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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2002, Vol. 70(11), p.6158
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid. H. ducreyi serum resistance protein A (DsrA) is a member of a family of multifunctional outer membrane proteins that are involved in resistance to killing by human serum complement. The members of this family include YadA of Yersinia species, the UspA proteins of Moraxella catarrhalis, and the Eib proteins of Escherichia coli. The role of YadA, UspA1, and UspA2H as eukaryotic cell adhesins and the function of UspA2 as a vitronectin binder led to our investigation of the cell adhesion and vitronectin binding properties of DsrA. We found that DsrA was a keratinocyte- specific adhesin as it was necessary and sufficient for attachment to HaCaT cells, a keratinocyte cell line, but was not required for attachment to HS27 cells, a fibroblast cell line. We also found that DsrA was specifically responsible for the ability of H. ducreyi to bind vitronectin. We then theorized that DsrA might use vitronectin as a bridge to bind to human cells, but this hypothesis proved to be untrue as eliminating HaCaT cell binding of vitronectin with a monoclonal antibody specific to integrin [alpha] sub(v) beta sub(5) did not affect the attachment of H. ducreyi to HaCaT cells. Finally, we wanted to examine the importance of keratinocyte adhesion in chancroid pathogenesis so we tested the wild-type and dsrA mutant strains of H. ducreyi in our swine models of chancroid pathogenesis. The dsrA mutant was less virulent than the wild type in both the normal and immune cell-depleted swine models of chancroid infection.
    Keywords: Cell Cycle, Morphology and Motility ; Dsra Protein ; Hs27 Cells ; Hacat Cells ; Dsra Gene ; Vitronectin;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 2
    In: Infection and Immunity, 1999, Vol. 67(9), p.4963
    Description: Cutaneous lesions of the human sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid are characterized by the presence of intraepidermal pustules, keratinocyte cytopathology, and epidermal and dermal erosion. These lesions are replete with neutrophils, macrophages, and CD4 super(+) T cells and contain very low numbers of cells of Haemophilus ducreyi, the bacterial agent of chancroid. We examined lesion formation by H. ducreyi in a pig model by using cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced immune cell deficiency to distinguish between host and bacterial contributions to chancroid ulcer formation. Histologic presentation of H. ducreyi-induced lesions in CPA-treated pigs differed from ulcers that developed in immune-competent animals in that pustules did not form and surface epithelia remained intact. However, these lesions had significant suprabasal keratinocyte cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the host immune response was required for chancroid ulceration, while bacterial products were at least partially responsible for the keratinocyte cytopathology associated with chancroid lesions in the pig. The low numbers of H. ducreyi present in lesions in humans and immunocompetent pigs have prevented localization of these organisms within skin. However, H. ducreyi organisms were readily visualized in lesion biopsies from infected CPA-treated pigs by immunoelectron microscopy. These bacteria were extracellular and associated with necrotic host cells in the epidermis and dermis. The relative abundance of H. ducreyi in inoculated CPA-treated pig skin suggests control of bacterial replication by host immune cells during natural human infection.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Immune Response ; Ulcers ; Replication ; Keratinocytes ; Animal Models ; Cytotoxicity ; Skin ; Chancroid ; Sexually-Transmitted Diseases ; Immune Response ; Ulcers ; Replication ; Keratinocytes ; Animal Models ; Cytotoxicity ; Skin ; Chancroid ; Sexually-Transmitted Diseases ; Sexually-Transmitted Diseases ; Bacteria ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Cyclophosphamide ; Immunology ; Man ; Pigs ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Cyclophosphamide ; Immunology ; Man ; Pigs ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Cyclophosphamide ; Immunology ; Man ; Pigs;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 3
    In: Infection and Immunity, 1999, Vol. 67(10), p.5345
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a sexually transmitted cutaneous genital ulcer disease associated with increased heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. H. ducreyi expresses a periplasmic copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn SOD) that protects the bacterium from killing by exogenous superoxide in vitro. We hypothesized that the Cu,Zn SOD would protect H. ducreyi from immune cell killing, enhance survival, and affect ulcer development in vivo. In order to test this hypothesis and study the role of the Cu,Zn SOD in H. ducreyi pathogenesis, we compared a Cu,Zn SOD-deficient H. ducreyi strain to its isogenic wild-type parent with respect to survival and ulcer development in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed pigs. The Cu,Zn SOD-deficient strain was recovered from significantly fewer inoculated sites and in significantly lower numbers than the wild-type parent strain or a merodiploid (sodC super(+) sodC) strain after infection of immunocompetent pigs. In contrast, survival of the wild-type and Cu,Zn SOD-deficient strains was not significantly different in pigs that were rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide. Ulcer severity in pigs was not significantly different between sites inoculated with wild type and sites inoculated with Cu,Zn SOD-deficient H. ducreyi. Our data suggest that the periplasmic Cu,Zn SOD is an important virulence determinant in H. ducreyi, protecting the bacterium from host immune cell killing and contributing to survival and persistence in the host.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Zinc ; Copper ; Superoxide Dismutase ; Neutropenia ; Zinc ; Copper ; Superoxide Dismutase ; Neutropenia ; Enzymes ; Sexually-Transmitted Diseases ; Animal Models ; Pigs ; Animal Models ; Pigs ; Animal Models ; Pigs;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 4
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2003, Vol. 71(12), p.6971
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid. Neither naturally occurring chancroid nor experimental infection with H. ducreyi results in protective immunity. Likewise, a single inoculation of H. ducreyi does not protect pigs against subsequent infection. Accordingly, we used the swine model of chancroid infection to examine the impact of multiple inoculations on a host's immune response. After three successive inoculations with H. ducreyi, pigs developed a modestly protective immune response evidenced by the decreased recovery of viable bacteria from lesions. All lesions biopsied 2 days after the first and second inoculations contained viable H. ducreyi cells, yet only 55% of the lesions biopsied 2 days after the third inoculation did. Nearly 90% of the lesions biopsied 7 days after the first inoculation contained viable H. ducreyi cells, but this percentage dropped to only 16% after the third inoculation. Between the first and third inoculations, the average recovery of CFU from lesions decreased approximately 100-fold. The reduced recovery of bacteria corresponded directly with a fivefold increase in H. ducreyi-specific antibody titers and the emergence of bactericidal activity. These immune sera were protective when administered to naive pigs prior to challenge with H. ducreyi. These data suggest that pigs mount an effective humoral immune response to H. ducreyi after multiple exposures to the organism.
