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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2011, Vol.22(9), pp.865-873
    Description: Soy isoflavones have been implicated to exert benefit on bone loss in postmenopausal women. Isoflavones can induce estrogen response element-mediated transcription in osteoblastic cells. In the present study, we investigate whether isoflavones genistein and daidzein regulate target gene transcription through cAMP regulatory element (CRE) in osteoblastic cells. It was found that 17β-estradiol (E ), genistein and daidzein suppressed the transcriptional activity of CRE-luciferase reporter gene in human osteoblastic cell line MG-63 cells. E and genistein but not daidzein inhibited the cAMP analogue 8-Br cAMP-induced transcription of CRE reporter gene. Both genistein and E inhibited basal and cAMP-induced mRNA levels of endogenous estrogen responsive genes containing CRE/CRE-like elements in their promoter regions, including interleukin (IL) 8 and serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). Daidzein inhibited basal and cAMP-induced IL-8, but not SGK1 mRNA expression. The inhibitory effects of E , genistein and daidzein on CRE-mediated transcription activity were enhanced by estrogen receptor (ER) α overexpression in MG-63 cells, which could be blocked by nonselective ER antagonists ICI182780, 4-OH tamoxifen and specific ERα antagonist MPP. Genistein and daidzein, but not E treatment, caused a significant decrease in CRE-mediated transcription activity in ERβ-transfected MG-63 cells, which could be blocked by ICI182780, 4-OH tamoxifen and the selective ERβ antagonist ( , )-5,11-diethyl-5.6,11,12-tetradro-2,8-chrysenediol. Our results indicate that isoflavones genistein and daidzein might modulate bone remodeling through ERs by regulating target gene expression through the CRE motifs.
    Keywords: Isoflavone ; Estrogen Receptor ; Cyclic Adenosine 3′,5′-Monophosphate Regulatory Element ; Transcription ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition
    ISSN: 0955-2863
    E-ISSN: 1873-4847
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, Oct 1, 2015, Vol.353, p.164(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.05.029 Byline: Ruben Guisasola, Xiaolu Tang, Jurgen Bauhus, David I. Forrester Abstract: * Interspecific variability was larger than intraspecific variability. * Vertical leaf area distributions were related to shade tolerance. * L. formosana had largest intraspecific variability and was least shade tolerant. * C. glauca had lowest intraspecific variability. Article History: Received 6 March 2015; Revised 16 May 2015; Accepted 22 May 2015
    Keywords: Architecture
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 10 January 2016, Vol.319, pp.233-254
    Description: The growth dynamics and ecosystem services from mixed-species stands are often difficult to predict because the way a given combination of species interacts changes as resource availability or climatic conditions change from site to site or as stands develop over time. Empirical data for many of these situations is often nonexistent. The forest growth model 3-PG was adapted for mixed-species forests and for thinned stands by modifying the light-absorption routine and allowing for within-canopy vertical gradients in climate in the water balance routine. It was also adapted for deciduous species and to predict diameter distributions. The resulting model, 3-PG , was used to examine the growth dynamics of subtropical mixed-species forests containing , and , with a wide range of stand densities in Shitai County, Anhui Province, China. After parameterizing and calibrating 3-PG using data from monocultures, its predictions of leaf and stem biomass, basal area and light absorption by each species within the mixture were highly correlated with measured values. 3-PG also predicted spatial and temporal changes in complementarity, expressed as the relative differences in growth of a given species in mixture compared with its monoculture. Complementarity was predicted to change as the stands developed, across gradients in fertility and rainfall, and also at different stand densities. Such information could be used to suggest potential species compositions, species proportions and thinning regimes for new mixed-species plantations or the responses of existing mixtures to changes in species proportions, stand density and climate. 3-PG is widely used as a routine management tool for monospecific stands and this study shows that it could potentially be used for mixed-species stands as well.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Biomass ; Complementarity ; Forest Growth Model ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Ecological modelling, 2016, Vol.319, pp.233-254
    Description: The growth dynamics and ecosystem services from mixed-species stands are often difficult to predict because the way a given combination of species interacts changes as resource availability or climatic conditions change from site to site or as stands develop over time. Empirical data for many of these situations is often nonexistent. The forest growth model 3-PG was adapted for mixed-species forests and for thinned stands by modifying the light-absorption routine and allowing for within-canopy vertical gradients in climate in the water balance routine. It was also adapted for deciduous species and to predict diameter distributions. The resulting model, 3-PGmix, was used to examine the growth dynamics of subtropical mixed-species forests containing Castanopsis sclerophylla, Cunninghamia lanceolata and Liquidambar formosana, with a wide range of stand densities in Shitai County, Anhui Province, China. After parameterizing and calibrating 3-PGmix using data from monocultures, its predictions of leaf and stem biomass, basal area and light absorption by each species within the mixture were highly correlated with measured values. 3-PGmix also predicted spatial and temporal changes in complementarity, expressed as the relative differences in growth of a given species in mixture compared with its monoculture. Complementarity was predicted to change as the stands developed, across gradients in fertility and rainfall, and also at different stand densities. Such information could be used to suggest potential species compositions, species proportions and thinning regimes for new mixed-species plantations or the responses of existing mixtures to changes in species proportions, stand density and climate. 3-PG is widely used as a routine management tool for monospecific stands and this study shows that it could potentially be used for mixed-species stands as well. ; p. 233-254.
