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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Diabetic Medicine, January 2012, Vol.29(1), pp.153-153
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03398.x Byline: R. Taylor
    Keywords: Insulin ; Diabetes Mellitus;
    ISSN: 0742-3071
    E-ISSN: 1464-5491
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    National Academy of Sciences
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, Vol.109(13), pp.4804-4809
    Description: Policies incentivizing the private sector to reach its innovative potential in "clean" technologies are likely to play a key role in achieving climate stabilization. This article explores the relationship between innovation and cap-and-trade programs (CTPs)—the world's most prominent climate policy instrument—through empirical evidence drawn from successful CTPs for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide control. The article shows that before trading began for these CTPs, analysts overestimated the value of allowances in a pattern suggestive of the frequent a priori overestimation of the compliance costs of regulation. When lower-than-expected allowance prices were observed, in part because of the unexpected range of abatement approaches used in the lead-up to trading, emissions sources chose to bank allowances in significant numbers and reassess abatement approaches going forward. In addition, commercially oriented inventive activity declined for emissions-reducing technologies with a wide range of costs and technical characteristics, dropping from peaks before the establishment of CTPs to nadirs a few years into trading. This finding is consistent with innovators deciding during trading that their research and development investments should be reduced, based on assessments of future market conditions under the relevant CTPs. The article concludes with a discussion of the results and their implications for innovation and climate policy. ; p. 4804-4809.
    Keywords: Sulfur Dioxide ; Emissions ; New Technology ; Issues And Policy ; Prices ; Nitrogen Oxides ; Research And Development ; Compliance ; Climate ; Private Sector
    ISSN: 0027-8424
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Behavioural Brain Research, 01 December 2012, Vol.235(2), pp.293-301
    Description: ► Chronic intranasal detergent exposure causes reversible olfactory deafferentation. ► Medial glomeruli are severely affected, but lateral glomeruli retain innervation. ► Behavioral preference for bile salts is lost, but amino acid detection remains. ► Glomerular distribution in the olfactory bulb returns with olfactory organ recovery. ► Olfactory-mediated response to bile salts returns with glomerular reinnervation. The olfactory system is a useful model for studying central nervous system recovery from damage due to its neuroplasticity. We recently developed a novel method of deafferentation by repeated exposure of Triton X-100 to the olfactory organ of adult zebrafish. This long-term, reversible method of deafferentation allows both degeneration and regeneration to be observed in the olfactory bulb. The aim of the present study is to examine olfactory bulb innervation, glomerular patterns, and olfactory-mediated behavior with repeated Triton X-100 treatment and the potential for recovery following cessation of treatment. Olfactory bulbs of control, chronic-treated, and recovery animals were examined for the presence or absence of glomeruli that have been identified in the zebrafish glomerular map. Following chronic treatment, the number of glomeruli was dramatically reduced; however, partial innervation remained in the lateral region of the bulb. When animals were given time to recover, complete glomerular distribution returned. A behavioral assay was developed to determine if innervation remaining correlated with behavior of the fish. Chronic-treated fish did not respond to odorants involved with social behavior but continued to react to odorants that mediate feeding behavior. Following recovery, responses to odorants involved with social behavior returned. The morphological and behavioral effects of chronic Triton X-100 treatment in the olfactory system suggest there may be differential susceptibility or resistance to external damage in a subset of sensory neurons. The results of this study demonstrate the remarkable regenerative ability of the olfactory system following extensive and long-term injury.
    Keywords: Chemical Lesion ; Triton X-100 ; Anti-Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin ; Amino Acid ; Bile Salts ; Regeneration ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0166-4328
    E-ISSN: 0166-4328
    E-ISSN: 18727549
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Personality and Individual Differences, October 2016, Vol.101, pp.520-520
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.321 Byline: R. Taylor, P.L. Hill
    Keywords: Psychology
    ISSN: 0191-8869
    E-ISSN: 1873-3549
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Diabetes Care, 04/01/2013, Vol.36(4), pp.1047-1055
    Description: Reversal of type 2 diabetes to normal metabolic control by either bariatric surgery or hypocaloric diet allows for the time sequence of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms to be observed. In reverse order, the same mechanisms are likely to determine the events leading to the onset of hyperglycemia and permit insight into the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Within 7 days of instituting a substantial negative calorie balance by either dietary intervention or bariatric surgery, fasting plasma glucose levels can normalize. This rapid change relates to a substantial fall in liver fat content and return of normal hepatic insulin sensitivity. Over 8 weeks, first phase and maximal rates of insulin secretion steadily return to normal, and this change is in step with steadily decreasing pancreatic fat content. The difference in time course of these two processes is striking. Recent information on the intracellular effects of excess lipid intermediaries explains the likely biochemical basis, which simplifies both the basic understanding of the condition and the concepts used to determine appropriate management. Recent large, long-duration population studies on time course of plasma glucose and insulin secretion before the diagnosis of diabetes are consistent with this new understanding. Type 2 diabetes has long been regarded as inevitably progressive, requiring increasing numbers of oral hypoglycemic agents and eventually insulin, but it is now certain that the disease process can be halted with restoration of normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Type 2 diabetes can be understood as a potentially reversible metabolic state precipitated by the single cause of chronic excess intraorgan fat. Type 2 diabetes has long been known to progress despite glucose-lowering treatment, with 50% of individuals requiring insulin therapy within 10 years (1). This seemingly inexorable deterioration in control has been interpreted to mean that the condition is treatable but not curable. Clinical guidelines recognize …
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0149-5992
    E-ISSN: 1935-5548
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of School Psychology, October 2012, Vol.50(5), pp.587-592
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2012.08.002 Byline: Angela R. Taylor Keywords: African American; Girls; Achievement gap; Risk; Resilience; Urban Article History: Received 1 August 2012; Accepted 2 August 2012 Article Note: (footnote) [star] Commentary on Fantuzzo, LeBoeuf, Rouse, and Chen (2012).
