Diabetologia, 2016, Vol.59(11), pp.2369-2377
To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-016-4081-6 Byline: Emmi Tikkanen (1,2), Matti Pirinen (2), Antti-Pekka Sarin (2), Aki S. Havulinna (3), Satu Mannisto (3), Juha Saltevo (4), Marja-Liisa Lokki (5), Juha Sinisalo (6), Annamari Lundqvist (3), Antti Jula (3), Veikko Salomaa (3), Samuli Ripatti (1,2,7) Keywords: Epidemiology; Genetics; Insulin resistance; Insulin sensitivity Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Epidemiological studies have identified several traits associated with CHD, but few of these have been shown to be causal risk factors and thus suitable targets for treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the causal role of a large set of known CHD risk factors using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as instrumental variables. Methods Based on published genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we estimated the associations between the established risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, glycaemic traits and BP) and CHD with two complementary approaches: (1) using summary statistics from GWASs to analyse the accordance of SNP effects on risk factors and on CHD and (2) individual-level analysis where we constructed genetic risk scores (GRSs) in a large Finnish dataset (N=26,554, CHD events n=4016). We used a weighted regression-based method for summary-level data to evaluate the causality of risk factors. The associations between the GRSs and CHD in the Finnish dataset were evaluated with logistic and conditional logistic regression models. Results The summary-level data analysis revealed causal effects between glycaemic traits (insulin and glucose) and CHD. The individual-level data analysis supported the causal role of insulin, but not of glucose, on CHD. The GRS for insulin was associated with CHD in the Finnish cohort (OR 1.06 per SD in GRS, 95% CI 1.02, 1.10, p=0.002). Conclusions/interpretation These results support the causal role of insulin in the pathogenesis of CHD. Efficient treatment and prevention of insulin resistance is essential to prevent future CHD events. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, PO Box 20, Tukholmankatu 8 B, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland (2) Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (3) Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland (4) Department of Medicine, Central Finland Central Hospital, Jyvaskyla, Finland (5) Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (6) Heart and Lung Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland (7) Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK Article History: Registration Date: 12/08/2016 Received Date: 27/04/2016 Accepted Date: 04/08/2016 Online Date: 26/08/2016 Article note: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4081-6) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Epidemiology ; Genetics ; Insulin resistance ; Insulin sensitivity
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