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  • 1
    Other
    Other
    University of British Columbia
    Language: English
    Description: The concept of hydrologic connectivity provides a temporally dynamic aspect to an otherwise static description of streamflow generation processes. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the linkages between slopes, riparian zones and streams – the three main constitutive landscape elements of steep montane catchments – and the ways in which hydrologic connectivity affects hydrological processes. The research was conducted in Cotton Creek Experimental Watershed (CCEW), a snow-dominated meso-scale catchment located in the Kootenay Mountains, south-eastern British Columbia, Canada. First, the controls on slope water delivery to the stream were examined across a range of flow regimes. The spatial patterns and their dominant controls shifted from high to low flow. Catchment contributing area and slope length were good predictors of streamflow generation during high flow periods. At low flow, a new topographic index reflecting the spatial organization of flow pathways within a catchment was the dominant control on streamflow generation. Second, the dynamics of coupling between slopes, riparian zone and stream were examined through analysis of streamflow diel fluctuations. Periods representing high, intermediate and low baseflow were selected to investigate the dominant controls on diel fluctuations at nine stream gauges arranged in a nested design. Streamflow diel fluctuations were...
    Source: DataCite
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2011, Vol.396(3), pp.277-291
    Description: ► Specification of spatially distributed lateral fluxes affects solute transport parameter estimates. ► Information contained on the breakthrough curve alone is insufficient to select the appropriate model structure. ► Implementation of , the lateral ouflow, in OTIS leads to solute mass to groundwater. ► The absence of implementation of in OTIS promotes the storage of solute mass in the transient storage zone. Interactions between mobile stream water and transient storage zones have been the subject of careful attention for decades. However, few studies have considered explicitly the influence of water exchange between the channel and neighbouring hydrological units when modelling transient storage processes, especially the lateral inflow coming from hillslope contributions and outflow to a deep aquifer or to hyporheic flow paths extending beyond the study reach. The objective of this study was to explore the influence of different conceptualizations of these hydrologic exchanges on the estimation of transient storage parameters. Slug injections of sodium chloride (NaCl) were carried out in eight contiguous reaches in the Cotton Creek Experimental Watershed (CCEW), located in south-east British Columbia. Resulting breakthrough curves were subsequently analysed using a Transient Storage Model (TSM) in an inverse modelling framework. We estimated solute transport parameters using three distinct, hypothetical spatial patterns of lateral inflow and outflow, all based on variations of the same five-parameter model structure. We compared optimized parameter values to those resulting from a distinct four-parameter model structure meant to represent the standard application of the TSM, in which only lateral inflow was implemented for net gaining reaches or only lateral outflow for net losing reaches. In the five-parameter model, solute mass was stored predominantly in the transient storage zone and slowly released back to the stream. Conversely, solute mass was predominantly removed from the stream via flow losses in the four-parameter model structure. This led to contrasting estimates of solute transport parameters and subsequent interpretation of solute transport dynamics. Differences in parameter estimates across variations of the five-parameter model structure were small yet statistically significant, except for the transient storage exchange rate coefficient , for which unique determination was problematic. We also based our analysis on , the fraction of median transport time due to transient storage. Differences across configurations in estimates were consistent but small when compared to the variability of among reaches. Optimized parameter values were influenced dominantly by the model structure (four versus five parameters) and then by the conceptualization of spatial arrangement of lateral fluxes along the reach for a set model structure. When boundary conditions are poorly defined, the information contained in the stream tracer breakthrough curve is insufficient to identify a single, unambiguous model structure representing solute transport simulations. Investigating lateral fluxes prior to conducting a study on transient storage processes is necessary, as assuming a certain spatial organization of these fluxes might set ill-defined bases for inter-reach comparisons. Given the difficulty in quantifying the spatial patterns and magnitudes of lateral inputs and outputs, we recommend small-scale laboratory tracer experiments with well-defined and variable boundary conditions as a complement to field studies to provide new insights into stream solute dynamics.