    Keywords: Bacteria ; Immune Response and Immune Mechanisms ; Pigs;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 5
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2006, Vol. 74(5), p.2651
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid, has been shown to associate with dermal collagen fibers within infected skin lesions. Here we describe NcaA, a previously uncharacterized outer membrane protein that is important for H. ducreyi collagen binding and host colonization. An H. ducreyi strain lacking the ncaA gene was impaired in adherence to type I collagen but not fibronectin (plasma or cellular form) or heparin. The mutation had no effect on serum resistance or binding to HaCaT keratinocytes or human foreskin fibroblasts in vitro. Escherichia coli expressing H. ducreyi NcaA bound to type I collagen, demonstrating that NcaA is sufficient to confer collagen attachment. The importance of NcaA in H. ducreyi pathogenesis was assessed using both swine and human experimental models of chancroid. In the swine model, 20% of lesions from sites inoculated with the ncaA mutant were culture positive for H. ducreyi 7 days after inoculation, compared to 73% of wild-type-inoculated sites. The average number of CFU recovered from mutant-inoculated lesions was also significantly reduced compared to that recovered from wild-type-inoculated sites at both 2 and 7 days after inoculation. In the human challenge model, 8 of 30 sites inoculated with wild-type H. ducreyi progressed to the pustular stage, compared to 0 of 30 sites inoculated with the ncaA mutant. Together these results demonstrate that the collagen binding protein NcaA is required for H. ducreyi infection.
    Keywords: Fibers ; Outer Membrane Proteins ; Skin Diseases ; Ulcers ; Fibronectin ; Colony-Forming Cells ; Chancroid ; Keratinocytes ; Heparin ; Collagen (Type I) ; Fibroblasts ; Escherichia Coli ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Sexually-Transmitted Diseases ; Bacteria ; Ncaa Protein;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Gene, 1998, Vol.207(2), pp.251-257
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, an ulcerative condition implicated in increased HIV transmission. There is increasing evidence for the roles of oxidative stress proteins including superoxide dismutase enzymes in the survival and persistence of pathogenic organisms within the host. The sodA gene of Haemophilus ducreyi was isolated from a genomic plasmid library on the basis of its ability to rescue the hydrogen peroxide hypersensitivity of an Escherichia coli sodA − sodB − strain. The H. ducreyi SodA protein also complemented the aerobic growth defect of the E. coli sodA − sodB − strain in minimal medium. The deduced amino-acid sequence of the H. ducreyi sodA gene product is 74 and 70% identical to the Mn-SODs of Haemophilus influenzae and E. coli , respectively. However, unlike Mn-SODs, the H. ducreyi SodA protein was inhibited by hydrogen peroxide in native gels stained for SOD activity.
    Keywords: Metalloenzyme ; Superoxide Dismutase ; Oxygen Toxicity ; Aerobic ; Chancroid ; Pasteurellaceae ; Engineering ; Biology ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    E-ISSN: 1879-0038
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity IAI, 2006, Vol.74(5), pp.2651-2658
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid, has been shown to associate with dermal collagen fibers within infected skin lesions. Here we describe NcaA, a previously uncharacterized outer membrane protein that is important for H. ducreyi collagen binding and host colonization. An H. ducreyi strain lacking the ncaA gene was impaired in adherence to type I collagen but not fibronectin (plasma or cellular form) or heparin. The mutation had no effect on serum resistance or binding to HaCaT keratinocytes or human foreskin fibroblasts in vitro. Escherichia coli expressing H. ducreyi NcaA bound to type I collagen, demonstrating that NcaA is sufficient to confer collagen attachment. The importance of NcaA in H. ducreyi pathogenesis was assessed using both swine and human experimental models of chancroid. In the swine model, 20% of lesions from sites inoculated with the ncaA mutant were culture positive for H. ducreyi 7 days after inoculation, compared to 73% of wild-type-inoculated sites. The average number of CFU recovered from mutant-inoculated lesions was also significantly reduced compared to that recovered from wild-type-inoculated sites at both 2 and 7 days after inoculation. In the human challenge model, 8 of 30 sites inoculated with wild-type H. ducreyi progressed to the pustular stage, compared to 0 of 30 sites inoculated with the ncaA mutant. Together these results demonstrate that the collagen binding protein NcaA is required for H. ducreyi infection. ; Includes references ; p. 2651-2658.
    ISSN: 1098-5522
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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