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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: IJFAB: International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, 1 October 2013, Vol.6(2), pp.122-140
    Description: Abstract This paper investigates the specific conditions of female migrant workers who come to Canada as caregivers for the very young or the very old. Most of Canada's live-in caregivers come into the country under the auspices of the Live-in Caregiver program. I assess this program from the perspective of individual autonomy and vulnerability. I argue that such programs allow for the realization of individual migration projects; however, they also generate specific vulnerabilities for female care workers that restrict and disable their capacity for autonomy. Insofar as programs can be modified to avoid these vulnerabilities while still allowing for migration, they need to be changed.
    Keywords: Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Labor economics ; Social sciences -- Human geography -- Human migration ; Environmental studies -- Environmental philosophy -- Environmental ethics ; Law -- Legal documents -- Legal instruments ; Social sciences -- Gender studies -- Feminism ; Law -- Jurisprudence -- Philosophy of law ; Social sciences -- Population studies -- Human populations ; Social sciences -- Human geography -- Political geography ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Labor economics ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Personality psychology ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Labor economics ; Social sciences -- Human geography -- Human migration ; Environmental studies -- Environmental philosophy -- Environmental ethics ; Law -- Legal documents -- Legal instruments ; Social sciences -- Gender studies -- Feminism ; Law -- Jurisprudence -- Philosophy of law ; Social sciences -- Population studies -- Human populations ; Social sciences -- Human geography -- Political geography ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Labor economics ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Personality psychology;
    ISSN: 19374585
    E-ISSN: 19374577
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2017
    Description: Research on neuronal connectivity in the cerebral cortex has focused on the existence and strength of synapses between neurons, and their location on the cell bodies and dendrites of postsynaptic neurons. The synaptic architecture of individual presynaptic axonal trees, however, remains largely unknown. Here we used dense reconstructions from three-dimensional electron microscopy in rats to study the synaptic organization of local presynaptic axons in layer 2 of the medial entorhinal cortex, the site of grid-like spatial representations. We observe path-length-dependent axonal synapse sorting, such that axons of excitatory neurons sequentially target inhibitory neurons followed by excitatory neurons. Connectivity analysis revealed a cellular feedforward inhibition circuit involving wide, myelinated inhibitory axons and dendritic synapse clustering. Simulations show that this high-precision circuit can control the propagation of synchronized activity in the medial entorhinal cortex, which is known for temporally precise discharges.
    Keywords: Axons -- Physiology ; Entorhinal Cortex -- Cytology ; Neural Pathways -- Cytology ; Synapses -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    In: Journal of Applied Philosophy, May 2016, Vol.33(2), pp.146-159
    Description: Access to surrogacy is often cast in the language of rights. Here, I examine what form such a right could take. I distinguish between surrogacy as a right to assisted procreation, and surrogacy as a contractual right. I find the first interpretation implausible: it would give rise to claims against the state that no state can fulfil, namely the provision of sufficient surrogates to satisfy the need. Instead, I argue that the right to surrogacy can only be plausibly understood as a contractual right. I then investigate two different sets of harms that are often employed to argue against such a contractual interpretation of the right to surrogacy: (1) harm to women's interests in a gendered society, and (2) harm to the sense of self of the surrogate. I assess both of these through the analytical lens of vulnerability. I find neither of them to be convincing arguments against surrogacy contracts. In conclusion, I agree that surrogacy contracts should be carefully regulated, but I disagree with those who call for prohibition of the right to surrogacy as a contractual right.
