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  • 1
    In: Freshwater Biology, December 2011, Vol.56(12), pp.2554-2566
    Description: 1. We investigated the Pleistocene and Holocene history of the rare mayfly EATON 1887 (Ephemeroptera: Siphlonuridae) in Europe. We used as a model species to explore the phylogeography of montane, cold‐tolerant aquatic insects with arctic–alpine distributions. 2. Using species distribution models, we developed hypotheses about the species demographic history in Central Europe and the recolonisation history of Fennoscandia. We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) sequence data and compared our genetic results with previously generated microsatellite data to explore genetic diversity distributions of . 3. We observed old lineages, deep splits and almost complete lineage sorting of mtCOI sequences among mountain ranges. These results support a periglacial survival, i.e. persistence at the periphery of Pleistocene glaciers in Central Europe. 4. There was strong differentiation between the Fennoscandian and all other populations, indicating that Fennoscandia was recolonised from a refugium not accounted for in our sampling. High degrees of population genetic structure within the northern samples suggest that Fennoscandia was recolonised by more than one lineage. However, this structure was not apparent in previously published microsatellite data, consistent with secondary contact without sexual incompatibility or with sex‐biased dispersal. 5. Our demographic analyses indicate that (i) the separation of northern and Central European lineages occurred during the early Pleistocene; (ii) Central European populations have persisted independently throughout the Pleistocene and (iii) the species extended its range about 150 000 years ago.
    Keywords: Arctic–Alpine Species ; Europe ; Mitochondrial Sequences ; Phylogeography
    ISSN: 0046-5070
    E-ISSN: 1365-2427
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  • 2
    In: Freshwater Biology, April 2014, Vol.59(4), pp.761-776
    Description: Reconstructing the phylogeographic history of a species can aid in defining areas of conservation priority. For freshwater species, historical river structure plays a significant role in explaining genetic differentiation and population structure. However, human‐induced translocations can erase the natural genetic structure, especially for species of commercial interest such as the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus). Our aim was to reconstruct the current genetic structure of the endangered noble crayfish in central Europe to identify refugial areas that are hotspots of genetic diversity. We analysed a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and the 16S rRNA from 540 noble crayfish specimens from 156 sampling sites distributed around five European sea basins. Additionally, we conducted a microsatellite analysis of 289 individuals from 22 sites. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed genetically relatively homogenous populations in central Europe that had been influenced by anthropogenic translocations. However, some areas (Eider catchment in northern Germany and Rhineland‐Palatinate in south‐western Germany) show a distinct genetic structure with endemic haplotypes and private alleles indicating (i) that these areas were refugia for A. astacus in central Europe and (ii) that these populations have not been subject to anthropogenic translocations. Further, we found the highest genetic diversity in the Black Sea basin and particularly high differentiation between populations from the western Balkans and the remaining Black Sea populations. The split between Western Balkan and the remaining European populations is estimated to have occurred approximately 700 k years before present, whereas remaining differentiations occurred within the last 450 k years. Using migration modelling, we detected that the North Sea basin and the Baltic Sea basin were colonised independently via different colonisation paths from the eastern Black Sea basin, while the western Balkans did not contribute to this colonisation. Our results suggest the existence of at least two refugial areas in south‐eastern Europe. To conserve maximum genetic diversity, conservation priorities for noble crayfish should focus on the south‐eastern European genetic hotspots and on populations in central Europe that hold an autochthonous genetic structure (e.g. Langsee in the Eider catchment area). We further propose that each river catchment should form a separate management unit to reduce anthropogenic genetic homogenisation.
    Keywords: Human‐Mediated Translocation ; Microsatellite Analysis ; Migration Model ; Mitochondrial ; Refugial Areas
    ISSN: 0046-5070
    E-ISSN: 1365-2427
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Biogeography, February 2013, Vol.40(2), pp.236-248
    Description: Keywords: Aquatic insects; COI sequences; Europe; Fennoscandia; microsatellites; phylogeography; Pleistocene; species distribution modelling Abstract Aim General models for understanding the climate-driven processes of post-glacial colonization in European arctic-alpine species are mainly derived from studies on temperate terrestrial taxa. However, cold-adapted freshwater species may tolerate or even thrive under colder climatic conditions as flowing water habitats are thermally buffered against freezing and extremely cold temperatures. Here, we investigate the European Pleistocene and Holocene history of the arctic-alpine stonefly Arcynopteryx dichroa. Location Europe. Methods We used two genetic data sets (mitochondrial sequence data and nuclear microsatellite data) to investigate the glacial survival and post-glacial recolonization routes of A. dichroa. We used species distribution models to critically evaluate our genetic data and phylogeographical interpretations. Results Among 344 sequenced individuals from eight European mountain ranges, 80 unique haplotypes were detected. Of these, 77 haplotypes were endemic to a single mountain range, indicating almost complete lineage sorting. Both sequence and microsatellite data suggested strong population differentiation between mountain ranges. The genetic hotspots were found in the Carpathians, the Balkans and the eastern Alps. The Black Forest and Fennoscandian populations exhibited shared and closely related haplotypes, indicating ancestral polymorphism in two populations that became disjunct due to vicariance or resulting from rare long-distance dispersal among disjunct northern and southern periglacial populations. Main conclusions Arcynopteryx dichroa is a glacial relict that survived glacial cycles through elevation shifts in isolated periglacial populations in the Pyrenees, the central European highlands, the Carpathians, the Balkans and the eastern Alps. The species probably recolonized the formerly glaciated Fennoscandian range from a refugium in the central European highlands, following the retreat of the ice sheet. This study suggests that aquatic organisms may have reacted differently to Pleistocene climate change compared with terrestrial species. Author Affiliation: Article Note: Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article As a service to our authors and readers, this journal provides supporting information supplied by the authors. Such materials are peer-reviewed and may be re-organized for online delivery, but are not copy-edited or typeset. Technical support issues arising from supporting information (other than missing files) should be addressed to the authors.
