and compared it to the bulk soil. Additionally, we performed a girdling experiment in order to disrupt root exudation into the soil. By this novel approach we were able to demonstrate that enhanced resource availability positively affected N mineralization and hydrolytic enzyme activities in the rhizosphere, but negatively affected nitrification rates and oxidative enzyme activities, which are involved in the degradation of soil organic matter. Both rhizosphere effects on N mineralization and oxidative enzyme activities disappeared in the girdling treatment. Microbial community structure in the rhizosphere, assessed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, differed only slightly from bulk soil but was markedly altered by the girdling treatment, indicating additional effects of the girdling treatment beyond the reduction of root exudation. Differences in oxidative enzyme activities and nitrification rates between rhizosphere soil and bulk soil, however, suggest considerable differences in the (functional) microbial community composition. ►Positive rhizosphere effect on N mineralization and hydrolytic enzyme activities. ► Negative rhizosphere effect on nitrification and oxidative enzyme activities. ► Girdling significantly alters microbial community structure in the rhizosphere
    Keywords: Rhizosphere ; Root Exudates ; Tree Girdling ; Microbial Community Composition ; Phospholipid Fatty Acids ; Microbial Processes ; Extracellular Enzymes ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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