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  • 1
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, May 2019, Vol.143(5), pp.1838-1848.e4
    Description: Ectopic olfactory receptors (ORs) are found in the skin, but their expression and biological function in normal skin and skin form patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are unknown. We sought to characterize the expression of ORs in the skin and assess OR-mediated biological responses of primary human keratinocytes in the presence of odorant ligands. OR expression was examined by using whole-transcriptome sequencing of skin tape strips collected from patients with AD and healthy control (HC) subjects. OR10G7 and filaggrin 1 (FLG-1) expression was analyzed by using RT-PCR and immunostaining in skin biopsy specimens and primary human keratinocytes from patients with AD and HC subjects. ATP and cyclic AMP production by control and OR10G7 small interfering RNA–transfected keratinocytes in response to odorant stimulation with acetophenone and eugenol was assessed. A total of 381 OR gene transcripts were detected in the skin samples, with the greatest OR expression detected in the skin tape strips corresponding to the upper granular layer of the skin. OR10G7 expression was significantly increased in skin biopsy specimens from patients with AD compared with those from HC subjects (  = .01) and inversely correlated with FLG-1 expression (  = .009). OR10G7 expression was greatest in undifferentiated keratinocytes from patients with AD and was downregulated with progressive differentiation. Primary human keratinocytes produced ATP, an essential neurotransmitter in sensory pathways, in response to acetophenone and eugenol, odorants previously identified as potential ligands for this receptor. This response was abolished in OR10G7 small interfering RNA–transfected keratinocytes. OR10G7 is expressed at significantly greater levels in undifferentiated keratinocytes from patients with AD compared with HC subjects. OR10G7 is likely involved in transmission of skin-induced chemosensory responses to odorant stimulation, which might modulate differential nociceptive responses in AD skin.
    Keywords: Atopic Dermatitis ; Olfactory Receptor ; Sensory ; ATP ; Keratinocytes ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0091-6749
    E-ISSN: 1097-6825
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Allergy, asthma & immunology research, July 2018, Vol.10(4), pp.290-299
    Description: The prevalence and patterns of food allergy are highly variable in different parts of the world. Differences in food allergy epidemiology may be attributed to a complex interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors, suggesting that mechanisms of food allergy may differ in various global populations. Genetic polymorphisms, migration, climate, and infant feeding practices all modulate food allergy risk, and possibly also the efficacy of interventions aimed at primary prevention of food allergy development. Approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of food allergy should thus be tailored carefully to each population's unique genetic and environmental make-up. Future research in the context of food allergy prevention should focus on elucidating factors determining differential responses between populations.
    Keywords: Food Allergy ; Atopic Dermatitis ; Food Allergy Prevention ; Genetics
    ISSN: 2092-7355
    E-ISSN: 20927363
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Allergy, asthma & immunology research, January 2019, Vol.11(1), pp.4-15
    Description: The Atopic march denotes the progression from atopic dermatitis (AD) to the development of other allergic disorders such as immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergy, allergic rhinitis and asthma in later childhood. There is increasing evidence from prospective birth cohort studies that early-onset AD is a risk factor for other allergic diseases or is found in strong association with them. Animal studies now provide mechanistic insights into the pathways that may be responsible for triggering the progression from the skin barrier dysfunction seen in AD to epicutaneous sensitization, food allergy and allergic airway disorders. Recent large randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of early interventions targeted at AD and food allergy prevention. These show great promise for research into future strategies aimed at prevention of the atopic march.
    Keywords: Atopic March ; Allergic Rhinitis, Asthma, Food Allergy ; Atopic Dermatitis
    ISSN: 2092-7355
    E-ISSN: 20927363
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology, September 2016, Vol.34(3), pp.181-189
    Description: Allergic diseases are on the rise in Asia. Aeroallergen exposure is a strong risk factor for sensitization, development and severity of atopic diseases, especially in the Asian paediatric population. Geographical and seasonal variations in aeroallergen sensitization are seen even within Asian countries and changes in aeroallergen sensitization patterns have been observed over time. Some possible reasons include climate change as well as rapid urbanization and improved sanitation which follow socioeconomic development. House dust mite allergy is present in up to 90% of Asian atopic patients, far exceeding that which is seen in Western populations which report prevalences of only 50% to 70%. Pollen and animal dander affect less than 10% of Asian patients as compared to 40-70% of individuals with asthma and allergic rhinitis living in the West, a burden almost equivalent to the dust mite burden in those regions. There is thus a pressing need for preventive measures to reduce dust mite sensitization in Asian children today.