    Keywords: Aquatic Insects ; Sequences ; Europe ; Fennoscandia ; Microsatellites ; Phylogeography ; Pleistocene ; Species Distribution Modelling
    ISSN: 0305-0270
    E-ISSN: 1365-2699
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2017, Vol.63(1), pp.1-5
    Description: In population genetic studies, a proper sampling design is crucial for reliable population differentiation estimates. For genetic studies on amphibians, fish or insects, larvae are often sampled instead of adults due to their higher accessibility and abundance. However, population genetic parameters derived from larval (sibling) sampling can be biased if adults are represented unevenly in the larval population. The removal of full-siblings from data may improve the quality of the results but entails in a low number of individuals per site, especially in small populations. Using simulated data of ten microsatellite loci for ten populations, we estimated pairwise F ST and R ST values as well as F IS and R IS values for the F0 generation (parental) and the F1 generation (descendant). We applied a repeated randomized selection of genotypes (RRSG) to investigate the impact of removing full-siblings from the data. We also investigated the impact of reduced sample size on the results generated by RRSG as well as the advantages of RRSG over a single estimate of genetic parameters after removal of full-siblings. The RRSG approach produced pairwise F ST values that deviated on average only by 0.0050 ( N  = 45) from their respective estimates for F0. Estimates for H E deviated less the 5% over all data sets. We henceforth suggest applying the described method to interpretations of genetic differentiations in studies with (i) small effective population sizes and (ii) data containing siblings where (iii) offspring can be assigned to at least one parent due to reproduction practice.
    Keywords: Modelling, genetic population differentiation ; Larvae sampling ; Full-siblings ; Microsatellites
    ISSN: 1612-4642
    E-ISSN: 1439-0574
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical Genetics, 2013, Vol.51(5), pp.406-412
    Description: Byline: Karolina Kolodziej (1), Ivan Nikolov (2), Holger K. Schulz (1), Kathrin Theissinger (1), Ralf Schulz (1) Author Affiliation: (1) Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829, Landau, Germany (2) Molecular Zoology, Institute of Zoology, Technical University of Munich, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354, Freising, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 12/01/2013 Received Date: 02/05/2012 Accepted Date: 06/09/2012 Online Date: 05/02/2013
    Keywords: Genetic Research -- Methods ; Genetic Research -- Analysis ; Dna -- Methods ; Dna -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 0006-2928
    E-ISSN: 1573-4927
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Basic and Applied Ecology, August 2013, Vol.14(5), pp.442-451
    Description: The persistence of pond-breeding amphibian populations is influenced on different spatial scales ranging from the individual breeding pond to surrounding habitat patches to landscape clusters of breeding pond populations. The connectivity among breeding ponds as well as the availability of suitable terrestrial habitats surrounding the ponds plays a major role in long-term viability of amphibian species. Besides road traffic and urban structures agricultural land activity can disrupt landscape connectivity through the use of pesticides, fertilizers and physical activity such as tillage. We developed an expert-based model to assess the impact of agricultural management measures on the migration area and terrestrial habitat availability for seven amphibian species. The model is based on a Habitat Suitability Index to identify suitable terrestrial habitats and includes a landscape permeability approach. Size of migration areas, connectivity of breeding ponds and number of reachable terrestrial habitats were modeled considering species-specific migration ranges and habitat preferences. We consider how pesticides application might lead to fragmentation and isolation of amphibian breeding pond populations. Therefore the potential disrupting impact of pesticides was simulated by inflating landscape resistance to medium and