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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied microbiology and biotechnology, December 2013, Vol.97(24), pp.10263-73
    Description: Microsomal fraction of fungal cells grabs the attention of many researchers for it contains enzymes that play a role in biotechnologically relevant processes. Microsomal enzymes, namely, CYP450s, were shown to metabolize a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, including PAHs, PCBs, dioxins, and endocrine disruptors, and take part in other fungal biotransformation reactions. However, little is known about the nature and regulation of these membrane-associated reactions. Advanced proteomic and post-genomic techniques make it possible to identify larger numbers of microsomal proteins and thus add to a deeper study of fungal intracellular processes. In this work, proteins that were identified through a shotgun proteomic approach in fungal microsomes under various culture conditions are reviewed. However, further research is still needed to fully understand the role of microsomes in fungal biodegradation and biotransformation reactions.
    Keywords: Fungi -- Enzymology ; Intracellular Membranes -- Enzymology ; Membrane Proteins -- Metabolism ; Microsomes -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 01757598
    E-ISSN: 1432-0614
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2018, Vol.102(1), pp.39-46
    Description: White-rot fungi are renowned for their remarkable potential to degrade a wide range of organic pollutants. They are applicable in standard bioreactors offering both the use of the continuous mode of action and easy upscaling of the biodegradation process. The recent advance in this field consisted in the use of various fungi and different types of reactors in the treatment of real wastewaters. Most degradation studies involving white-rot fungi carried out so far used controlled, aseptic conditions. However, during bioremediation of real wastewaters, the degradation capacity of the fungi would be significantly affected by autochthonous microorganisms. Consequently, for the development of sustainable bioremediation technologies, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in the intermicrobial interactions occurring during the bioremediation process. This review summarizes recent applications of white-rot fungi to biodegradation of recalcitrant organopollutants under non-sterile conditions describing the invading microorganism(s) and the way how they affect the stability and degradation efficiency of the fungal bioreactor cultures. In addition, studies where fungal cultures were exposed to defined microbial stress are also reported documenting the effect and mechanisms of microbial interactions. Advanced OMICs techniques, specifically the genomics and metabolomics analyses, are suggested to help in identification of the invading microorganisms and in discovery of mechanisms taking part in the interspecific interactions.
    Keywords: Waste effluents ; Bioremediation ; White-rot fungal bioreactors ; Non-sterile conditions ; Microbial stress ; Community structure
    ISSN: 0175-7598
    E-ISSN: 1432-0614
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2010, Vol.88(4), pp.839-847
    Description: Identification of chemicals with endocrine-disrupting activities in the past two decades has led to the need for sensitive assays for detection and monitoring of these activities in the environment. In vitro reporter gene assays represent a relatively fast and easy-to-perform method for detection of compounds that are able to bind to hormonal receptors and stimulate or silence their transactivation activity, thus interfering with the hormone signaling pathways. This paper reviews upgrades on reporter gene assays performed during the last decade. The utilization of new reporter genes (luciferase and green fluorescent protein coding genes) significantly improved the sensitivity of the tests and made them faster. Reporter gene assays now represent a high-throughput system for screening chemicals for hormonal activity. Finally, modification of test set-ups for testing anti-hormonal activities also enabled measurements of endocrine-disrupting activities in complex environmental samples such as sediments and wastewater treatment plant effluents.
    Keywords: Endocrine disruptors ; In vitro bioassays ; Reporter gene assays ; S. cerevisiae ; MCF-7 ; Luciferase
    ISSN: 0175-7598
    E-ISSN: 1432-0614
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, 2011, Vol.102(2), pp.879-888
    Description: Low efficiency of dye removal by mixed bacterial communities and high rates of dye decolorization by white-rot fungi suggest a combination of both processes to be an option of treatment of textile wastewaters containing dyes and high concentrations of organics. Bacteria were able to remove mono-azo dye but not other chemically different dyes whereas decolorization rates using mostly exceeded 90% within less than one week irrespective of dye structure. Decolorization rates for industrial textile wastewaters containing 2–3 different dyes by fungal trickling filters (FTF) attained 91%, 86%, 35% within 5–12 d. Sequential two-step application of FTF and bacterial reactors resulted in efficient decolorization in 1st step (various single dyes, 94–99% within 5 d; wastewater I, 90% within 7 d) and TOC reduction of 95–97% in the two steps. Large potential of combined use of white-rot fungi and traditional bacterial treatment systems for bioremediation of textile wastewaters was demonstrated.
