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  • 1
    Language: Swedish
    Description: In this study I will find out which thoughts and alternative conceptions pupils have about photosynthesis, decomposing and breeding. The method used was qualitative semi-structured interviews with pupils in preschool class and in the third grade. They were interviewed about what a flower needs in order to live, die and to propagate themselves. The result shows that the students have alternative conceptions about these issues. There are no big differences in the notions of the average classes. There is a relation between the children’s way of living and their notions.The result shows that all 17 pupils know that the flowers need water and soil. Half of them know that it also needs sun. But only 2 pupils know that the flowers need sugar to live.
    Keywords: Photosynthesis ; Compulsory School Pupils ; Science ; Alternative Conceptions. ; Natural Sciences ; Naturvetenskap
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2011, Vol.68(6), pp.1079-1090
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Here, non-toxic concentrations of the anti-cancer kinase inhibitor sorafenib were shown to inhibit replication of different HCMV strains (including a ganciclovir-resistant strain) in different cell types. In contrast to established anti-HCMV drugs, sorafenib inhibited HCMV major immediate early promoter activity and HCMV immediate early antigen (IEA) expression. Sorafenib is known to inhibit Raf. Comparison of sorafenib with the MEK inhibitor U0126 suggested that sorafenib inhibits HCMV IEA expression through inhibition of Raf but independently of signaling through the Raf downstream kinase MEK 1/2. In concordance, siRNA-mediated depletion of Raf but not of MEK-reduced IEA expression. In conclusion, sorafenib diminished HCMV replication in clinically relevant concentrations and inhibited HCMV IEA expression, a pathophysiologically relevant event that is not affected by established anti-HCMV drugs. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that Raf activation is involved in HCMV IEA expression.
    Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus ; Sorafenib ; Kinase inhibitor ; Raf ; Immediate early antigen ; Cancer chemotherapy ; Oncomodulation ; Antiviral therapy
    ISSN: 1420-682X
    E-ISSN: 1420-9071
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  • 3
    Language: Swedish
    Description: In this study I will find out which thoughts and alternative conceptions pupils have about photosynthesis, decomposing and breeding. The method used was qualitative semi-structured interviews with pupils in preschool class and in the third grade. They were interviewed about what a flower needs in order to live, die and to propagate themselves. The result shows that the students have alternative conceptions about these issues. There are no big differences in the notions of the average classes. There is a relation between the children’s way of living and their notions.The result shows that all 17 pupils know that the flowers need water and soil. Half of them know that it also needs sun. But only 2 pupils know that the flowers need sugar to live.
    Keywords: Photosynthesis ; Compulsory School Pupils ; Science ; Alternative Conceptions. ; Natural Sciences ; Naturvetenskap ; Natural Sciences ; Naturvetenskap ; Biologi ; Biology
    Source: Uppsala University Library
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Molecular Biology, 23 September 2014, Vol.426(19), pp.3221-3231
    Description: Growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) plays a central role in bone and cartilage development by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of chondrogenic tissue. GDF5 is synthesized as a preproprotein. The biological function of the proregion comprising 354 residues is undefined. We identified two families with a heterozygosity for the novel missense mutations p.T201P or p.L263P located in the proregion of GDF5. The patients presented with dominant brachydactyly type C characterized by the shortening of skeletal elements in the distal extremities. Both mutations gave rise to decreased biological activity in analyses. The variants reduced the GDF5-induced activation of SMAD signaling by the GDF5 receptors BMPR1A and BMPR1B. Ectopic expression in micromass cultures yielded relatively low protein levels of the variants and showed diminished chondrogenic activity as compared to wild-type GDF5. Interestingly, stimulation of micromass cells with recombinant human proGDF5 and proGDF5 revealed their reduced chondrogenic potential compared to the wild-type protein. Limited proteolysis of the mutant recombinant proproteins resulted in a fragment pattern profoundly different from wild-type proGDF5. Modeling of a part of the GDF5 proregion into the known three-dimensional structure of TGFβ1 latency-associated peptide revealed that the homologous positions of both mutations are conserved regions that may be important for the folding of the mature protein or the assembly of dimeric protein complexes. We hypothesize that the missense mutations p.T201P and p.L263P interfere with the protein structure and thereby reduce the amount of fully processed, biologically active GDF5, finally causing the clinical loss of function phenotype.