high migration cost. One amphibian species showed a decrease of migration area by 48.3% and a decrease of reachable terrestrial habitats by 41.5% at high migration costs. Three additional species showed a decrease of their migration areas between 31.5 and 35.7%. At increased migration cost, some of the investigated populations were isolated at breeding pond level or restricted to pond clusters. Our model could be used to prioritize conservation efforts for pond-breeding amphibians with adequate consideration of agricultural land use and its impact on amphibian migration. Die Persistenz von Amphibienpopulationen wird auf verschiedenen räumlichen Skalen beeinflusst, die vom einzelnen Laichgewässer über umgebende Habitate bis hin zu Laichgewässergruppierungen auf Landschaftsebene reichen. Die Konnektivität zwischen den Laichgewässern sowie die Verfügbarkeit von umgebenden geeigneten terrestrischen Habitaten sind dabei von entscheidender Bedeutung für das langfristige Überleben der Amphibien. Neben dem Straßenverkehr und urbanen Strukturen kann diese Konnektivität auch durch die landwirtschaftliche Landnutzung und die damit einhergehenden Dünger- und Pestizideinsätze sowie Bodenbearbeitungsmaßnahmen gestört werden. Wir haben ein Experten-basiertes Modell entwickelt um den Einfluss von landwirtschaftlichen Maßnahmen auf die Wanderungsräume und die Verfügbarkeit terrestrischer Habitate von sieben Amphibienarten abzuschätzen. Das Modell basiert auf einem Habitat-Eignungsindex-Ansatz um geeignete terrestrische Habitate zu identifizieren, sowie auf der landschaftlichen Permeabilität. Die Größe der Wanderungsräume, Konnektivität von Laichgewässern und Anzahl erreichbarer terrestrischer Habitate wurden dabei unter Berücksichtigung artspezifischer Wanderungsdistanzen und Habitatpräferenzen modelliert. Pestizide führen möglicherweise zu einer chemischen Fragmentierung und Isolation von Laichgesellschaften, die nicht offensichtlich ist, sofern nur physische Landschaftsstrukturen evaluiert werden. Um den potentiell störenden Einfluss von Pestiziden zu simulieren wurde der Raumwiderstand von Weinbergen auf mittlere und hohe Wanderungskosten erhöht. Eine der Amphibienarten zeigte eine Abnahme von 48,3% des Wanderungsraums und 41,5% bei der Anzahl an erreichbaren terrestrischen Habitaten bei hohen Wanderungskosten. Drei weitere Arten zeigten eine Abnahme des Wanderungsraums zwischen 31,5 und 35,7%. Bei erhöhten Wanderungskosten waren einige der betrachteten Laichgesellschaften völlig isoliert oder bildeten fragmentierte Laichgewässergruppen im Untersuchungsgebiet aus. Unser Modell könnte dazu dienen Schutzmaßnahmen für Laichgesellschaften von Amphibien unter Berücksichtigung der landwirtschaftlicher Nutzung und deren Einfluss auf das Wandervermögen zu priorisieren.
    Keywords: Habitat Suitability ; Fragmentation ; Agricultural Chemicals ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 1439-1791
    E-ISSN: 16180089
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2013, Vol.59(4), pp.609-612
    Description: Non-invasive DNA sampling is an important tool in amphibian conservation. Buccal swabs are nowadays replacing the wounding toe-clipping method. Skin and cloaca swabbing are even less invasive and easier to handle than buccal swabbing, but could result in contaminations of genetic material. Therefore, we test if external skin and cloaca swabs are as reliable as buccal swabs for genetic analysis of amphibians. We analysed eight microsatellite loci for the common frog ( Rana temporaria , Linnaeus 1758) and compared genotyping results for buccal, skin and cloaca swabs regarding allelic dropouts and false alleles. Furthermore, we compared two DNA extraction methods regarding efficiency and cost. DNA quality and quantity (amplification success, genotyping error rate, in nanogram per microlitre) were comparable among DNA sources and extraction methods. However, skin and cloaca samples exhibited high degrees of contamination with foreign individuals, which was due to sample collection during mating season. Here, we established a simple low budget procedure to receive DNA of amphibians avoiding stressful buccal swabbing or harmful toe clipping. However, the possibility of contaminations of external swabs has to be considered.
