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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 22 February 2011, Vol.108(8), pp.3436-41
    Description: In living organisms sugars not only provide energy and carbon skeletons but also act as evolutionarily conserved signaling molecules. The three major soluble sugars in plants are sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Information on plant glucose and sucrose signaling is available, but to date no fructose-specific signaling pathway has been reported. In this study, sugar repression of seedling development was used to study fructose sensitivity in the Landsberg erecta (Ler)/Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) recombinant inbred line population, and eight fructose-sensing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) (FSQ1-8) were mapped. Among them, FSQ6 was confirmed to be a fructose-specific QTL by analyzing near-isogenic lines in which Cvi genomic fragments were introgressed in the Ler background. These results indicate the existence of a fructose-specific signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. Further analysis demonstrated that the FSQ6-associated fructose-signaling pathway functions independently of the hexokinase1 (HXK1) glucose sensor. Remarkably, fructose-specific FSQ6 downstream signaling interacts with abscisic acid (ABA)- and ethylene-signaling pathways, similar to HXK1-dependent glucose signaling. The Cvi allele of FSQ6 acts as a suppressor of fructose signaling. The FSQ6 gene was identified using map-based cloning approach, and FSQ6 was shown to encode the transcription factor gene Arabidopsis NAC (petunia No apical meristem and Arabidopsis transcription activation factor 1, 2 and Cup-shaped cotyledon 2) domain containing protein 89 (ANAC089). The Cvi allele of FSQ6/ANAC089 is a gain-of-function allele caused by a premature stop in the third exon of the gene. The truncated Cvi FSQ6/ANAC089 protein lacks a membrane association domain that is present in ANAC089 proteins from other Arabidopsis accessions. As a result, Cvi FSQ6/ANAC089 is constitutively active as a transcription factor in the nucleus.
    Keywords: Signal Transduction ; Arabidopsis -- Metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins -- Physiology ; Fructose -- Metabolism ; Transcription Factors -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Production Research, 15 September 2012, Vol.50(18), pp.5152-5172
    Description: In this paper, we study the machine layout problem in a TFT-LCD (thin-film transistor liquid-crystal display) bay with a multiple-stacker crane in-line stocker. Unlike other material-handling systems, such as automated guided vehicles and conveyors...
    Keywords: Machine Layout Problem ; in-Line Stocker ; Tft-LCD Bay ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0020-7543
    E-ISSN: 1366-588X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(5), p.e18986
    Description: Ellagic acid (EA), a dietary polyphenolic compound, has been demonstrated to exert anti-angiogenic effect but the detailed mechanism is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the zinc chelating activity of EA contributed to its anti-angiogenic effect. ; The matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) activity, a zinc-required reaction, was directly inhibited by EA as examined by gelatin zymography, which was reversed dose-dependently by adding zinc chloride. In addition, EA was demonstrated to inhibit the secretion of MMP-2 from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as analyzed by Western blot method, which was also reversed by the addition of zinc chloride. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), known to down-regulate the MMP-2 activity, was induced by EA at both the mRNA and protein levels which was correlated well with the inhibition of MMP-2 activity. Interestingly, zinc chloride could also abolish the increase of EA-induced RECK expression. The anti-angiogenic effect of EA was further confirmed to inhibit matrix-induced tube formation of endothelial cells. The migration of endothelial cells as analyzed by transwell filter assay was suppressed markedly by EA dose-dependently as well. Zinc chloride could reverse these two effects of EA also in a dose-dependent manner. Since magnesium chloride or calcium chloride could not reverse the inhibitory effect of EA, zinc was found to be involved in tube formation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. ; Together these results demonstrated that the zinc chelation of EA is involved in its anti-angiogenic effects by inhibiting MMP-2 activity, tube formation and cell migration of vascular endothelial cells. The role of zinc was confirmed to be important in the process of angiogenesis.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Medicine ; Chemistry ; Oncology ; Pharmacology ; Developmental Biology ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2008, Vol.18(18), pp.5046-5049
    Description: SAR and effect on the NF-κB, AP-1, or CREB mediated transcription of baicalein analogs with modification of the 6th position of A ring. The water extract of ( ) has potential anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities. A major flavonoid isolated from , baicalein, was also found to have anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities. These biological activities could be due to their antioxidant action and/or effect on different signal transduction pathways. We investigated the effects of several baicalein analogs with a substitution of hydrogen of the hydroxyl group at the 6th position of A ring on three signal pathway mediated transcription (NF-κB, AP-1, and CREB) associated with inflammation and cancer growth. We found that the analogs with -alkyl group of the different carbon chain length or -benzyl activated NF-κB transcription without TNFα stimulation. Some of the analogs increased TNFα stimulated NF-κB transcription by two- to threefold. None of the analogs studied has major effect on AP-1 signal transduction with or without TPA stimulation. All of the analogs increased CREB transcription with forskolin stimulation up to twofold. However, they did not have a potent effect (less or about twofold activation) on intrinsic CREB signal transduction. The modification of baicalein at the 6th position of A ring was not correlated with change in these signal transduction pathways and cytotoxicity. Though, they are structural analogs, they are not functional analogs. Modification of baicalein at the 6th position could alter the specificity of action toward different cellular targets. Flavonoids could be chemophores in the development of drugs targeted at different signal transcriptional pathway.
