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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in immunology, 18 December 2013, Vol.4, pp.460
    Description: Plasma cells are heterogenous in terms of their origins, secretory products, and lifespan. A current paradigm is that cell cycle exit in plasma cell differentiation is irreversible, following a pattern familiar in short-lived effector populations in other hemopoietic lineages. This paradigm no doubt holds true for many plasma cells whose lifespan can be measured in days following the completion of differentiation. Whether this holds true for long-lived bone marrow plasma cells that are potentially maintained for the lifespan of the organism is less apparent. Added to this the mechanisms that establish and maintain cell cycle quiescence in plasma cells are incompletely defined. Gene expression profiling indicates that in the transition of human plasmablasts to long-lived plasma cells a range of cell cycle regulators are induced in a pattern that suggests a quiescence program with potential for cell cycle re-entry. Here a model of relative quiescence with the potential for replicative self-renewal amongst long-lived plasma cells is explored. The implications of such a mechanism would be diverse, and the argument is made here that current evidence is not sufficiently strong that the possibility should be disregarded.
    Keywords: Cell Cycle ; Gene Expression ; Lifespan ; Monoclonal Gammopathy ; Myeloma ; Plasma Cell ; Quiescence ; Self-Renewal
    ISSN: 1664-3224
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(2), p.e55895
    Description: Cell of origin classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) identifies subsets with biological and clinical significance. Despite the established nature of the classification existing studies display variability in classifier implementation, and a comparative analysis across multiple data sets is lacking. Here we describe the validation of a cell of origin classifier for DLBCL, based on balanced voting between 4 machine-learning tools: the DLBCL automatic classifier (DAC). This shows superior survival separation for assigned Activated B-cell (ABC) and Germinal Center B-cell (GCB) DLBCL classes relative to a range of other classifiers. DAC is effective on data derived from multiple microarray platforms and formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples and is parsimonious, using 20 classifier genes. We use DAC to perform a comparative analysis of gene expression in 10 data sets (2030 cases). We generate ranked meta-profiles of genes showing consistent class-association using ≥6 data sets as a cut-off: ABC (414 genes) and GCB (415 genes). The transcription factor ZBTB32 emerges as the most consistent and differentially expressed gene in ABC-DLBCL while other transcription factors such as ARID3A, BATF, and TCF4 are also amongst the 24 genes associated with this class in all datasets. Analysis of enrichment of 12323 gene signatures against meta-profiles and all data sets individually confirms consistent associations with signatures of molecular pathways, chromosomal cytobands, and transcription factor binding sites. We provide DAC as an open access Windows application, and the accompanying meta-analyses as a resource.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 15 August 2016, Vol.197(4), pp.1447-59
    Description: Plasma cells (PCs) as effectors of humoral immunity produce Igs to match pathogenic insult. Emerging data suggest more diverse roles exist for PCs as regulators of immune and inflammatory responses via secretion of factors other than Igs. The extent to which such responses are preprogrammed in B-lineage cells or can be induced in PCs by the microenvironment is unknown. In this study, we dissect the impact of IFNs on the regulatory networks of human PCs. We show that core PC programs are unaffected, whereas PCs respond to IFNs with distinctive transcriptional responses. The IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) system emerges as a major transcriptional output induced in a sustained fashion by IFN-α in PCs and linked both to intracellular conjugation and ISG15 secretion. This leads to the identification of ISG15-secreting plasmablasts/PCs in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Thus, ISG15-secreting PCs represent a distinct proinflammatory PC subset providing an Ig-independent mechanism of PC action in human autoimmunity.