    Keywords: Common frog ; DNA extraction ; Reliable genotypes ; Microsatellites ; DNA contamination
    ISSN: 1612-4642
    E-ISSN: 1439-0574
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Conservation Genetics, 2011, Vol.12(2), pp.503-515
    Description: Genetic diversity is one of the most important criteria to identify unique populations for conservation purposes. In this study we analyze the genetic population structure of the endangered montane mayfly Ameletus inopinatus in its European range. The species is restricted to unpolluted cold-water streams, and exhibits an insular distribution across highlands of Central Europe and a more continuous distribution across Fennoscandia and Northern Euro-Siberia. We genotyped 389 individuals from 31 populations for eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate genetic diversity and population structure within and among European mountain ranges. Genetic diversity of A. inopinatus decreases along an east–west gradient in Central Europe and along a north–south gradient in Fennoscandia, respectively. Centres of exceptionally high genetic diversity are located in the Eastern Alps (Andertal Moor, Austria), the High Tatra, the Beskides, the Sudety Mountains and the Eastern German Highlands. Species distribution modelling for 2080 projects major regional habitat loss, particularly in Central Europe mountain ranges. By relating these range shifts to our population genetic results, we identify conservation units primarily in Eastern Europe, that if preserved would maintain high levels of the present-day genetic diversity and continue to provide long-term suitable habitat under future climate warming scenarios.
    Keywords: Microsatellites ; Population genetics ; Species distribution modelling ; Conservation ; Aquatic insects ; Wahlund effect
    ISSN: 1566-0621
    E-ISSN: 1572-9737
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  • 9
    In: PeerJ, 2017, Vol.5
    Description: Amphibian populations have been declining globally over the past decades. The intensification of agriculture, habitat loss, fragmentation of populations and toxic substances in the environment are considered as driving factors for this decline. Today, about 50% of the area of Germany is used for agriculture and is inhabited by a diverse variety of 20 amphibian species. Of these, 19 are exhibiting declining populations. Due to the protection status of native amphibian species, it is important to evaluate the effect of land use and associated stressors (such as road mortality and pesticide toxicity) on the genetic population structure of amphibians in agricultural landscapes. We investigated the effects of viniculture on the genetic differentiation of European common frog ( Rana temporaria ) populations in Southern Palatinate (Germany). We analyzed microsatellite data of ten loci from ten breeding pond populations located within viniculture landscape and in the adjacent forest block and compared these results with a previously developed landscape permeability model. We tested for significant correlation of genetic population differentiation and landscape elements, including land use as well as roads and their associated traffic intensity, to explain the genetic structure in the study area. Genetic differentiation among forest populations was significantly lower (median pairwise F ST  = 0.0041 at 5.39 km to 0.0159 at 9.40 km distance) than between viniculture populations (median pairwise F ST  = 0.0215 at 2.34 km to 0.0987 at 2.39 km distance). Our analyses rejected isolation by distance based on roads and associated traffic intensity as the sole explanation of the genetic differentiation and suggest that the viniculture landscape has to be considered as a limiting barrier for R. temporaria migration, partially confirming the isolation of breeding ponds predicted by the landscape permeability model. Therefore, arable land may act as a sink habitat, inhibiting genetic exchange and causing genetic differentiation of pond populations in agricultural areas. In viniculture, pesticides could be a driving factor for the observed genetic impoverishment, since pesticides are more frequently applied than any other management measure and can be highly toxic for terrestrial life stages of amphibians.
    Keywords: Agricultural Science ; Conservation Biology ; Ecology ; Environmental Sciences ; Genetics ; Landscape Genetics ; Microsatellites ; Amphibians ; Common Frog ; Isolation By Distance ; Agriculture
    E-ISSN: 2167-8359
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  • 10
    In: Molecular Ecology, September 2019, Vol.28(18), pp.4300-4316
    Description: The Upper Rhine Valley, a “hotspot of biodiversity” in Germany, has been treated with the biocide var. (Bti) for mosquito control for decades. Previous studies discovered Bti nontarget effects in terms of severe chironomid abundance reductions. In this study, we investigated the impact of Bti on species level and addressed the community composition of the nontarget family Chironomidae by use of community metabarcoding. Chironomid emergence data were collected in three mosquito‐control relevant wetland types in the Upper Rhine Valley. For all three sites the chironomid species composition, based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs), was different to varying degrees in the Bti‐treated samples versus control samples, ranging from a significant 63% OTU reduction to an OTU replacement. We assumed that predatory chironomids are less prone to Bti than filter feeders, as the latter feed on floating particles leading to direct ingestion of Bti. However, a comparable percentage of predators and filter feeders (63% and 65%, respectively) was reduced in the Bti samples, suggesting that the feeding strategy is not the main driver for Bti sensitivity in chironomids. Finally, our data was compared to a three‐year‐old data set, indicating possible chironomid community recovery due to species recolonization a few years after the last Bti application. Considering the currently discussed worldwide insect decline we recommend a rethinking of the usage of the biocide Bti, and to prevent its ongoing application especially in nature protection reserves to enhance ecological resilience and to prevent boosting the current biodiversity loss.
    Keywords: Bacillus Thuringensis Var. Israelensis ; Biodiversity Loss ; Community Metabarcoding ; Nonbiting Midges ; Operational Taxonomic Units ; Species Turnover
    ISSN: 0962-1083
    E-ISSN: 1365-294X
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