    Keywords: Textile Wastewater Treatment ; Fungal Trickling Filter ; Mixed Bacterial Community ; Irpex Lacteus ; Two-Step Degradation Process ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, June 2012, Vol.114, pp.241-246
    Description: ► Selection of a fungus for use in rotating biological contactor (RBC) for remediation. ► Biochemical and degradation properties of biofilms of selected determined. ► The role of MnP and laccase in degradation of anthraquinone dye proven. ► The fungus degraded anthraquinone and phenothiazine dyes in RBC with 〉90% efficiency. ► The fungus tolerant to bacterial stress by coliform and non-coliform bacteria. Biodegradation potential of in biofilm cultures and rotating biological contactor (RBC) was investigated. The fungus formed thick biofilms on inert and lignocellulosic supports and exhibited stable activities of laccase and manganese peroxidase to reach 40–62 and 25–32% decolorization of anthraquinone Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic phthalocyanine dyes, respectively. The decolorization ceased when glucose concentration dropped to 1 mmol l . In RBC reactor, respective decolorizations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic Methylene Blue and Azure B dyes (50 mg l ) attained 99%, 93%, and 59% within 7, 40 and 200 h. The fungus exhibited tolerance to coliform and non-coliform bacteria on rich organic media, the inhibition occurred only on media containing tryptone and NaCl. The degradation efficiency in RBC reactor, capability to decolorize a wide range of dye structures and tolerance to bacterial stress make an organism applicable to remediation of textile wastewaters.
    Keywords: Dichomitus Squalens ; Biodegradation ; Biofilm Cultures ; Rotating Biological Contactor ; Bacterial Stress ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource technology, 2012, Vol.114, pp.241-246
    Description: Biodegradation potential of Dichomitus squalens in biofilm cultures and rotating biological contactor (RBC) was investigated. The fungus formed thick biofilms on inert and lignocellulosic supports and exhibited stable activities of laccase and manganese peroxidase to reach 40–62 and 25–32% decolorization of anthraquinone Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic phthalocyanine dyes, respectively. The decolorization ceased when glucose concentration dropped to 1mmoll⁻¹. In RBC reactor, respective decolorizations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic Methylene Blue and Azure B dyes (50mgl⁻¹) attained 99%, 93%, and 59% within 7, 40 and 200h. The fungus exhibited tolerance to coliform and non-coliform bacteria on rich organic media, the inhibition occurred only on media containing tryptone and NaCl. The degradation efficiency in RBC reactor, capability to decolorize a wide range of dye structures and tolerance to bacterial stress make D. squalens an organism applicable to remediation of textile wastewaters. ; p. 241-246.
    Keywords: Biodegradation ; Sodium Chloride ; Fungi ; Biofilm ; Glucose ; Coliform Bacteria ; Fabrics ; Stress Tolerance ; Methylene Blue ; Decolorization ; Manganese Peroxidase ; Remediation
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2011, Vol.196, pp.386-394
    Description: ► Several promising ligninolytic fungi were examined to degrade chlorobenzoic acids. ► The fungi were also tested in contaminated soil reaching 85–99% of degradation. ► Significant reduction of toxicity was observed during the processes. ► A number of new transformation products have been found. ► Analysis of ergosterol showed the importance of colonization for the degradation. We investigated the abilities of several perspective ligninolytic fungal strains to degrade 12 mono-, di- and trichloro representatives of chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs) under model liquid conditions and in contaminated soil. Attention was also paid to toxicity changes during the degradation, estimated using two luminescent assay variations with . The results show that almost all the fungi were able to efficiently degrade CBAs in liquid media, where , and appeared to be the most effective in the main factors: degradation and toxicity removal. Analysis of the degradation products revealed that methoxy and hydroxy derivatives were produced together with reduced forms of the original acids. The findings suggest that probably more than one mechanism is involved in the process. Generally, the tested fungal strains were able to degrade CBAs in soil in the 85–99% range within 60 days. Analysis of ergosterol showed that active colonization is an important factor for degradation of CBAs by fungi. The most efficient strains in terms of degradation were , , in soil, which were also able to actively colonize the soil. However, in contrast to and , was not able to significantly reduce the measured toxicity.
