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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, April 2011, Vol.77(7), pp.2527-30
    Description: Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Bacterial ; Genes, Bacterial ; Manure ; Metagenome ; Soil Microbiology ; Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Pharmacology ; Sulfadiazine -- Pharmacology
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 July 2016, Vol.559, pp.347-355
    Description: Sorption experiments of sulfanilamide (SAA) on well-characterized samples of soil size-fractions were combined with the modeling of SAA-soil-interaction via quantum chemical calculations. Freundlich unit capacities were determined in batch experiments and it was found that they increase with the soil organic matter (SOM) content according to the order fine silt 〉 medium silt 〉 clay 〉 whole soil 〉 coarse silt 〉 sand. The calculated binding energies for mass-spectrometrically quantified sorption sites followed the order ionic species 〉 peptides 〉 carbohydrates 〉 phenols and lignin monomers 〉 lignin dimers 〉 heterocyclic compounds 〉 fatty acids 〉 sterols 〉 aromatic compounds 〉 lipids, alkanes, and alkenes. SAA forms H-bonds through its polar centers with the polar SOM sorption sites. In contrast dispersion and π-π-interactions predominate the interaction of the SAA aromatic ring with the non-polar moieties of SOM. Moreover, the dipole moment, partial atomic charges, and molecular volume of the SOM sorption sites are the main physical properties controlling the SAA-SOM-interaction. Further, reasonable estimates of the Freundlich unit capacities from the calculated binding energies have been established. Consequently, we suggest using this approach in forthcoming studies to disclose the interactions of a wide range of organic pollutants with SOM.
    Keywords: Sulfanilamide (SAA) ; Soil Organic Matter (Som) ; Sorption Isotherms ; Quantum Chemical Calculations ; Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (Qsar) ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2014, Vol.98(14), pp.6487-6495
    Description: Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is an antibiotic frequently administered to livestock, and it alters microbial communities when entering soils with animal manure, but understanding the interactions of these effects to the prevailing climatic regime has eluded researchers. A climatic factor that strongly controls microbial activity is soil moisture. Here, we hypothesized that the effects of SDZ on soil microbial communities will be modulated depending on the soil moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, we performed a 49-day fully controlled climate chamber pot experiments with soil grown with Dactylis glomerata (L.). Manure-amended pots without or with SDZ contamination were incubated under a dynamic moisture regime (DMR) with repeated drying and rewetting changes of 〉20 % maximum water holding capacity (WHC max ) in comparison to a control moisture regime (CMR) at an average soil moisture of 38 % WHC max . We then monitored changes in SDZ concentration as well as in the phenotypic phospholipid fatty acid and genotypic 16S rRNA gene fragment patterns of the microbial community after 7, 20, 27, 34, and 49 days of incubation. The results showed that strongly changing water supply made SDZ accessible to mild extraction in the short term. As a result, and despite rather small SDZ effects on community structures, the PLFA-derived microbial biomass was suppressed in the SDZ-contaminated DMR soils relative to the CMR ones, indicating that dynamic moisture changes accelerate the susceptibility of the soil microbial community to antibiotics.
    Keywords: Combined stress ; Sulfadiazine ; Soil moisture ; Dissipation ; Community structure ; Rhizosphere
    ISSN: 0175-7598
    E-ISSN: 1432-0614
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, February 2015, Vol.81, pp.311-322
    Description: The formation of soil organic matter (SOM) very much depends on microbial activity. Even more, latest studies identified microbial necromass itself being a significant source of SOM and found microbial products to initiate and enhance the formation of long-term stabilized SOM. The objectives of this study were to investigate the microbial contribution to SOM in pools of different stability and its impact on SOM quality. Hence, four arable soils of widely differing properties were density-fractionated into free and occluded particulate organic matter (fPOM, oPOM 〈 1.6 g cm and oPOM 〈 2.0 g cm ) and mineral associated organic matter (MOM 〉 2.0 g cm ) by using sodium polytungstate. These fractions were characterized by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). Main SOM compound classes of the fractions were determined and further SOM properties were derived (polydispersity, thermostability). The contribution of microbial derived input to arable soil OM was estimated from the hexose to pentose ratio of the carbohydrates and the ratio of C –C to C –C fatty acids. Additionally, selected samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for visualizing structures as indicators for the origin of OM. Results showed that, although the samples differed significantly regarding soil properties, SOM composition was comparable and almost 50% of identifiable SOM compounds of all soils types and all density fractions were assigned to phenols, lignin monomers and alkylaromatics. Most distinguishing were the high contents of carbohydrates for the MOM and of lipids for the POM fractions. Qualitative features such as polydispersity or thermostability were not in general assignable to specific compounds, density fractions or different mean residence times. Only the microbial derived part of the soil carbohydrates could be shown to be correlated with high SOM thermostability (  = 0.63**, = 39). Microbial derived carbohydrates and fatty acids were both enriched in the MOM, showing that the relative contribution of microbial versus plant-derived input to arable SOM increased with density and therefore especially increased MOM thermostability. Nevertheless, the general microbial contribution to arable SOM is suggested to be high for all density fractions; a mean proportion of about 1:1 was estimated for carbohydrates. Despite biomolecules released from living microorganisms, SEM revealed that microbial mass (biomass and necromass) is a considerable source for stable SOM which is also increasing with density.