    Keywords: Air Pollutants -- Adverse Effects ; Allergens -- Adverse Effects ; Hypersensitivity -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 0125-877X
    E-ISSN: 22288694
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, March 2018, Vol.120(3), pp.234-236
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1081-1206
    E-ISSN: 1534-4436
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Asia Pacific allergy, April 2018, Vol.8(2), pp.e14
    Description: Conventional immunotherapy (IT) for optimal control of respiratory and food allergies has been fraught with concerns of efficacy, safety, and tolerability. The development of adjuvants to conventional IT has potentially increased the effectiveness and safety of allergen IT, which may translate into improved clinical outcomes and sustained unresponsiveness even after cessation of therapy. Novel strategies incorporating the successful use of adjuvants such as allergoids, immunostimulatory DNA sequences, monoclonal antibodies, carriers, recombinant proteins, and probiotics have now been described in clinical and murine studies. Future approaches may include fungal compounds, parasitic molecules, vitamin D, and traditional Chinese herbs. More robust comparative clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety, clinical efficacy, and cost effectiveness of various adjuvants in order to determine ideal candidates in disease-specific and allergen-specific models. Other suggested approaches to further optimize outcomes of IT include early introduction of IT during an optimal window period. Alternative routes of administration of IT to optimize delivery and yet minimize potential side effects require further evaluation for safety and efficacy before they can be recommended.
    Keywords: Allergoid ; Allergy Immunology ; Immunologic Stimulation ; Immunotherapy ; Monoclonal Antibody ; Probiotics
    ISSN: 2233-8276
    E-ISSN: 22338268
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Postgraduate Medical Journal, 6 March 2015, Vol.91(1073), p.145
    Description: Hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapy drugs pose significant difficulties in management, especially when no suitable alternative is available or acceptable and delay in continuation of treatment may be life-threatening. Such reactions may be IgE- or non-IgE-mediated and have varied manifestations. Timely recognition and treatment of life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions are essential. Identification of patients at high risk of developing hypersensitivity reactions allows risk stratification to guide clinical decision-making. Skin testing for carboplatin hypersensitivity has good predictive value but is not yet established for oxaliplatin and taxane hypersensitivity. Rapid desensitisation may be considered if no suitable alternative drug is available. Available protocols have shown good safety and efficacy but must be performed in an appropriate setting with adequate monitoring. There are many avenues for research into the utility of skin testing for other chemotherapy agents as well as in vitro tests.
    Keywords: Decision Making ; Hypersensitivity ; Risk Factors ; Chemotherapy ; Taxanes ; Carboplatin ; Oxaliplatin ; Drugs ; Skin Tests ; Hypersensitivity;
    ISSN: 0032-5473
    ISSN: 00325473
    E-ISSN: 1469-0756
    E-ISSN: 14690756
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  • 9
    In: Internal Medicine Journal, September 2016, Vol.46, pp.24-25
    Description: Byline: Lydia Wong, Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Muhammad Waqas Nadeem, Ping Ping Wang, Soh Jian Yi ***** No abstract is available for this article. *****
    Keywords: Teenage Girls ; Allergy;
    ISSN: 1444-0903
    E-ISSN: 1445-5994
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Virology journal, 24 June 2016, Vol.13, pp.111
    Description: Recurrence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) pandemics continues to threaten public health. Despite increasing awareness and efforts, effective vaccine and drug treatment have yet to be available. Probiotics have gained recognition in the field of healthcare worldwide, and have been extensively prescribed to babies and young children to relieve gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances and diseases, associated or not with microbial infections. Since the faecal-oral axis represents the major route of HFMD transmission, transient persistence of probiotic bacteria in the GI tract may confer some protection against HFMD and limit transmission among children. In this work, the antiviral activity of two commercially available probiotics, namely Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis (L. reuteri Protectis) and Lactobacillus casei Shirota (L. casei Shirota), was assayed against Coxsackieviruses and Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the main agents responsible for HFMD. In vitro infection set-ups using human skeletal muscle and colon cell lines were designed to assess the antiviral effect of the probiotic bacteria during entry and post-entry steps of the infection cycle. Our findings indicate that L. reuteri Protectis displays a significant dose-dependent antiviral activity against Coxsackievirus type A (CA) strain 6 (CA6), CA16 and EV71, but not against Coxsackievirus type B strain 2. Our data support that the antiviral effect is likely achieved through direct physical interaction between bacteria and virus particles, which impairs virus entry into its mammalian host cell. In contrast, no significant antiviral effect was observed with L. casei Shirota. Should the antiviral activity of L. reuteri Protectis observed in vitro be translated in vivo, such probiotics-based therapeutic approach may have the potential to address the urgent need for a safe and effective means to protect against HFMD and limit its transmission among children.
    Keywords: Coxsackievirus ; Enterovirus 71 ; Foot and Mouth Disease ; Hand ; Lactobacillus Reuteri ; Probiotics ; Colon -- Virology ; Enterovirus A, Human -- Drug Effects ; Enterovirus Infections -- Virology ; Lactobacillus Reuteri -- Physiology ; Muscle, Skeletal -- Virology ; Probiotics -- Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1743-422X
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