    Keywords: Transcriptome ; Autoimmunity -- Immunology ; Cytokines -- Metabolism ; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic -- Immunology ; Plasma Cells -- Immunology ; Ubiquitins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00221767
    E-ISSN: 1550-6606
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 15 August 2017, Vol.199(4), pp.1250-1260
    Description: Autoimmunity is largely prevented by medullary thymic epithelial cells (TECs) through their expression and presentation of tissue-specific Ags to developing thymocytes, resulting in deletion of self-reactive T cells and supporting regulatory T cell development. The transcription factor has been implicated in autoimmune diseases in humans through genome-wide association studies and in mice using cell type-specific deletion of in T and dendritic cells. In this article, we demonstrate that Prdm1 functions in TECs to prevent autoimmunity in mice. Prdm1 is expressed by a subset of mouse TECs, and conditional deletion of in either or expressing cells in mice resulted in multisymptom autoimmune pathology. Notably, the development of Foxp3 regulatory T cells occurs normally in the absence of Blimp1. Importantly, nude mice developed anti-nuclear Abs when transplanted with null TECs, but not wild-type TECs, indicating that functions in TECs to regulate autoantibody production. We show that acts independently of Aire, a crucial transcription factor implicated in medullary TEC function. Collectively, our data highlight a previously unrecognized role for Prdm1 in regulating thymic epithelial function.
    Keywords: Autoimmunity ; T-Lymphocytes -- Immunology ; Thymus Gland -- Immunology ; Transcription Factors -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00221767
    E-ISSN: 1550-6606
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, September 2010, Vol.38(16), pp.5336-50
    Description: The transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP1) regulates gene expression and cell fate. The DNA motif bound by BLIMP1 in vitro overlaps with that of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), which respond to inflammatory/immune signals. At such sites, BLIMP1 and IRFs can antagonistically regulate promoter activity. In vitro motif selection predicts that only a subset of BLIMP1 or IRF sites is subject to antagonistic regulation, but the extent to which antagonism occurs is unknown, since an unbiased assessment of BLIMP1 occupancy in vivo is lacking. To address this, we identified an extended set of promoters occupied by BLIMP1. Motif discovery and enrichment analysis demonstrate that multiple motif variants are required to capture BLIMP1 binding specificity. These are differentially associated with CpG content, leading to the observation that BLIMP1 DNA-binding is methylation sensitive. In occupied promoters, only a subset of BLIMP1 motifs overlap with IRF motifs. Conversely, a distinct subset of IRF motifs is not enriched amongst occupied promoters. Genes linked to occupied promoters containing overlapping BLIMP1/IRF motifs (e.g. AIM2, SP110, BTN3A3) are shown to constitute a dynamic target set which is preferentially activated by BLIMP1 knock-down. These data confirm and extend the competitive model of BLIMP1 and IRF interaction.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Repressor Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 03051048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, July 2014, Vol.42(12), pp.7591-610
    Description: Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is central to the transcriptional network of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL), an aggressive lymphoma subgroup defined by gene expression profiling. Since cofactor association modifies transcriptional regulatory input by IRF4, we assessed genome occupancy by IRF4 and endogenous cofactors in ABC-DLBCL cell lines. IRF4 partners with SPIB, PU.1 and BATF genome-wide, but SPIB provides the dominant IRF4 partner in this context. Upon SPIB knockdown IRF4 occupancy is depleted and neither PU.1 nor BATF acutely compensates. Integration with ENCODE data from lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878, demonstrates that IRF4 adopts either SPIB- or BATF-centric genome-wide distributions in related states of post-germinal centre B-cell transformation. In primary DLBCL high-SPIB and low-BATF or the reciprocal low-SPIB and high-BATF mRNA expression links to differential gene expression profiles across nine data sets, identifying distinct associations with SPIB occupancy, signatures of B-cell differentiation stage and potential pathogenetic mechanisms. In a population-based patient cohort, SPIBhigh/BATFlow-ABC-DLBCL is enriched for mutation of MYD88, and SPIBhigh/BATFlow-ABC-DLBCL with MYD88-L265P mutation identifies a small subgroup of patients among this otherwise aggressive disease subgroup with distinct favourable outcome. We conclude that differential expression of IRF4 cofactors SPIB and BATF identifies biologically and clinically significant heterogeneity among ABC-DLBCL.