    Keywords: Scutellariae Baicalensis Georgi ; Baicalein ; Structure–Activity Relationship ; Nf-Κb ; AP-1 ; Creb ; Medicine ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0960-894X
    E-ISSN: 1464-3405
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  • 5
    In: Plant Journal, August 2008, Vol.55(3), pp.372-381
    Description: encodes an AP2 family transcription factor that is a central regulator in sugar responsive gene expression in plants. Sugar‐induced regulates plant genes essential for photosynthesis, and carbon, nitrogen and lipid metabolism. ABI4 activity is induced via the ABA‐mediated sugar signalling pathway, which is initiated by the glucose sensing protein hexokinase. Natural variation in sugar sensitivity was used to identify new loci involved in sugar signalling. Five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for glucose sensitivity () were identified in a L/Cvi recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The , and loci are positioned in regions not previously associated with known sugar‐sensing genes. was fine mapped and cloned using a candidate‐gene approach. The locus was shown to encode the () gene. was previously identified as a major locus in seed dormancy control. Glucose addition induced the expression of the Cvi allele, whereas the L and Col alleles did not respond to glucose. Positive feedback was observed between the ABA‐mediated sugar signalling pathway and the Cvi allele. Expression of the Cvi allele requires the ABA‐mediated sugar signalling pathway, of which is an important component. In addition, sugar induction of was promoted by the Cvi allele
    Keywords: Sugar Signalling ; Abi4 ; Natural Variation ; Qtl Cloning ; Dog1
    ISSN: 0960-7412
    E-ISSN: 1365-313X
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  • 6
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(4)
    Description: Objective Previous genome-wide association studies have indicated an association between CDH13 genotypes and adiponectin levels. In this study, we used mediation analysis to assess the statistical association between CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels, metabolic syndrome, and related metabolic phenotypes. Methods and results A sample population of 530 Taiwanese participants was enrolled. Four CDH13 gene variants in the promoter and intron 1 regions were genotyped. After adjustment for clinical covariates, the CDH13 genotypes/haplotypes exhibited an association with the adiponectin levels (lowest P = 1.95 × 10 −11 for rs4783244 and lowest P = 3.78 × 10 −13 for haplotype ATTT ). Significant correlations were observed between the adiponectin levels and the various metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes (all P ≤ 0.005). After further adjustment for the adiponectin levels, participants with a minor allele of rs12051272 revealed a considerable association with a more favorable metabolic profile, including higher insulin sensitivity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower diastolic blood pressure, circulating levels of fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides, and as a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (all P 〈 0.05). The mediation analysis further revealed a suppression effect of the adiponectin levels on the association between CDH13 genotypes and metabolic syndrome and its related phenotypes (Sobel test; all P 〈 0.001). Conclusion The genetic polymorphisms at the CDH13 locus independently affect the adiponectin levels, whereas the adiponectin levels exhibit a suppressive effect on the association between CDH13 locus variants and various metabolic phenotypes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, these results provide further evidence of the association between the CDH13 gene variants and the risks of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    In: Journal Of Experimental Botany, 2016, Vol. 67(17), pp.5187-5202
    Description: A new temperature-sensitive albino gene, TCD5 , encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at P4 stage under low temperature in rice. Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5 , which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots.