    Keywords: Microbial Mass ; Som Thermostability ; Som Polydispersity ; Pyrolysis-Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Py-Fims) ; Hexose to Pentose Ratio ; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2010, Vol.81(11), pp.1469-1476
    Description: Soil metabolism of sulfonamides is largely unknown. Hence the sulfonamides sulfanilamide (SAA), sulfadimethoxine (SDT) and sulfapyridine (SPY) were reacted in model experiments with a fungal laccase from . Enzymatic transformation after a reaction time of 15 d ranged from 10.0% for SAA up to 95.6% for SPY and the difference was attributed to the different molecular substituents. Metabolites were first tentatively assigned after LC–ESI –MS full-scan analysis. Secondly, the proposed metabolites were further confirmed employing either multiple reaction monitoring in comparison with standard substances or precursor ion scan LC–ESI –MS/MS experiments striving for the precursor and two to three product ions. Aniline was confirmed as a breakdown product of SPY and further metabolites of SPY and of SDT were identified as rearranged SO extrusion products. Thirdly, some of the metabolites matched those that were previously reported for sulfonamide photodegradation and degradation in soil. It was concluded that enzymatic metabolism as investigated here also occurs in soil.
    Keywords: Sulfanilamide ; Sulfadimethoxine ; Sulfapyridine ; Enzymatic Metabolism ; LC–Esi +–MS/MS ; So 2 Extrusion ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 March 2015, Vol.508, pp.276-287
    Description: The fate of organic pollutants in the environment is influenced by several factors including the type and strength of their interactions with soil components especially SOM. However, a molecular level answer to the question “How organic pollutants interact with SOM?” is still lacking. In order to explore mechanisms of this interaction, we have developed a new SOM model and carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in parallel with sorption experiments. The new SOM model comprises free SOM functional groups (carboxylic acid and naphthalene) as well as SOM cavities (with two different sizes), simulating the soil voids, containing the same SOM functional groups. To examine the effect of the hydrophobicity on the interaction, the organic pollutants hexachlorobenzene (HCB, non-polar) and sulfanilamide (SAA, polar) were considered. The experimental and theoretical investigations explored four major points regarding sorption of SAA and HCB on soil, yielding the following results. 1—The interaction depends on the SOM chemical composition more than the SOM content. 2—The interaction causes a site-specific adsorption on the soil surfaces. 3—Sorption hysteresis occurs, which can be explained by inclusion of these pollutants inside soil voids. 4—The hydrophobic HCB is adsorbed on soil stronger than the hydrophilic SAA. Moreover, the theoretical results showed that HCB forms stable complexes with all SOM models in the aqueous solution, while most of SAA–SOM complexes are accompanied by dissociation into SAA and the free SOM models. The SOM-cavity modeling had a significant effect on binding of organic pollutants to SOM. Both HCB and SAA bind to the SOM models in the order of models with a small cavity 〉 a large cavity 〉 no cavity. Although HCB binds to all SOM models stronger than SAA, the latter is more affected by the presence of the cavity. Finally, HCB and SAA bind to the hydrophobic functional group (naphthalene) stronger than to the hydrophilic one (carboxylic acid) for all SOM models containing a cavity. For models without a cavity, SAA binds to carboxylic acid stronger than to naphthalene.
    Keywords: Organic Pollutants ; Sulfanilamide (SAA) ; Hexachlorobenzene (Hcb) ; Soil Organic Matter (Som) ; Sorption Isotherms ; Molecular Modeling ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology AEM, 2010, Vol.76(24), pp.7903-7909
    Description: The antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) can enter the environment by application of manure from antibiotic-treated animals to arable soil. Because antibiotics are explicitly designed to target microorganisms, they likely affect microbes in the soil ecosystem, compromising important soil functions and disturbing processes in nutrient cycles. In a greenhouse experiment, we investigated the impact of sulfadiazine-contaminated pig manure on functional microbial communities involved in key processes of the nitrogen cycle in the root-rhizosphere complexes (RRCs) of maize (Zea mays) and clover (Trifolium alexandrinum). At both the gene and transcript level, we performed real-time PCR using nifH, amoA (in both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea), nirK, nirS, and nosZ as molecular markers for nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification. Sampling was performed 10, 20, and 30 days after the application. SDZ affected the abundance pattern of all investigated genes in the RRCs of both plant species (with stronger effects in the RRC of clover) 20 and 30 days after the addition. Surprisingly, effects on the transcript level were less pronounced, which might indicate that parts of the investigated functional groups were tolerant or resistant against SDZ or, as in the case of nifH and clover, have been protected by the nodules. ; Includes references ; p. 7903-7909.