    Keywords: Forests ; Stand Density ; Ecosystem Services ; Biomass ; Castanopsis ; Prediction ; Biodiversity ; Cunninghamia Lanceolata ; Growth Models ; Basal Area ; Water Balance ; Leaves ; Biomass ; Complementarity ; Temporal Variation ; Plantations ; Absorption ; Forest Growth Model ; Climatic Factors ; Forest Growth ; Rain ; Liquidambar Formosana
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 October 2015, Vol.353, pp.164-172
    Description: Absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) is fundamental for tree growth and is strongly influenced by crown architecture. The aim of this study was to quantify the intra- and inter-specific variability in crown architecture in monospecific and mixed-species subtropical Chinese forests. A total of 68 trees, including , , , and were destructively sampled and their crown architectures were quantified in terms of the vertical distribution of live branch diameter, individual branch leaf area, leaf area and leaf-area density. The vertical distributions were fitted by a two-parameter right truncated Weibull distribution. Inter-specific variability was assessed using ANCOVA and post hoc Tukey tests and intra-specific variability was assessed by fitting linear and linear mixed effect models. The peak in the vertical distribution of leaf area was highest for the least shade tolerant species, (relative depth into the crown of 0.5), intermediate for (0.55), (0.55) and (0.6) and lowest for (0.75). For all species, the vertical distribution of leaf area was influenced by tree size except for . For and , the distribution of leaf area or branch sizes shifted upwards as tree diameter increased, possibly to overtop neighbouring trees. In contrast, as stem diameter increased, the vertical distribution of mean branch diameter shifted downwards, indicating that larger trees invested a higher proportion of their crown growth into their lower crown when compared to smaller trees. The vertical distribution of leaf-area density varied between species but not within a given species. Crown architectures were not influenced by stand density (basal area) or the species composition of the plot. This intra-specific consistency is useful for modelling light in forests. This study shows that there is a significant inter-specific variability in the crown architectures of the co-occurring species in these subtropical forests. There is also significant intra-specific variability related to tree size and this relationship varies between species. This crown architectural variability and its effect on stand structure are likely to influence the light absorption of these stands.
    Keywords: Intra-Specific Variability ; Inter-Specific Variability ; Crown Architecture ; Leaf-Area Density ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Catena, February 2016, Vol.137, pp.219-228
    Description: Moso bamboo forests represent an important forest type commonly found throughout subtropical China and are characterized by fast growing forests, and involves intensive management, such as reclamation, fertilization, and understory removal. However, effects of intensive management on soil respiration ( ) and net ecosystem production (NEP) remain unclear. In this study, was partitioned into root respiration ( ), litter respiration ( ), and soil organic matter derived respiration ( ) by litter removal and trenching approaches. One-year measurements of respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were conducted in an unmanaged and an intensively managed stand. Regardless of stand management, and source components increased exponentially with soil temperature and linearly with soil moisture. Temperature sensitivity ( ) ranged from 1.6 to 2.5, with the highest value for , highlighting the importance of in regulating the response of to soil temperature change. Annual , , , and were 32.6, 10.7, 6.9, and 15.0 t CO ha a for unmanaged stand, compared to 38.6, 12.5, 7.1, and 18.9 t CO ha a for intensive managed stand, respectively, indicating that intensive management increased by and . Intensive management also increased NEP with 17.2 t CO ha a for unmanaged stand and 20.4 t CO ha a for intensive managed stand. This increase was mainly attributed to the increase in net primary production of bamboo forests under intensive management. However, the sustainability of intensive management needs further investigation due to the reduction of soil organic carbon content after intensive management. Forest management associated with the reduction in soil CO flux and increase in stand production should be developed for Moso bamboo forests.
    Keywords: Soil Respiration ; Net Ecosystem Production ; Soil Temperature ; Soil Moisture ; Temperature Sensitivity ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Neuroscience, 01 March 2018, Vol.373, pp.52-59
    Description: Tau protein participates in microtubule stabilization, axonal transport, and protein trafficking. Loss of normal tau function will exert a negative effect. However, current knowledge on the impact of tau deficiency on the motor behavior and related neurobiological changes is controversial. In this study, we examined motor functions and analyzed several proteins implicated in the maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons (mDANs) function of adult and aged , , mice. We found tau deficiency could not induce significant motor disorders. However, we discovered lower expression levels of transcription factors Orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) of mDANs in older aged mice. Compared with age-matched mice, there were 54.1% lower (  = 0.0192) OTX2 protein (OTX2-fluorescence intensity) in VTA DA neurons of mice and 43.6% lower (  = 0.0249) OTX2 protein in VTA DA neurons of mice at 18 months old. Combined with the relevant reports, our results suggested that tau deficiency alone might not be enough to mimic the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. However, OTX2 down-regulation indicates that mDANs of tau-deficient mice will be more sensitive to toxic damage from MPTP.