    Keywords: Albino ; Chloroplast Development ; Map - Based Cloning ; Monooxygenase ; Rice ; Temperature - Sensitive.
    ISSN: 0022-0957
    E-ISSN: 1460-2431
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: ACM SIGACT News, 10/24/2018, Vol.49(3), pp.78-79
    ISSN: 01635700
    Source: Assciation for Computing Machinery (via CrossRef)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology, December 2005, Vol.139(4), pp.1840-52
    Description: Sugar-induced anthocyanin accumulation has been observed in many plant species. We observed that sucrose (Suc) is the most effective inducer of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. Other sugars and osmotic controls are either less effective or ineffective. Analysis of Suc-induced anthocyanin accumulation in 43 Arabidopsis accessions shows that considerable natural variation exists for this trait. The Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) accession essentially does not respond to Suc, whereas Landsberg erecta is an intermediate responder. The existing Landsberg erecta/Cvi recombinant inbred line population was used in a quantitative trait loci analysis for Suc-induced anthocyanin accumulation (SIAA). A total of four quantitative trait loci for SIAA were identified in this way. The locus with the largest contribution to the trait, SIAA1, was fine mapped and using a candidate gene approach, it was shown that the MYB75/PAP1 gene encodes SIAA1. Genetic complementation studies and analysis of a laboratory-generated knockout mutation in this gene confirmed this conclusion. Suc, in a concentration-dependent way, induces MYB75/PAP1 mRNA accumulation. Moreover, MYB75/PAP1 is essential for the Suc-mediated expression of the dihydroflavonol reductase gene. The SIAA1 locus in Cvi probably is a weak or loss-of-function MYB75/PAP1 allele. The C24 accession similarly shows a very weak response to Suc-induced anthocyanin accumulation encoded by the same locus. Sequence analysis showed that the Cvi and C24 accessions harbor mutations both inside and downstream of the DNA-binding domain of the MYB75/PAP1 protein, which most likely result in loss of activity.
    Keywords: Anthocyanins -- Biosynthesis ; Arabidopsis -- Drug Effects ; Sucrose -- Pharmacology ; Transcription Factors -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0032-0889
    E-ISSN: 15322548
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  • 10
    In: Anesthesiology, 2012, Vol.117(1), pp.149-160
    Description: BACKGROUND:: The daily fluctuations of many physiologic and behavioral parameters are differentially influenced by either central or peripheral clocks in mammals. Since substance P (SP) oscillates in some brain tissues and plays an indispensable role in modulating inflammatory pain at the spinal level, we speculated that SP mediates circadian nociception transmission at the spinal level. METHODS:: In the present study behavioral observation, real-time polymerase chain reaction, luciferase assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry stain methods were used to investigate the role of SP in the spinal circadian nociception transmission and its regulation mechanism. RESULTS:: Our results showed that under transcriptional regulation of BMAL1:CLOCK heterodimers, SPʼs coding gene Tac1 expression oscillates in dorsal root ganglion (n = 36), but not in the spinal dorsal horn. Further, the expression of SP cycled in the spinal dorsal horn, and this rhythmicity was potentially determined by circadian expression of Tac1 in dorsal root ganglion. Furthermore, the variation of SP expression induced by formalin was fluctuated in a similar rhythm to behavioral nociceptive response induced by formalin (n = 48); and the nociceptive behavioral circadian rhythm could be abolished through blockade of the SP–Neurokinin 1 receptor pathway (n = 70). Lastly, the variations of spinal SP expression and behavioral nociceptive response were in step, and both were changed by the deletion mutation of clock gene. CONCLUSIONS:: We conclude that spinal SP probably plays a pivotal role in modulating circadian inflammatory pain and suggest that peripheral circadian-regulated signaling is potentially an essential pathway for circadian nociceptive transmission.
    Keywords: Circadian Rhythm -- Physiology ; Pain -- Etiology ; Substance P -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 0003-3022
    E-ISSN: 15281175
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