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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental monitoring and assessment, 2011, Vol.174(1), pp.65-89
    Description: This study evaluates the acidification status and trends in streams of forested mountain ranges in Germany in consequence of reduced anthropogenic deposition since the mid 1980s. The analysis is based on water quality data for 86 long-term monitored streams in the Ore Mountains, the Bavarian Forest, the Fichtelgebirge, the Harz Mountains, the Spessart, the Black Forest, the Thuringian Forest, and the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge of Germany and the Vosges of France. Within the observation period, which starts for the individual streams between 1980 and 2001 and ends between 1990 and 2009, trends in chemical water quality were calculated with the Seasonal Mann Kendall Test. About 87% of the streams show significant (p 〈 0.05) negative trends in sulfate. The general reduction in acid deposition resulted in increased pH values (significant for 66% of the streams) and subsequently decreased base cation concentrations in the stream water (for calcium significant in 58% and magnesium 49% of the streams). Reaction products of acidification such as aluminum (significant for 50%) or manganese (significant for 69%) also decreased. Nitrate (52% with significant decrease) and chloride (38% with significant increase) have less pronounced trends and more variable spatial patterns. For the quotient of acidification, which is the ratio of the sum of base cations and the sum of acid anions, no clear trend is observed: in 44% of the monitored streams values significantly decreased and in 23% values significantly increased. A notable observation is the increasing DOC concentration, which is significant for 55% of the observed streams. ; Includes references ; p. 65-89.
    Keywords: Water Quality ; Forested Watersheds ; Acidification ; Deposition
    ISSN: 0167-6369
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2011, Vol.174(1), pp.65-89
    Description: This study evaluates the acidification status and trends in streams of forested mountain ranges in Germany in consequence of reduced anthropogenic deposition since the mid 1980s. The analysis is based on water quality data for 86 long-term monitored streams in the Ore Mountains, the Bavarian Forest, the Fichtelgebirge, the Harz Mountains, the Spessart, the Black Forest, the Thuringian Forest, and the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge of Germany and the Vosges of France. Within the observation period, which starts for the individual streams between 1980 and 2001 and ends between 1990 and 2009, trends in chemical water quality were calculated with the Seasonal Mann Kendall Test. About 87% of the streams show significant ( p 〈 0.05) negative trends in sulfate. The general reduction in acid deposition resulted in increased pH values (significant for 66% of the streams) and subsequently decreased base cation concentrations in the stream water (for calcium significant in 58% and magnesium 49% of the streams). Reaction products of acidification such as aluminum (significant for 50%) or manganese (significant for 69%) also decreased. Nitrate (52% with significant decrease) and chloride (38% with significant increase) have less pronounced trends and more variable spatial patterns. For the quotient of acidification, which is the ratio of the sum of base cations and the sum of acid anions, no clear trend is observed: in 44% of the monitored streams values significantly decreased and in 23% values significantly increased. A notable observation is the increasing DOC concentration, which is significant for 55% of the observed streams.
    Keywords: Water quality ; Acidification ; Forested catchments ; Deposition ; Germany
    ISSN: 0167-6369
    E-ISSN: 1573-2959
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  • 3
    In: Modern Pathology, 2017
    Description: Atypical fibroxanthomas and pleomorphic dermal sarcomas are tumors arising in sun-damaged skin of elderly patients. They have differing prognoses and are currently distinguished using histological criteria, such as invasion of deeper tissue structures, necrosis and lymphovascular or perineural invasion. To investigate the as-yet poorly understood genetics of these tumors, 41 atypical fibroxanthomas and 40 pleomorphic dermal sarcomas were subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing approaches as well as DNA copy number analysis by comparative genomic hybridization. In an analysis of the entire coding region of 341 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in 13 atypical fibroxanthomas using an established hybridization-based next-generation sequencing approach, we found that these tumors harbor a large number of mutations. Gene alterations were identified in more than half of the analyzed samples in FAT1, NOTCH1/2, CDKN2A, TP53, and the TERT promoter. The presence of these alterations was verified in 26 atypical fibroxanthoma and 35 pleomorphic dermal sarcoma samples by targeted amplicon-based next-generation sequencing. Similar mutation profiles in FAT1, NOTCH1/2, CDKN2A, TP53, and the TERT promoter were identified in both atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma. Activating RAS mutations (G12 and G13) identified in 3 pleomorphic dermal sarcoma were not found in atypical fibroxanthoma. Comprehensive DNA copy number analysis demonstrated a wide array of different copy number gains and losses, with similar profiles in atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma. In summary, atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma are highly mutated tumors with recurrent mutations in FAT1, NOTCH1/2, CDKN2A, TP53, and the TERT promoter, and a range of DNA copy number alterations. These findings suggest that atypical fibroxanthomas and pleomorphic dermal sarcomas are genetically related, potentially representing two ends of a common tumor spectrum and distinguishing these entities is at present still best performed using histological criteria.
    Keywords: Cadherins -- Genetics ; Receptor, Notch1 -- Genetics ; Receptor, Notch2 -- Genetics ; Sarcoma -- Genetics ; Skin Neoplasms -- Genetics;
    ISSN: 0893-3952
    E-ISSN: 1530-0285
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Modern Pathology, 3/2018, Vol.31(3), pp.376-377
    ISSN: 0893-3952
    E-ISSN: 1530-0285
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neuro-oncology, May 2016, Vol.127(3), pp.435-44
    Description: Melanocytic tumors originating in the central nervous system (MT-CNS) are rare tumors that generally have a favorable prognosis, however malignant tumors do occur. Pathogenetically MT-CNS are not well characterized. Similar to uveal melanoma and blue nevi, they frequently harbor activating GNAQ or GNA11 mutations. Rare NRAS mutations have also been reported. Other mutations have not yet been described. We analyzed 19 MT-CNS, 7 uveal melanomas and 19 cutaneous melanomas using a targeted next generation sequencing approach analyzing 29 genes known to be frequently mutated in other melanocytic tumors (in particular uveal and cutaneous melanomas). In concordance with previous studies, cutaneous melanoma samples showed frequent NRAS or BRAF mutations, as well as mutations in other genes (e.g. NF1, RAC1, PIK3CA, ARID1A). Metastasized uveal melanomas exhibited mutations in GNAQ, GNA11 and BAP1. In contrast, MT-CNS almost exclusively demonstrated mutations in GNAQ (71 %) or GNA11 (12 %). Interestingly both GNA11 mutations identified were detected in MT-CNS diagnosed as intermediate grade melanocytomas which also recurred. One of these recurrent cases also harbored an inactivating BAP1 mutation and was found to have lost one copy of chromosome 3. Our findings show that while MT-CNS do have GNAQ or GNA11 mutations, they rarely harbor other recurrent mutations found in uveal or cutaneous melanomas. Considering chromosome 3 and BAP1 loss are robust markers of poor prognosis in uveal melanoma, it will prove interesting to determine whether these genomic alterations are also of prognostic significance in MT-CNS.
    Keywords: Bap1 ; Gna11 ; Gnaq ; Melanocytoma ; Biomarkers, Tumor -- Genetics ; Central Nervous System Neoplasms -- Genetics ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing -- Methods ; Melanoma -- Genetics ; Mutation -- Genetics ; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0167594X
    E-ISSN: 1573-7373
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