    Keywords: Tau Deficiency ; Midbrain ; Dopaminergic Neuron ; Orthodenticle Homeobox 2 ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0306-4522
    E-ISSN: 1873-7544
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  • 8
    In: Critical Care Medicine, 2011, Vol.39(3), pp.518-526
    Description: OBJECTIVES:: Reversible adrenal insufficiency frequently has been diagnosed in critically ill patients with sepsis who have either low basal cortisol levels or low cortisol responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. It is generally accepted that a phenomenon called “endotoxin tolerance” contributes to immunosuppression during sepsis. The present study was to investigate whether endotoxin tolerance occurs in the adrenal gland, leading to hyporesponsiveness of adrenal gland during sepsis. DESIGN:: Controlled laboratory experiment. SETTING:: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS:: Sprague-Dawley male rats 200–250 g and primary isolated adrenal fasciculata-reticularis cells. INTERVENTIONS:: Rats received intra-arterial injection of purified lipopolysaccharide (0.5 mg/kg) through indwelling femoral arterial catheters, and 24 hrs later the adrenocortical sensitivity to exogenous ACTH (10 ng/kg) was detected. Primary fasciculata-reticularis cells were pretreated with lipopolysaccharide at 0.1–100 ng/mL or with ACTH at 0.01–10 ng/mL and then challenged, in fresh media, with 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide or 10 ng/mL ACTH. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Toll-like receptor 4 was expressed in adrenal gland and primary fasciculata-reticularis cells. Plasma corticosterone response to ACTH was decreased in rats receiving preinjection of lipopolysaccharide. Lipopolysaccharide pretreatment caused a significant decrease in corticosterone production in response to subsequent ACTH and lipopolysaccharide stimulation in primary fasciculata-reticularis cells. Lipopolysaccharide pretreatment inhibited ACTH- and lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of steroid metabolizing enzymes. Lipopolysaccharide significantly decreased Toll-like receptor 4 and ACTH receptor expression. CONCLUSIONS:: Pre-exposure to lipopolysaccharide resulted in hyporesponsiveness to ACTH stimulation in rats. In vitro, lipopolysaccharide pretreatment impaired corticosterone production of fasciculata-reticularis cells in response to ACTH and lipopolysaccharide, which was associated with decreased expression of synthetic enzymes required for corticosterone production. Our results indicate that endotoxin tolerance of adrenal gland is one of the mechanisms for adrenocortical insufficiency during sepsis.
    Keywords: Adrenal Glands -- Physiopathology ; Adrenocorticotropic Hormone -- Pharmacology ; Corticosterone -- Biosynthesis ; Endotoxins -- Pharmacology ; Lipopolysaccharides -- Pharmacology ; Sepsis -- Physiopathology;
    ISSN: 0090-3493
    E-ISSN: 15300293
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Chinese Librarianship: An International Electronic Journal, 01 June 2014, Issue 37, pp.26-34
    Description: This study discusses the development of a collaborative digital reference service in Jiangsu Province, China. 13 city and 6 county libraries have participated in the Joint Reference Network of Public Libraries in Jiangsu Province hosted by Nanjing Library.
    Keywords: Collaborative Digital Reference Service ; Jiangsu Province ; China ; Nanjing Library ; Library & Information Science
    E-ISSN: 1089-4667
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, Jan 22, 2016, Vol.11(1)
    Description: Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook) is one of the most important plantation tree species in China with good timber quality and fast growth. It covers an area of 8.54 million hectare, which corresponds to 21% of the total plantation area and 32% of total plantation volume in China. With the increasing market demand, an accurate estimation and prediction of merchantable volume at tree- and stand-level is becoming important for plantation owners. Although there are many studies on the total tree volume estimation from allometric models, these allometric models cannot predict tree- and stand-level merchantable volume at any merchantable height, and the stand-level merchantable volume model was not seen yet in Chinese fir plantations. This study aimed to develop (1) a compatible taper function for tree-level merchantable volume estimation, and (2) a stand-level merchantable volume model for Chinese fir plantations. This "taper function system" consisted in a taper function, a merchantable volume equation and a total tree volume equation. 46 Chinese fir trees were felled to develop the taper function in Shitai County, Anhui province, China. A second-order continuous autoregressive error structure corrected the inherent serial autocorrelation of different observations in one tree. The taper function and volume equations were fitted simultaneously after autocorrelation correction. The compatible taper function fitted well to our data and had very good performances in diameter and total tree volume prediction. The stand-level merchantable volume equation based on the ratio approach was developed using basal area, dominant height, quadratic mean diameter and top diameter (ranging from 0 to 30 cm) as independent variables. At last, a total stand-level volume table using stand basal area and dominant height as variables was proposed for local forest managers to simplify the stand volume estimation.
    Keywords: Forest Management -- Research ; Clinical Trials -- Usage
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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