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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Desalination, Jan 1, 2016, Vol.377, p.65(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2015.09.013 Byline: Hiroshi Tanaka Abstract: In this study, a combination of vertical multiple-effect diffusion solar still and tilted wick still is proposed and theoretically analyzed. The vertical multiple-effect diffusion still consists of a double glass cover and a number of vertical and parallel partitions in contact with saline-soaked wicks with narrow air gaps between the partitions. The moisture-rich layers of air in the tilted wick still and the multiple-effect still are connected so that the vapor evaporated from the wick of the tilted wick still can be transported to the humid air layer between the inner glass cover and the first partition of the multiple-effect still by natural convection. The latent heat of condensation of the vapor on the front surface of the first partition can be utilized as an added heat source for the multiple-effect still. It was found that solar energy utilized in the multiple-effect still would be adequate year-round. The total daily distillate production was predicted to be about 19.2, 16.0 and 15.9kg/m.sup.2 day on the spring equinox and summer and winter solstices, respectively, when the diffusion gaps between partitions is 5mm and the number of partitions is 10. Article History: Received 23 June 2015; Revised 28 August 2015; Accepted 8 September 2015
    Keywords: Solar Energy – Analysis
    ISSN: 0011-9164
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron Letters, 16 May 2012, Vol.53(20), pp.2493-2495
    Description: Synthesis of (±)-gallocatechin and (±)-epigallocatechin gallates by electrophilic cycloarylation is reported. The precursors for cyclization were prepared by reagent-controlled stereo-selective opening of epoxide with phenol. Activation of the -oxidized , -acetal enabled electrophilic cycloarylation to stereoselectively provide the acylated catechins.
    Keywords: Flavonols ; Epoxide ; Enone ; Sulfoxide ; Trifluoroacetic Acid ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    E-ISSN: 1873-3581
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron, 2011, Vol.67(51), pp.10011-10016
    Description: We report on the fluorous-assisted synthesis of oligosaccharides using a phenyl ether linker. The phenyl ether linker is stable under both acidic and basic conditions but can be cleaved under mildly acidic conditions after reduction to a vinyl ether. The utility of the method was demonstrated by the synthesis of a trisaccharide. A protected trisaccharide with a light-fluorous tag was directly prepared by one-pot glycosylation using three building blocks that contained a building block with a light-fluorous tag though a phenyl ether. A Birch reduction of the trisaccharide provided a fully deprotected trisaccharide with the fluorous tag attached through a vinyl ether, which was easily purified by solid-phase extraction. The tag was cleaved from the sugar portion by treatment with 3% TFA in MeOH.
    Keywords: One-Pot Glycosylation ; Oligosaccharides ; Hydroquinone ; Vinyl Ether ; Birch Reduction ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4020
    E-ISSN: 1464-5416
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Desalination, Sept 17, 2012, Vol.302, p.43(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2012.06.019 Byline: Hiroshi Tanaka, Chang-Dae Park Keywords: Desalination; Distillation; Multiple-effect; Portable electric generator; Waste heat; Heat pipe Abstract: A seawater distiller utilizing the thermal energy of waste gas from a portable electric generator by means of heat pipe was constructed and tested with actual waste gas from a small portable electric generator. The distiller tested is a vertical single-effect diffusion still, whose structure is equivalent to the first distilling cell of a vertical multiple-effect diffusion still, consisting of a series of closely spaced parallel partitions in contact with saline-soaked wicks. Evaporation and condensation processes were repeated on all partitions by recycling thermal energy to increase the distillate productivity in the still. All of the experiments were performed in steady-state conditions. Experimental results for the distillate productivity are in good agreement with theoretical predictions, and show that 40 to 50% of thermal energy of waste gas can be transported by heat pipe and about 35% of thermal energy of waste gas can be utilized for the distillation of saline water. Article History: Received 8 March 2012; Revised 11 June 2012; Accepted 12 June 2012
    Keywords: Water Resources ; Desalination ; Seawater ; Electric Generators
    ISSN: 0011-9164
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Desalination, 2011, Vol.273(2), pp.405-413
    Description: This paper presents a theoretical analysis of a tilted wick solar still with a flat plate bottom reflector extending from the lower edge of the still on four days (the spring and autumn equinox and summer and winter solstices) at 30°N latitude when the still's inclination is fixed at 30° and the reflector's length is the same as the still's length. We propose a geometrical model to calculate the solar radiation reflected by the bottom reflector and then absorbed on the evaporating wick. We also performed a numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer in the still. We found that the bottom reflector can reflect the sunrays to the evaporating wick and increase distillate productivity of the tilted wick still when the reflector's inclination is larger than about 15° on the spring and autumn equinox and winter solstice, and 25° on the summer solstice, and the average distillate value for four days is greatest when the reflector's inclination is about 35° and would be about 13% greater than that of a conventional tilted wick still. ► Flat plate bottom reflector increases distillate output of tilted wick solar still. ► The still's inclination is fixed at 30°. ► The optimum reflector's inclination was found. ► Average increase ratio is 13% throughout the year.
