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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, November 2015, Vol.197(22), pp.3573-82
    Description: Bacteriophage λ N protein binds boxB RNA hairpins in the nut (N utilization) sites of immediate early λ transcripts and interacts with host factors to suppress transcriptional termination at downstream terminators. In opposition to λ N, the Nun protein of HK022 binds the boxBs of coinfecting λ transcripts, interacts with a similar or identical set of host factors, and terminates transcription to suppress λ replication. Comparison of N-boxB and Nun-boxB nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural models suggests similar interactions, though limited mutagenesis of Nun is available. Here, libraries of Nun's arginine-rich motif (ARM) were screened for the ability to exclude λ coinfection, and mutants were assayed for Nun termination with a boxB plasmid reporter system. Several Nun ARM residues appear to be immutable: Asp26, Arg28, Arg29, Arg32, Trp33, and Arg36. Asp26 and Trp33 appear to be unable to contact boxB and are not found at equivalent positions in λ N ARM. To understand if the requirement of Asp26, Trp33, and Arg36 indicated differences between HK022 Nun termination and λ N antitermination complexes, the same Nun libraries were fused to the activation domain of λ N and screened for clones able to complement N-deficient λ. Mutants were assayed for N antitermination. Surprisingly, Asp26 and Trp33 were still essential when Nun ARM was fused to N. Docking suggests that Nun ARM contacts a hydrophobic surface of the NusG carboxy-terminal domain containing residues necessary for Nun function. These findings indicate that Nun ARM relies on distinct contacts in its ternary complex and illustrate how protein-RNA recognition can evolve new regulatory functions. λ N protein interacts with host factors to allow λ nut-containing transcripts to elongate past termination signals. A competing bacteriophage, HK022, expresses Nun protein, which causes termination of λ nut transcripts. λ N and HK022 Nun use similar arginine-rich motifs (ARMs) to bind the same boxB RNAs in nut transcripts. Screening libraries of Nun ARM mutants, both in HK022 Nun and in a λ N fusion, revealed amino acids essential to Nun that could bind one or more host factors. Docking suggests that NusG, which is present in both Nun termination and N antitermination, is a plausible partner. These findings could help understand how transcription elongation is regulated and illustrate how subtle differences allow ARMs to evolve new regulatory functions.
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs -- Physiology ; Arginine -- Chemistry ; Bacteriophage Lambda -- Metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Viral -- Physiology ; Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, 2015, Vol.197(21-22), p.3573(10)
    Description: Bacteriophage lamda N protein binds boxB RNA hairpins in the nut (N utilization) sites of immediate early transcripts and interacts with host factors to suppress transcriptional termination at downstream terminators. In opposition to N, the Nun protein of HK022 binds the boxBs of coinfecting transcripts, interacts with a similar or identical set of host factors, and terminates transcription to suppress ? replication. Comparison of N-boxB and Nun-boxB nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural models suggests similar interactions, though limited mutagenesis of Nun is available. Here, libraries of Nun's arginine-rich motif (ARM) were screened for the ability to exclude coinfection, and mutants were assayed for Nun termination with a boxB plasmid reporter system. Several Nun ARM residues appear to be immutable: Asp26, Arg28, Arg29, Arg32, Trp33, and Arg36. Asp26 and Trp33 appear to be unable to contact boxB and are not found at equivalent positions in N ARM. To understand if the requirement of Asp26, Trp33, and Arg36 indicated differences between HK022 Nun termination and N antitermination complexes, the same Nun libraries were fused to the activation domain of N and screened for clones able to complement N-deficient . Mutants were assayed for N antitermination. Surprisingly, Asp26 and Trp33 were still essential when Nun ARM was fused to N. Docking suggests that Nun ARM contacts a hydrophobic surface of the NusG carboxy-terminal domain containing residues necessary for Nun function. These findings indicate that Nun ARM relies on distinct contacts in its ternary complex and illustrate how protein-RNA recognition can evolve new regulatory functions.