    Keywords: Chlorobenzoic Acid ; Polychlorinated Biphenyls ; Biodegradation ; White Rot Fungi ; Irpex Lacteus ; Engineering ; Law
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    E-ISSN: 1873-3336
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of hazardous materials, 2011, Vol.196, pp.386-394
    Description: We investigated the abilities of several perspective ligninolytic fungal strains to degrade 12 mono-, di- and trichloro representatives of chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs) under model liquid conditions and in contaminated soil. Attention was also paid to toxicity changes during the degradation, estimated using two luminescent assay variations with Vibrio fischeri. The results show that almost all the fungi were able to efficiently degrade CBAs in liquid media, where Irpex lacteus, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and Dichomitus squalens appeared to be the most effective in the main factors: degradation and toxicity removal. Analysis of the degradation products revealed that methoxy and hydroxy derivatives were produced together with reduced forms of the original acids. The findings suggest that probably more than one mechanism is involved in the process. Generally, the tested fungal strains were able to degrade CBAs in soil in the 85–99% range within 60 days. Analysis of ergosterol showed that active colonization is an important factor for degradation of CBAs by fungi. The most efficient strains in terms of degradation were I. lacteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Bjerkandera adusta in soil, which were also able to actively colonize the soil. However, in contrast to P. ostreatus and I. lacteus, B. adusta was not able to significantly reduce the measured toxicity. ; p. 386-394.
    Keywords: Luminescence ; Biodegradation ; Acids ; Fungi ; Toxicity ; Ergosterol ; Bjerkandera Adusta ; Pleurotus Ostreatus ; Pycnoporus ; Polluted Soils ; Irpex Lacteus ; Vibrio Fischeri
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: Czech
    In: 1211 – 555X
    Description: Process management is a necessary form of long-term maintenance of the company on the market. Searching of reserves in the process and finding elements to continuous process improvement is the cornerstone of process management. Process owner is responsible for the quality of output and the efficient performance of the process, thus he or she has the power to manage the process, monitors and evaluates the performance of the process, solves problems and is responsible for systematic process improvement. But if the process is the responsibility of the parent company (for transnational companies), or the process is the responsibility of third parties (for outsourced activities), then the process improvement is loaded with diversified competencies of stakeholders.
    Keywords: Zlepšování Procesů ; Diverzifikace Kompetencí ; Modelování Procesních Změn
    Source: University of Pardubice
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2010, Vol.183(1), pp.669-676
    Description: This study comparatively investigated the PAH degradation ability of and in a historically polluted soil and creosote-impregnated shavings. With this regard, the effect of type of inoculum carrier ( , wheat straw, corn cobs and commercial pellets) and contaminant bioavailability was thoroughly determined. Although degradation performances of were not significantly affected by the type of the support, they were invariably better than those of on both the polluted soil and the creosote-impregnated shavings. Although degradation efficiencies of all fungal microcosms were highly and significantly correlated with bioavailability, certain PAHs, such as chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, were removed by from the polluted soil at amounts that exceeded about 2.3-fold their respective bioavailabilities. Degradation of PAHs was negatively correlated with their organic carbon sorption coefficients ( ) and hydrophobicity (log ). The strength of linear association with the latter parameter, however, was not affected by the type of contaminated matrix in -based microcosms while it was significantly larger in the historically polluted soil than in the creosote-impregnated shavings in ones.
    Keywords: Biodegradation ; White Rot Fungi ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Fungal Growth ; Lentinus ( Panus) Tigrinus ; Irpex Lacteus ; Engineering ; Law
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    E-ISSN: 1873-3336
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