    Keywords: Solar Desalination ; Solar Distillation ; Solar Still ; Tilted Wick ; Bottom Reflector ; Mirror ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0011-9164
    E-ISSN: 1873-4464
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Desalination, 2011, Vol.279(1), pp.243-251
    Description: A basin type solar still with a flat plate external bottom reflector extending from the front wall of the still in addition to the internal (two sides and back walls) reflector is presented and analyzed theoretically on three days (the spring equinox and summer and winter solstices) at 30°N latitude. We proposed a geometrical model to calculate the direct solar radiation reflected by the external bottom reflector and then absorbed onto the basin liner. We also performed a numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer in the still. We found that the external reflector can reflect the sunrays to the basin liner and increase distillate productivity. The daily amount of distillate of the still with internal and external bottom reflector is predicted to be 41%, 25% and 62% greater than that of a conventional basin type still on the spring equinox and summer and winter solstices, respectively, by setting the external reflector's inclination to the proper values according to the seasons when the glass cover's inclination angle is fixed at 20° from horizontal and the length of the external reflector is the same as the length of the basin liner. ► Flat plate bottom reflector of basin type solar still is analyzed theoretically. ► The glass cover inclination is fixed at 20°. ► The optimum reflector's inclination was found on three typical days. ► The bottom reflector can increase the distillate productivity of basin type still.
    Keywords: Solar Desalination ; Solar Distillation ; Solar Still ; Basin ; Bottom Reflector ; Mirror ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0011-9164
    E-ISSN: 1873-4464
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Desalination, 15 April 2017, Vol.408, pp.119-126
    Description: A parametric investigation was performed theoretically for a solar still consisting of a vertical multiple-effect unit (MEU) and a tilted wick unit (TWU). Thermal input to MEU is the latent heat of vapor from TWU and solar radiation directly incident on MEU. Parameters analyzed in this study were the inclination angle of TWU, the ratio of the height of MEU to the length of TWU, air gap sizes in double glass covers of MEU and TWU, and the distance between the plates and number of plates used in MEU. Each parameter was analyzed to find the optimum value to produce the maximum daily production of distilled water. With optimum conditions, the total daily production of the still would be competitive with other types of multiple-effect stills. Outdoor experiment with 4-effect MEU was also performed, and it was found that the discrepancy between experimental and theoretical results was about 10%.
    Keywords: Solar Desalination ; Solar Distillation ; Solar Still ; Multiple-Effect ; Tilted Wick ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0011-9164
    E-ISSN: 1873-4464
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  • 8
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(7)
    Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate scatter radiation dose to the subject surface during X-ray computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy using the integrated dose ratio (IDR) of an X-ray dose profile derived from an optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeter. We aimed to obtain quantitative evidence supporting the radiation protection methods used during previous CT fluoroscopy. A multislice CT scanner was used to perform this study. OSL dosimeters were placed on the top and the lateral side of the chest phantom so that the longitudinal direction of dosimeters was parallel to the orthogonal axis-to-slice plane for measurement of dose profiles in CT fluoroscopy. Measurement of fluoroscopic conditions was performed at 120 kVp and 80 kVp. Scatter radiation dose was evaluated by calculating the integrated dose determined by OSL dosimetry. The overall percent difference of the integrated doses between OSL dosimeters and ionization chamber was 5.92%. The ratio of the integrated dose of a 100-mm length area to its tails (−50 to −6 mm, 50 to 6 mm) was the lowest on the lateral side at 80 kVp and the highest on the top at 120 kVp. The IDRs for different measurement positions were larger at 120 kVp than at 80 kVp. Similarly, the IDRs for the tube voltage between the primary X-ray beam and scatter radiation was larger on the lateral side than on the top of the phantom. IDR evaluation suggested that the scatter radiation dose has a high dependence on the position and a low dependence on tube voltage relative to the primary X-ray beam for constant dose rate fluoroscopic conditions. These results provided quantitative evidence supporting the radiation protection methods used during CT fluoroscopy in previous studies.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Desalination, 16 January 2017, Vol.402, pp.19-24
    Description: A single-effect diffusion still, instead of a multiple-effect diffusion (MED) still, combined with a tilted wick (TW) still was investigated experimentally under actual weather conditions to investigate whether the natural convection can transport the vapor from the TW still to an MED still adequately. It was found that the single-effect still can be heated by vapor from the TW still and solar radiation absorbed on the single-effect still. From the experiments in summer and autumn, it was found that an MED still can be heated in both seasons whether the MED still absorbs solar radiation directly or not. The experimental results agreed with the calculation results. The total daily amount of distillate, Σ , did not correlate with the daily horizontal solar radiation, Σ , but strongly correlated with daily solar radiation incident on the still, Σ . The maximum of Σ obtained in experiments was about 4.88 kg/m day when Σ and Σ were 13.6 and 18.4 MJ/m day, respectively.
    Keywords: Solar Desalination ; Solar Still ; Multiple-Effect ; Tilted Wick ; Outdoor Experiment ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0011-9164
    E-ISSN: 1873-4464
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Desalination, 01 January 2016, Vol.377, pp.65-72
    Description: In this study, a combination of vertical multiple-effect diffusion solar still and tilted wick still is proposed and theoretically analyzed. The vertical multiple-effect diffusion still consists of a double glass cover and a number of vertical and parallel partitions in contact with saline-soaked wicks with narrow air gaps between the partitions. The moisture-rich layers of air in the tilted wick still and the multiple-effect still are connected so that the vapor evaporated from the wick of the tilted wick still can be transported to the humid air layer between the inner glass cover and the first partition of the multiple-effect still by natural convection. The latent heat of condensation of the vapor on the front surface of the first partition can be utilized as an added heat source for the multiple-effect still. It was found that solar energy utilized in the multiple-effect still would be adequate year-round. The total daily distillate production was predicted to be about 19.2, 16.0 and 15.9 kg/m day on the spring equinox and summer and winter solstices, respectively, when the diffusion gaps between partitions is 5 mm and the number of partitions is 10.
    Keywords: Solar Desalination ; Solar Still ; Multiple-Effect ; Diffusion ; Tilted Wick ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0011-9164
    E-ISSN: 1873-4464
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