    Keywords: Arginine – Research ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance – Research
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    In: EMBO Journal, 03 December 2018, Vol.37(23), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: While mucosal inflammation is a major source of stress during enteropathogen infection, it remains to be fully elucidated how the host benefits from this environment to clear the pathogen. Here, we show that host stress induced by different stimuli mimicking inflammatory conditions strongly reduces the binding of to epithelial cells. Mechanistically, stress activates acid sphingomyelinase leading to host membrane remodeling. Consequently, knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase blunts the stress‐dependent inhibition of binding to host cells. Interestingly, stress caused by intracellular replication also results in remodeling of the host cell membrane, and , which precludes re‐infection by this and other non‐motile pathogens. In contrast, Typhimurium overcomes the shortage of permissive entry sites by gathering effectively at the remaining platforms through its flagellar motility. Overall, our findings reveal host membrane remodeling as a novel stress‐responsive cell‐autonomous defense mechanism that protects epithelial cells from infection by non‐motile bacterial pathogens. Stress‐induced host membrane remodeling constitutes a novel cell‐autonomous defensive mechanism that protects epithelial cells from infection by and other non‐motile bacterial pathogens. Host oxidative stress strongly reduces S. flexneri binding to epithelial cells. Stress leads to host membrane remodeling, via activation of the acid sphingomyelinase by the MAPK p38 pathway, resulting in the formation of ceramide domains. Intracellular Shigella replication induces remodeling of the host cell membrane, in vitro and in vivo. Stress‐induced host membrane remodeling precludes re‐infection by non‐motile pathogens; motile pathogens are able to overcome this barrier through flagellar motility. Host membrane remodeling is a cell‐autonomous defense mechanism that protects epithelial cells from infection by .
    Keywords: Acid Sphingomyelinase ; Host Stress Response ; Membrane Remodeling ; Salmonella ; Shigella
    ISSN: 0261-4189
    E-ISSN: 1460-2075
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2017, Vol.7(1), pp.9328-9328
    Description: Many pathogenic bacteria utilize specialized secretion systems to deliver proteins called effectors into eukaryotic cells for manipulation of host pathways. The vast majority of known effector targets are host proteins, whereas a potential targeting of host nucleic acids remains little explored. There is only one family of effectors known to target DNA directly, and effectors binding host RNA are unknown. Here, we take a two-pronged approach to search for RNA-binding effectors, combining biocomputational prediction of RNA-binding domains (RBDs) in a newly assembled comprehensive dataset of bacterial secreted proteins, and experimental screening for RNA binding in mammalian cells. Only a small subset of effectors were predicted to carry an RBD, indicating that if RNA targeting was common, it would likely involve new types of RBDs. Our experimental evaluation of effectors with predicted RBDs further argues for a general paucity of RNA binding activities amongst bacterial effectors. We obtained evidence that PipB2 and Lpg2844, effector proteins of Salmonella and Legionella species, respectively, may harbor novel biochemical activities. Our study presenting the first systematic evaluation of the RNA-targeting potential of bacterial effectors offers a basis for discussion of whether or not host RNA is a prominent target of secreted bacterial proteins.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Pathogens, 01 April 2017, Vol.13(4), p.e1006327
    Description: MicroRNAs play an important role in the interplay between bacterial pathogens and host cells, participating as host defense mechanisms, as well as exploited by bacteria to subvert host cellular functions. Here, we show that microRNAs modulate infection by Shigella flexneri, a major causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. Specifically, we characterize the dual regulatory role of miR-29b-2-5p during infection, showing that this microRNA strongly favors Shigella infection by promoting both bacterial binding to host cells and intracellular replication. Using a combination of transcriptome analysis and targeted high-content RNAi screening, we identify UNC5C as a direct target of miR-29b-2-5p and show its pivotal role in the modulation of Shigella binding to host cells. MiR-29b-2-5p, through repression of UNC5C, strongly enhances filopodia formation thus increasing Shigella capture and promoting bacterial invasion. The increase of filopodia formation mediated by miR-29b-2-5p is dependent on RhoF and Cdc42 Rho-GTPases. Interestingly, the levels of miR-29b-2-5p, but not of other mature microRNAs from the same precursor, are decreased upon Shigella replication at late times post-infection, through degradation of the mature microRNA by the exonuclease PNPT1. While the relatively high basal levels of miR-29b-2-5p at the start of infection ensure efficient Shigella capture by host cell filopodia, dampening of miR-29b-2-5p levels later during infection may constitute a bacterial strategy to favor a balanced intracellular replication to avoid premature cell death and favor dissemination to neighboring cells, or alternatively, part of the host response to counteract Shigella infection. Overall, these findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of microRNAs, and in particular miR-29b-2-5p, in the interaction of Shigella with host cells.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1553-7366