    Keywords: Bmp ; Chondrogenesis ; Skeletal Diseases ; Proprotein ; Chicken Micromass ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0022-2836
    E-ISSN: 1089-8638
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2010, Vol.42, pp.360-372
    Description: Agricultural systems that receive high amounts of inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer in the form of either ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3(−)) or a combination thereof are expected to differ in soil N transformation rates and fates of NH4+ and NO3(−). Using 15N tracer techniques this study examines how crop plants and soil microbes vary in their ability to take up and compete for fertilizer N on a short time scale (hours to days). Single plants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Morex) were grown on two agricultural soils in microcosms which received either NH4+, NO3(−) or NH4NO3. Within each fertilizer treatment traces of 15NH4+ and 15NO3− were added separately. During 8 days of fertilization the fate of fertilizer 15N into plants, microbial biomass and inorganic soil N pools as well as changes in gross N transformation rates were investigated. One week after fertilization 45–80% of initially applied 15N was recovered in crop plants compared to only 1–10% in soil microbes, proving that plants were the strongest competitors for fertilizer N. In terms of N uptake soil microbes out-competed plants only during the first 4 h of N application independent of soil and fertilizer N form. Within one day microbial N uptake declined substantially, probably due to carbon limitation. In both soils, plants and soil microbes took up more NO3(−) than NH4+ independent of initially applied N form. Surprisingly, no inhibitory effect of NH4+ on the uptake and assimilation of nitrate in both, plants and microbes, was observed, probably because fast nitrification rates led to a swift depletion of the ammonium pool. Compared to plant and microbial NH4+ uptake rates, gross nitrification rates were 3–75-fold higher, indicating that nitrifiers were the strongest competitors for NH4+ in both soils. The rapid conversion of NH4+ to NO3(−) and preferential use of NO3(−) by soil microbes suggest that in agricultural systems with high inorganic N fertilizer inputs the soil microbial community could adapt to high concentrations of NO3(−) and shift towards enhanced reliance on NO3(−) for their N supply. ; Includes references ; p. 360-372.
    Keywords: Hordeum Vulgare ; Soil Fertility ; Nitrogen Fertilizers ; Nitrate Nitrogen ; Isotope Labeling ; Ammonium Nitrogen ; Temporal Variation ; Mineral Fertilizers ; Barley ; Nitrification ; Soil Microorganisms ; Carbon ; Nutrient Uptake ; Mineralization ; Plant Nutrition
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2010, Vol.42(2), pp.360-372
    Description: Agricultural systems that receive high amounts of inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer in the form of either ammonium (NH ), nitrate (NO ) or a combination thereof are expected to differ in soil N transformation rates and fates of NH and NO . Using N tracer techniques this study examines how crop plants and soil microbes vary in their ability to take up and compete for fertilizer N on a short time scale (hours to days). Single plants of barley ( L. cv. ) were grown on two agricultural soils in microcosms which received either NH , NO or NH NO . Within each fertilizer treatment traces of NH and NO were added separately. During 8 days of fertilization the fate of fertilizer N into plants, microbial biomass and inorganic soil N pools as well as changes in gross N transformation rates were investigated. One week after fertilization 45–80% of initially applied N was recovered in crop plants compared to only 1–10% in soil microbes, proving that plants were the strongest competitors for fertilizer N. In terms of N uptake soil microbes out-competed plants only during the first 4 h of N application independent of soil and fertilizer N form. Within one day microbial N uptake declined substantially, probably due to carbon limitation. In both soils, plants and soil microbes took up more NO than NH independent of initially applied N form. Surprisingly, no inhibitory effect of NH on the uptake and assimilation of nitrate in both, plants and microbes, was observed, probably because fast nitrification rates led to a swift depletion of the ammonium pool. Compared to plant and microbial NH uptake rates, gross nitrification rates were 3–75-fold higher, indicating that nitrifiers were the strongest competitors for NH in both soils. The rapid conversion of NH to NO and preferential use of NO by soil microbes suggest that in agricultural systems with high inorganic N fertilizer inputs the soil microbial community could adapt to high concentrations of NO and shift towards enhanced reliance on NO for their N supply.
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Ammonium Monooxygenase ; Archaea ; Bacteria ; Fungi ; Gross N Transformations ; Inorganic N Fertilizer ; Qpcr ; 15n Tracer ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Complementary Medicine Research, December 2013, Vol.20(6), pp.434-443
    Description: Fasting for medical purpose (fasting therapy) has a long tradition in Europe and is established as a defined therapeutic approach in specialized fasting hospitals or within clinical departments for integrative medicine. In 2002, the first guidelines for fasting therapy were published following an expert consensus conference; here we present a revised update elaborated by an expert panel. Historical aspects and definitions, indications, methods, forms, and accompanying procedures of fasting as well as safety and quality criteria of fasting interventions are described. Fasting has shown beneficial effects in various chronic diseases with highest level of evidence for rheumatic diseases. Preliminary clinical and observational data and recently revealed mechanisms of fasting and caloric restriction indicate beneficial effects of fasting also in other chronic conditions such as metabolic diseases, pain syndromes, hypertension, chronic inflammatory diseases, atopic diseases, and psychosomatic disorders. Fasting can also be applied for preventing diseases in healthy subjects. In order to guarantee successful use of fasting and to ensure adherence of all safety and quality standards it is mandatory that all interventions during fasting are guided/accompanied by physicians/therapists trained and certified in fasting therapy.