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Management, 01 August 2014, Vol.141, pp.95-103
    Description: Sulfonamides (SAs) are one of the most frequently used antibiotics in the veterinary industry, showing high mobility in soils. Objectives of this research were to determine the sorption, distribution coefficients and involvement of different ionic forms of sulfamethazine (SMZ), a representative SAs, and to evaluate the transport of SMZ in biochar treated soils. Biochars were produced from an invasive plant, burcucumber ( L.), under slow pyrolysis conditions at peak temperatures of 300 °C (biochar-300) and 700 °C (biochar-700), respectively. The abilities of the biochars to retain SMZ in loamy sand and sandy loam soils were examined under different pHs and SMZ loadings. Soil column experiments were performed with and without biochars addition. Results showed that biochar-700 had a high degree of SMZ retention, with resultant decreased pH in both soils. Modeled effective sorption coefficients ( ) values indicated that the observed high SMZ retention at pH 3 could be attributed to the π-π electron donor–acceptor interaction and electrostatic cation exchange, whereas at pH 5 and 7, cation exchange was the main mechanisms responsible. There was no temporal retardation of SMZ in biochar treated soil as compared to the untreated soil. However, biochar-700 treatment achieved up to 89% and 82% increase in the SMZ retention in sandy loam and loamy sand soils, respectively. The overall results demonstrated that burcucumber biochar produced at higher temperature was effective in reducing the mobility of SMZ in the studied soils.
    Keywords: Black Carbon ; Charcoal ; Emerging Contaminants ; Pharmaceuticals ; Biosorption ; Soil Organic Matter ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4797
    E-ISSN: 1095-8630
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2013, Vol.62, pp.82-91
    Description: Conventional farming still consumes considerable amounts of antibiotics such as sulfadiazine (SDZ) or difloxacin (DIF) to protect livestock from infectious diseases. Consequently, slurries from medicated animals are applied to arable soils. Antibiotics, co-applied with pig slurry, are increasingly reported to change soil microbial community structures in un-rooted bulk soil. The effects in rhizosphere soil, as well as the medication-derived direct and indirect effects of an altered slurry composition are poorly investigated. We evaluated the response of microorganisms to slurry of SDZ- and DIF-medicated pigs in a 63-d mesocosm experiment, considering the natural complexity of a typical agricultural pig slurry amendment and developing Zea mays L. root systems. Slurry-derived fecal bacteria were still present in mesosocosm soil 14 days after amendment. Medication with DIF and SDZ further altered the molecular-chemical pattern of the pig slurry, confounding the precise antibiotic effect. This has to be considered when investigating antimicrobial effects under ecological relevant conditions. Effects on the microbial community in mesocosm bulk soil widely matched results from previous studies on directly spiked soil. Effects were also found in the mesocosm rhizosphere soil, but not more pronounced than in bulk soil. This was also verified under laboratory conditions after application of artificially SDZ-spiked control slurry. ; p. 82-91.
    Keywords: Antibiotics ; Sulfadiazine ; Conventional Farming ; Rhizosphere ; Antimicrobial Properties ; Infectious Diseases ; Soil Microorganisms ; Zea Mays ; Microbial Communities ; Slurries ; Bacteria ; Pig Manure ; Community Structure ; Drug Therapy ; Arable Soils ; Swine ; Root Systems ; Difloxacin
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, July 2013, Vol.62, pp.82-91
    Description: Conventional farming still consumes considerable amounts of antibiotics such as sulfadiazine (SDZ) or difloxacin (DIF) to protect livestock from infectious diseases. Consequently, slurries from medicated animals are applied to arable soils. Antibiotics, co-applied with pig slurry, are increasingly reported to change soil microbial community structures in un-rooted bulk soil. The effects in rhizosphere soil, as well as the medication-derived direct and indirect effects of an altered slurry composition are poorly investigated. We evaluated the response of microorganisms to slurry of SDZ- and DIF-medicated pigs in a 63-d mesocosm experiment, considering the natural complexity of a typical agricultural pig slurry amendment and developing L. root systems. Slurry-derived fecal bacteria were still present in mesosocosm soil 14 days after amendment. Medication with DIF and SDZ further altered the molecular-chemical pattern of the pig slurry, confounding the precise antibiotic effect. This has to be considered when investigating antimicrobial effects under ecological relevant conditions. Effects on the microbial community in mesocosm bulk soil widely matched results from previous studies on directly spiked soil. Effects were also found in the mesocosm rhizosphere soil, but not more pronounced than in bulk soil. This was also verified under laboratory conditions after application of artificially SDZ-spiked control slurry. ► Antibiotic-derived effects on soil microflora studied under ecological relevant conditions. ► Antibiotic medication changed the organic and microbial composition of the excreted pig slurry. ► Effects of slurry with antibiotics on microorganisms emerged in bulk and rhizosphere soil. ► Effect levels were attenuated in rhizosphere soil, indicating a less vulnerable microflora.
    Keywords: Veterinary Antibiotics ; Microbial Community Structure ; Manure Composition ; Phospholipid Fatty Acids ; Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis ; Mesocosm ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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