    Keywords: Transient Storage ; Flow Loss ; Flow Gain ; Otis ; Uncertainty ; Model Structure ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 3
    Dissertation
    Dissertation
    University of British Columbia
    Language: English
    Description: The concept of hydrologic connectivity provides a temporally dynamic aspect to an otherwise static description of streamflow generation processes. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the linkages between slopes, riparian zones and streams – the three main constitutive landscape elements of steep montane catchments – and the ways in which hydrologic connectivity affects hydrological processes. The research was conducted in Cotton Creek Experimental Watershed (CCEW), a snow-dominated meso-scale catchment located in the Kootenay Mountains, south-eastern British Columbia, Canada. First, the controls on slope water delivery to the stream were examined across a range of flow regimes. The spatial patterns and their dominant controls shifted from high to low flow. Catchment contributing area and slope length were good predictors of streamflow generation during high flow periods. At low flow, a new topographic index reflecting the spatial organization of flow pathways within a catchment was the dominant control on streamflow generation. Second, the dynamics of coupling between slopes, riparian zone and stream were examined through analysis of streamflow diel fluctuations. Periods representing high, intermediate and low baseflow were selected to investigate the dominant controls on diel fluctuations at nine stream gauges arranged in a nested design. Streamflow diel fluctuations were generated by evapotranspiration, the diurnal pattern of which was represented using vapour pressure deficit measured at a weather station within the catchment. Response times between climatic forcing and the various stream gauges revealed that both in-stream wave advection and dispersion processes, and transient storage processes in the riparian aquifers needed to be accounted for to explain spatio-temporal patterns of streamflow diel fluctuations. Last, the influence of slope water contributions to the stream on modelled solute transient storage and in-stream transport was examined. It was found that calibrated parameters representing transient storage vary systematically with the assumed magnitude and location of water fluxes to and from the stream.
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 4
    Dissertation
    Dissertation
    University of British Columbia
    Language: English
    Description: The concept of hydrologic connectivity provides a temporally dynamic aspect to an otherwise static description of streamflow generation processes. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the linkages between slopes, riparian zones and streams – the three main constitutive landscape elements of steep montane catchments – and the ways in which hydrologic connectivity affects hydrological processes. The research was conducted in Cotton Creek Experimental Watershed (CCEW), a snow-dominated meso-scale catchment located in the Kootenay Mountains, south-eastern British Columbia, Canada. First, the controls on slope water delivery to the stream were examined across a range of flow regimes. The spatial patterns and their dominant controls shifted from high to low flow. Catchment contributing area and slope length were good predictors of streamflow generation during high flow periods. At low flow, a new topographic index reflecting the spatial organization of flow pathways within a catchment was the dominant control on streamflow generation. Second, the dynamics of coupling between slopes, riparian zone and stream were examined through analysis of streamflow diel fluctuations. Periods representing high, intermediate and low baseflow were selected to investigate the dominant controls on diel fluctuations at nine stream gauges arranged in a nested design. Streamflow diel fluctuations were generated by evapotranspiration, the diurnal pattern of which was represented using vapour pressure deficit measured at a weather station within the catchment. Response times between climatic forcing and the various stream gauges revealed that both in-stream wave advection and dispersion processes, and transient storage processes in the riparian aquifers needed to be accounted for to explain spatio-temporal patterns of streamflow diel fluctuations. Last, the influence of slope water contributions to the stream on modelled solute transient storage and in-stream transport was examined. It was found that calibrated parameters representing transient storage vary systematically with the assumed magnitude and location of water fluxes to and from the stream.
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Physical Review Letters, 11/1999, Vol.83(20), pp.3982-3985
    Description: All bell- and kink-shaped solitons sustained by an infinite periodic atomic chain of arbitrary anharmonicity are worked out by solving a second-order, nonlinear differential equation involving advanced and retarded terms. The asymptotic time decay behaves exponentially or as a power law according to whether the potential has a harmonic limit or not. Excellent agreement is achieved with Toda's model. Illustrative examples are also given for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam and sine-Gordon potentials. Lattice and continuum solitons differ markedly from one another.
    Keywords: Physics;
    ISSN: 0031-9007
    E-ISSN: 1079-7114
    Source: American Physical Society (APS) (via CrossRef)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Physical Review E, 1/1998, Vol.57(1), pp.1134-1138
    Keywords: Physics;
    ISSN: 1063-651X
    E-ISSN: 1095-3787
    Source: American Physical Society (APS) (via CrossRef)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 2000, Vol.288(1), pp.225-243
    Description: The existence of bell- and kink-shaped solitons moving at constant velocity while keeping a permanent profile is studied in infinite periodic monoatomic chains of arbitrary anharmonicity by taking advantage of the equation of motion being integrable with respect to solitons. A second-order, non-linear differential equation involving advanced and retarded terms must be solved, which is done by implementing a scheme based on the finite element and Newton's methods. If the potential has a harmonic limit, the asymptotic time-decay behaves exponentially and there is a dispersion relation between propagation velocity and decay time. Inversely if the potential has no harmonic limit, the asymptotic regime shows up either as a power-law or faster than exponential. Excellent agreement is achieved with Toda's model. Illustrative examples are also given for the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam and sine-Gordon potentials. Owing to integrability an effective one-body potential is worked out in each case. Lattice and continuum solitons differ markedly from one another as regards the amplitude versus propagation velocity relationship and the asymptotic time behavior. The relevance of the linear stability analysis when applied to solitons propagating in an infinite crystal is questioned. The reasons preventing solitons from arising in a diatomic lattice are discussed.
    Keywords: Lattice Solitons ; Integrability ; Non-Linear Differential Equations ; Physics
    ISSN: 0378-4371
    E-ISSN: 1873-2119
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