    E-ISSN: 1553-7374
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Description: The human-bacterial pathogen interaction is a complex process that results from a prolonged evolutionary arms race in the struggle for survival. The pathogen employs virulence strategies to achieve host colonization, and the latter counteracts using defense programs. The encounter of both organisms results in drastic physiological changes leading to stress, which is an ancient response accompanying infection. Recent evidence suggests that the stress response in the host converges with the innate immune pathways and influences the outcome of infection. However, the contribution of stress and the exact mechanism(s) of its involvement in host defense remain to be elucidated. Using the model bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri, and comparing it with the closely related pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium, this study investigated the role of host stress in the outcome of infection. Shigella infection is characterized by a pronounced pro-inflammatory response that causes intense stress in host tissues, particularly the intestinal epithelium, which constitutes the first barrier against Shigella colonization. In this study, inflammatory stress was simulated in epithelial cells by inducing oxidative stress, hypoxia, and cytokine stimulation. Shigella infection of epithelial cells exposed to such stresses was strongly inhibited at the adhesion/binding stage. This resulted from the depletion of sphingolipidrafts in the plasma membrane by the stress-activated sphingomyelinases. Interestingly, Salmonella adhesion was not affected, by virtue of its flagellar motility, which allowed the gathering of bacteria at remaining membrane rafts. Moreover, the intracellular replication of Shigella lead to a similar sphingolipid-raft depletion in the membrane across adjacent cells inhibiting extracellular bacterial invasion. Additionally, this study shows that Shigella infection interferes with the host stress granule-formation in response to stress. Interestingly, infected cells exhibited a nuclear depletion of the global RNA-binding stress-granule associated proteins TIAR and TIA-1 and their accumulation in the cytoplasm. Overall, this work investigated different aspects of the host stress-response in the defense against bacterial infection. The findings shed light on the importance of the host stress-pathways during infection, and improve the understanding of different strategies in host-pathogen interaction. Die Interaktion von Mensch und bakteriellem Krankheitserreger ist ein komplexer Prozess, der aus dem anhaltenden evolutionären Wettrüsten im Kampf ums Überleben resultiert. Der Erreger setzt Virulenzstrategien zur Kolonisierung des Wirtes ein und dieser nutzt Verteidigungsprogramme um dem entgegenzuwirken. Die Begegnung der beiden Organismen resultiert in drastischen physiologischen Veränderungen, welche zu Stress führen, der eine klassische infektionsbegleitende Reaktion ist. Neuere Untersuchungen deuten darauf hin, dass die Stressantwort des Wirtes mit den Signalwegen der angeborenen Immunantwort konvergiert und im Ergebnis die Infektion beeinflusst. Jedoch bleiben die Bedeutung des Stresses und der exakte Mechanismus wie Stress an der Verteidigung des Wirtes beteiligt ist, noch zu klären. In dieser Studie dienten der bakterielle Krankheitserreger Shigella flexneri und vergleichend dazu der nah verwandte Erreger Salmonella Typhimurium als Modellorganismen, um die Rolle von Wirtszellstress für den Ausgang der Infektion zu untersuchen. Die Infektion mit Shigellen ist durch eine ausgeprägte pro-inflammatorische Reaktion gekennzeichnet. Diese versursacht in den Wirtsgeweben, insbesondere im Darmepithel, einen starken Stress, der die erste Barriere gegen die Besiedelung mit Shigellen darstellt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde entzündlicher Stress in Epithelzellen durch die Induktion von oxidativem Stress, Hypoxie und Zytokinstimulation simuliert. Die Shigelleninfektion von Epithelzellen, die solchen Belastungen ausgesetzt waren, war stark im Adhäsions-/ Bindungsstadium gehemmt. Dies resultierte aus der Verarmung von Sphingolipidflößen in der Plasmamembran durch stressaktivierte Sphingomyelinasen. Interessanterweise wurde die Adhäsion von Salmonellen, aufgrund ihrer Flaggellenvermittelten Beweglichkeit, nicht beeinträchtigt und ermöglichte so die Ansammlung von Bakterien an den verbleibenden Membranflößen. Darüber hinaus führte die intrazelluläre Replikation von Shigellen zu einer ähnlichen Verminderung von Sphingolipidflößen in der Membran benachbarter Zellen, wodurch die extrazelluläre bakterielle Invasion gehemmt wurde. Zusätzlich zeigt diese Studie, dass eine Infektion mit Shigellen mit der Bildung von Stressgranula in der Wirtszelle interferiert. Interessanterweise zeigten infizierte Zellen eine nukleäre Depletion der globalen RNA-bindenden und Stressgranula assoziierten Proteine TIAR und TIA-1 sowie deren Akkumulation im Zytoplasma. Insgesamt untersuchte diese Arbeit verschiedene Aspekte der Stressreaktion der Wirtszelle bei der Verteidigung gegen bakterielle Infektionen. Die Ergebnisse beleuchten die Bedeutung der Stresssignalwege im Wirt während der Infektion und verbessern das Verständnis der verschiedenen Strategien in der Interaktion von Wirt und Krankheitserreger.
    Keywords: Shigella Flexneri ; Angeborene Immunität ; Stress ; Ddc:570 ; Ddc:610
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: World Policy Journal, 2015, Vol.32(3), pp.3-8
    ISSN: 0740-2775
    E-ISSN: 1936-0924
    Source: Sage Publications (via CrossRef)
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