    Keywords: African American ; Girls ; Achievement Gap ; Risk ; Resilience ; Urban ; Education ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0022-4405
    E-ISSN: 1873-3506
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  • 7
    In: Limnology and Oceanography, November 2011, Vol.56(6), pp.2293-2307
    Description: The onset of phytoplankton blooms in late winter, early spring has been traditionally associated with the shoaling of the mixed layer above a critical depth. Here we show that the onset of a bloom can also be triggered by a reduction in air–sea fluxes at the end of winter. When net cooling subsides at the end of winter, turbulent mixing becomes weak, thereby increasing the residence time of phytoplankton cells in the euphotic layer and allowing a bloom to develop. The necessary change in the air–sea flux generally precedes mixed‐layer shoaling, and may provide a better indicator for the onset of the spring bloom than the mixed‐layer depth alone. Our hypothesis is supported by numerical simulations and remote sensing data.
    Keywords: Oceanography;
    ISSN: 0024-3590
    E-ISSN: 1939-5590
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Sex Roles, 2012, Vol.67(7), pp.403-411
    Description: Previous research has demonstrated that women smile more frequently and more broadly than men (Abel 2002; LaFrance et al. 2003). However, little research has focused specifically on the age at which this gender difference first emerges, and even less on the ethnic differences in smiling. This study attempts to identify the age when gender differences in smiling emerge among European American and African American children and teenagers. Additionally, we looked at the level of diversity within each school and its relation to smiling behavior. In total, 18,201 yearbook photographs ranging from kindergarten through 12th grade from 17 schools in the state of Michigan were evaluated for smile type: full smile, partial smile or no smile. Results suggest that a significant gender difference in smiling emerges around age 11. In contrast to other studies (e.g., LaFrance et al. 2003) and our own expectations, differences in smiling were found to be larger between African American boys and girls than between European American boys and girls. In addition, we found that African American girls’ smiling behavior did not differ as a function of school diversity while African American boys from predominantly African American schools displayed less smiling compared to those from mixed or predominantly European-American schools. This study provides insight into the emergence and progression of gender differences in smiling and indicates that gender as well as ethnicity and ethnic diversity are influential factors in smiling behavior.
    Keywords: Smiling ; Gender ; Ethnicity
    ISSN: 0360-0025
    E-ISSN: 1573-2762
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  • 9
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Diabetes, 04/01/2012, Vol.61(4), pp.778-779
    Description: For well over half a century, the link between insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes has been recognized. Insulin resistance is important. Not only is it the most powerful predictor of future development of type 2 diabetes, it is also a therapeutic target once hyperglycemia is present. In this issue of Diabetes , Morino et al. (1) report a series of studies that provide evidence of a genetic mechanism linking expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-δ expression and mitochondrial function. This is likely to contribute to the muscle insulin resistance that predisposes to type 2 diabetes. Observation of abnormal mitochondrial function in vitro in type 2 diabetes (2) was soon followed by in vivo demonstration of this abnormality in insulin-resistant, first-degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes (3). Further reports of a modest defect in muscle mitochondrial function in type 2 diabetes were published shortly thereafter (4,5). These studies raised the question of whether type 2 diabetes could be a primary disorder of the mitochondria. However, the study of first-degree relatives tended to be misinterpreted as having shown a major defect in mitochondrial function in type 2 diabetes, although it had studied nondiabetic groups from the opposite ends of the insulin resistance–sensitivity spectrum. Indeed, other studies showed no defect in mitochondrial function in type 2 diabetes (6,7), which led to further confusion. Mitochondrial function was then shown to be acutely modifiable by changing fatty acid availability (8) and that it …
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0012-1797
    E-ISSN: 1939-327X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Science, 09/25/2015, Vol.349(6255), pp.1494-1499
    Description: Mitochondrial diseases are among the most common and most complex of all inherited genetic diseases. The involvement of both the mitochondrial and nuclear genome presents unique challenges, but despite this there have been some remarkable advances in our knowledge of mitochondrial diseases over the past few years. A greater understanding of mitochondrial genetics has led to improved diagnosis as well as novel ways to prevent transmission of severe mitochondrial disease. These and other advances have had a major impact on patient care, but considerable challenges remain, particularly in the areas of therapies for those patients manifesting clinical symptoms associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and the tissue specificity seen in many mitochondrial disorders. This review highlights some important recent advances in mitochondrial disease but also stresses the areas where progress is essential.
    Keywords: Mutation ; DNA, Mitochondrial -- Genetics ; Mitochondria -- Metabolism ; Mitochondrial Diseases -- Genetics;
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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