    Keywords: Review Article · Übersichtsarbeit ; Fasting ; Guidelines ; Consensus ; Fasting Therapy
    ISBN: 9783318026184
    ISBN: 3318026182
    ISSN: 2504-2092
    ISSN: 16614119
    E-ISSN: 2504-2106
    E-ISSN: 16614127
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Energy Procedia, 2011, Vol.4, pp.1104-1109
    Description: The presentation describes the search for new SEWGS sorbents by using high throughput techniques. In total 432 new sorbent formulations have been prepared, partly characterized and more than 300 sorbents have been evaluated under realistic conditions in a three cycle adsorption-desorption test. From the evaluation, a comparison with the existing state-of-art sorbents has been made, and four leads have been selected for up-scaling and testing for sorption performance and particle stability under SEWGS conditions.
    Keywords: Sewgs ; Sorbent ; High Throughput ; Carbon Dioxide ; Engineering ; Economics
    ISSN: 1876-6102
    E-ISSN: 1876-6102
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Marine Science, April 4, 2017
    Description: Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) causes pronounced shifts in marine carbonate chemistry and a decrease in seawater pH. Increasing evidence indicates that these changes – summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA) – can significantly affect marine food webs and biogeochemical cycles. However, current scientific knowledge is largely based on laboratory experiments with single species and artificial boundary conditions, whereas studies of natural plankton communities are still relatively rare. Moreover, the few existing community-level studies were mostly conducted in rather eutrophic environments, while less attention has been paid to oligotrophic systems such as the subtropical ocean gyres. Here we report from a recent in situ mesocosm experiment off the coast of Gran Canaria in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic, where we investigated the influence of OA on the ecology and biogeochemistry of plankton communities in oligotrophic waters under close-to-natural conditions. This paper is the first in this Research Topic of Frontiers in Marine Biogeochemistry and provides (1) a detailed overview of the experimental design and important events during our mesocosm campaign, and (2) first insights into the ecological responses of plankton communities to simulated OA over the course of the 62-day experiment. One particular scientific objective of our mesocosm experiment was to investigate how OA impacts might differ between oligotrophic conditions and phases of high biological productivity, which regularly occur in response to upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water in the study region. Therefore, we specifically developed a deep water collection system that allowed us to obtain ~85 m3 of seawater from ~650 m depth. Thereby, we replaced ~20% of each mesocosm's volume with deep water, and thus successfully simulated a deep water upwelling event that induced a pronounced plankton bloom. Our study revealed significant effects of OA on the entire food web, leading to a restructuring of plankton communities that emerged during the oligotrophic phase, and was further amplified during the bloom that developed in response to deep water addition. Such CO2-related shifts in plankton community composition could have consequences for ecosystem productivity, biomass transfer to higher trophic levels, and biogeochemical element cycling of oligotrophic ocean regions.
    Keywords: Closed Experimental Ecosystems – Research ; Plankton – Research ; Ocean Acidification – Environmental Aspects ; Biogeochemical Cycles – Research
    ISSN: 2296-7745
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Digestion, February 2000, Vol.61(1), pp.47-58
    Description: Background: A retroendocytotic pathway for high-density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) in cultured intestinal epithelial cell lines has been described. In small intestinal crypt cells and Caco-2, HDL3 is internalized, transported to lipid droplets and, after solubilization of these lipid droplets, resecreted. In the present study we examined the mechanisms of intracellular transport of HDL3 in the Caco-2 cell line. Methods: Apolipoprotein E free HDL3 was gold-labeled for transmission electron microscopy and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine iodide [DiI(3)] labeled for fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. For tubulin desintegration Caco-2 cells were incubated with taxol, colchicine and β- and γ-lumicolchicine. Tubulin staining was performed using a FITC labeled antibody. Uptake of HDL3 was quantified by FACS analysis. Results: HDL3 was rapidly internalized and found to be in contact with lipid droplets in the perinuclear region after 10 min. By transmission electron microscopy a frequent colocalization of HDL3-containing vesicles and tubular structures was demonstrated. The close association of HDL3-containing vesicles with fluorescence stained tubulin could be confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Preincubation of the cells with taxol and colchicine did not completely prevent internalization but reduced it during a 2-hour incubation period to less than 50% of the control cells. The transport of DiI(3)-labeled HDL3 to the lipid droplets in the perinuclear region was almost completely blocked by taxol and colchicine. Conclusion: Internalization and intracellular transport of HDL3 in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) is dependent on a tubulin-mediated mechanism.
    Keywords: Original Paper: Small Intestine ; High Density Lipoprotein 3 ; Tubulin ; Internalization ; Retroendocytosis ; Caco-2 Cells ; Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0012-2823
    E-ISSN: 1421-9867
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