    Keywords: Surrogate Mothers ; Civil Rights ; Contract Law;
    ISSN: 0264-3758
    E-ISSN: 1468-5930
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Biophysical Journal, 03 February 2017, Vol.112(3), pp.146a-147a
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2016.11.804 Byline: Lu Zhou (1), Volker Middel (1), Uwe Strahle (1), G. Ulrich Nienhaus (1)(2) Author Affiliation: (1) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany (2) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA Article Note: (miscellaneous) 718-PosB483
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0006-3495
    E-ISSN: 1542-0086
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biophysical Journal, 16 February 2016, Vol.110(3), pp.488a-488a
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2015.11.2609 Byline: Lu Zhou, Volker Middel, G. Ulrich Nienhaus, Uwe Uwe Strahle Author Affiliation: (1) Institute of Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany (2) Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany (3) Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA Article Note: (miscellaneous) 2405-PosB549
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0006-3495
    E-ISSN: 1542-0086
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  • 6
    In: Nature, 2014, Vol.507(7492), p.381
    Description: A core promoter is a stretch of DNA surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) that integrates regulatory inputs (1) and recruits general transcription factors to initiate transcription (2). The nature and causative relationship of the DNA sequence and chromatin signals that govern the selection of most TSSs by RNA polymerase II remain unresolved. Maternal to zygotic transition represents the most marked change of the transcriptome repertoire in the vertebrate life cycle (3-6). Early embryonic development in zebrafish is characterized by a series of transcriptionally silent cell cycles regulated by inherited maternal gene products: zygotic genome activation commences at the tenth cell cycle, marking the mid-blastula transition (7). This transition provides a unique opportunity to study the rules of TSS selection and the hierarchy of events linking transcription initiation with key chromatin modifications. We analysed TSS usage during zebrafish early embryonic development at high resolution using cap analysis of gene expression (8), and determined the positions of H3K4me3-marked promoter-associated nucleosomes (9). Here we show that the transition from the maternal to zygotic transcriptome is characterized by a switch between two fundamentally different modes of defining transcription initiation, which drive the dynamic change of TSS usage and promoter shape. A maternal-specific TSS selection, which requires an A/T-rich (W-box) motif, is replaced with a zygotic TSS selection grammar characterized by broader patterns of dinucleotide enrichments, precisely aligned with the first downstream (11) nucleosome. The developmental dynamics of the H3K4me3-marked nucleosomes reveal their DNA-sequence-associated positioning at promoters before zygotic transcription and subsequent transcription-independent adjustment to the final position downstream of the zygotic TSS. The two TSS-defining grammars coexist, often physically overlapping, in core promoters of constitutively expressed genes to enable their expression in the two regulatory environments. The dissection of overlapping core promoter determinants represents a framework for future studies of promoter structure and function across different regulatory contexts.
    Keywords: Transcription (Genetics) -- Research ; Genetic Code -- Research ; Promoters (Genetics) -- Research ; Genetic Research;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 19 November 2013, Vol.110(47), pp.18982-7
    Description: Muscles ensure locomotion behavior of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. They are highly specialized and form using conserved developmental programs. To identify new players in muscle development we screened Drosophila and zebrafish gene expression databases for orthologous genes expressed in embryonic muscles. We selected more than 100 candidates. Among them is the glycolysis gene Pglym78/pgam2, the attenuated expression of which results in the formation of thinner muscles in Drosophila embryos. This phenotype is also observed in fast muscle fibers of pgam2 zebrafish morphants, suggesting affected myoblast fusion. Indeed, a detailed analysis of developing muscles in Pglym78 RNAi embryos reveals loss of fusion-associated actin foci and an inefficient Notch decay in fusion competent myoblasts, both known to be required for fusion. In addition to Pglym78, our screen identifies six other genes involved in glycolysis or in pyruvate metabolism (Pfk, Tpi, Gapdh, Pgk, Pyk, and Impl3). They are synchronously activated in embryonic muscles and attenuation of their expression leads to similar muscle phenotypes, which are characterized by fibers with reduced size and the presence of unfused myoblasts. Our data also show that the cell size triggering insulin pathway positively regulates glycolysis in developing muscles and that blocking the insulin or target of rapamycin pathways phenocopies the loss of function phenotypes of glycolytic genes, leading to myoblast fusion arrest and reduced muscle size. Collectively, these data suggest that setting metabolism to glycolysis-stimulated biomass production is part of a core myogenic program that operates in both invertebrate and vertebrate embryos and promotes formation of syncytial muscles.
    Keywords: Danio Rerio ; Morpholino ; Drosophila -- Embryology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental -- Physiology ; Giant Cells -- Physiology ; Glycolysis -- Physiology ; Muscles -- Embryology ; Myoblasts -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of cell biology, 03 May 2010, Vol.189(3), pp.527-39
    Description: The chaperones Unc45b and Hsp90a are essential for folding of myosin in organisms ranging from worms to humans. We show here that zebrafish Unc45b, but not Hsp90a, binds to the putative cytidine deaminase Apobec2 (Apo2) in an interaction that requires the Unc45/Cro1p/She4p-related (UCS) and central domains of Unc45b. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of the two related proteins Apo2a and Apo2b causes a dystrophic phenotype in the zebrafish skeletal musculature and impairs heart function. These phenotypic traits are shared with mutants of unc45b, but not with hsp90a mutants. Apo2a and -2b act nonredundantly and bind to each other in vitro, which suggests a heteromeric functional complex. Our results demonstrate that Unc45b and Apo2 proteins act in a Hsp90a-independent pathway that is required for integrity of the myosepta and myofiber attachment. Because the only known function of Unc45b is that of a chaperone, Apo2 proteins may be clients of Unc45b but other yet unidentified processes cannot be excluded.
    Keywords: Phenotype ; Cytidine Deaminase -- Genetics ; Embryo, Nonmammalian -- Metabolism ; Muscle, Skeletal -- Embryology ; Zebrafish -- Embryology ; Zebrafish Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00219525
    E-ISSN: 1540-8140
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Les Ateliers de l’Ethique, 01 September 2013, Vol.8(2), pp.110-120
    Description: Gilabert argues that the humanist conception of duties of global justice and the principle of cosmopolitan justifiability will lead us to accept an egalitarian definition of individual autonomy. Gilabert further argues that realizing conditions of individual autonomy can serve as the cut-off point to duties of global justice. I investigate his idea of autonomy, arguing that in order to make sense of this claim, we need a concept of autonomy. I propose 4 possible definitions of autonomy, none of which seem to necessitate Gilabert’s duties of egalitarian global justice. Instead, I propose that he may have in mind Autonomy 5, which requires that individuals have access to a maximum number of options and not simply a sufficient range of options to choose from. I criticize this premise as too demanding in the global world characterized by fundamental inequality. Second, I argue that if we were to endorse the preconditions for Autonomy 5, we would have to accept that Gilabert’s theory of global justice doesn’t provide for a cut-off point of duties of global justice.
    Keywords: Global Justice ; Political Science
    ISSN: 1718-9977
    E-ISSN: 1718-9977
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  • 10
    Language: German
    In: Logos, 01 October 2018, Vol.51, pp.81-98
    Description: This paper aims to tackle Arendt’s thinking in connection with our current knowledge on the history of Greece, in order to examine the philosopher’s interpretation of the Greek world – a special emphasis will be placed on the concepts of action, nomos and freedom, as well as on the importance of the agora’s political space. Furthermore, I intend to put into question those readings that attribute a kind of naïve hellenophilia to Arendt, also pointing out the limitations that she herself observed within the political approach of the polis. I argue that Arendt does not find, in Ancient Greece, any of the resorts that can counterbalance action and which she considers necessary in order for it to avoid falling into hybris, such as: forgiving, promise and authority. Finally, I claim that the Roman concept of lex, due to its relational dimension, is closer to her account of politics than the Greek concept of nomos.
    Keywords: Hannah Arendt ; Grecia ; Atenas ; Roma ; Acción ; Autoridad ; Nomos ; Ágora ; Philosophy
    ISSN: 1575-6866
    E-ISSN: 1988-3242
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