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors -- Metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins -- Metabolism ; Interferon Regulatory Factors -- Metabolism ; Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse -- Genetics ; Transcription Factors -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 03051048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Genome Medicine, Sept 11, 2015, Vol.7(1)
    Description: Background Cancers adapt to immune-surveillance through evasion. Immune responses against carcinoma and melanoma converge on cytotoxic effectors and IFN[gamma]-STAT1-IRF1 signalling. Local IFN-driven immune checkpoint expression can mediate feedback inhibition and adaptive immune resistance. Whether such coupled immune polarization and adaptive resistance is generalisable to lymphoid malignancies is incompletely defined. The host response in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the commonest aggressive lymphoid malignancy, provides an empirical model. Methods Using ten publicly available gene expression data sets encompassing 2030 cases we explore the nature of host response in DLBCL. Starting from the "cell of origin" paradigm for DLBCL classification, we use the consistency of differential expression to define polarized patterns of immune response genes in DLBCL, and derive a linear classifier of immune response gene expression. We validate and extend the results in an approach independent of "cell of origin" classification based on gene expression correlations across all data sets. Results T-cell and cytotoxic gene expression with polarization along the IFN[gamma]-STAT1-IRF1 axis provides a defining feature of the immune response in DLBCL. This response is associated with improved outcome, particularly in the germinal centre B-cell subsets of DLBCL. Analysis of gene correlations across all data sets, independent of "cell of origin" class, demonstrates a consistent association with a hierarchy of immune-regulatory gene expression that places IDO1, LAG3 and FGL2 ahead of PD1-ligands CD274 and PDCD1LG2. Conclusion Immune responses in DLBCL converge onto the IFN[gamma]-STAT1-IRF1 axis and link to diverse potential mediators of adaptive immune resistance identifying future therapeutic targets.
    Keywords: Melanoma – Analysis ; Lymphomas – Analysis ; Genetic Research – Analysis ; B Cells – Analysis ; Immune Response – Analysis ; Genes – Analysis ; Gene Expression – Analysis
    ISSN: 1756-994X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 01 October 2006, Vol.177(7), pp.4584-93
    Description: MHC class II is expressed in restricted lineages and is modulated in response to pathogens and inflammatory stimuli. This expression is controlled by MHC CIITA, which is transcribed from multiple promoters. Although factors required for induction of CIITA are well characterized, less is known about the mechanisms leading to repression of this gene. During plasma cell differentiation, B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (PRDM1/Blimp-1) represses promoter (p)III of CIITA, responsible for constitutive expression in B cells. pIV is inducible by IFN-gamma in epithelia, macrophages and B cells. An IFN regulatory factor-element (IRF-E) in CIITA-pIV, which is bound by IRF-1 and IRF-2, is necessary for this response. This site matches the PRDM1/Blimp-1 consensus binding site, and PRDM1/Blimp-1 is expressed in cell lineages in which this promoter is operative. We, therefore, investigated whether PRDM1 regulates CIITA-pIV and found that PRDM1 bound to CIITA-pIV in vivo and the IRF-E in vitro. PRDM1 repressed IFN-gamma-mediated induction of a CIITA-pIV luciferase reporter in a fashion dependent on an intact consensus sequence and competes with IRF-1/IRF-2 for binding to the IRF-E and promoter activation. In human myeloma cell lines that express IRFs, PRDM1 occupancy of CIITA-pIV was associated with resistance to IFN-gamma stimulation, while short interfering RNA knockdown of PRDM1 led to up-regulation of CIITA. Our data indicate that PRDM1 is a repressor of CIITA-pIV, identifying a target of particular relevance to macrophages and epithelia. These findings support a model in which PRDM1/Blimp-1 can modulate the cellular response to IFN-gamma by competing with IRF-1/IRF-2 dependent activation of target promoters.
    Keywords: Cytokines -- Metabolism ; Interferon-Gamma -- Metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins -- Metabolism ; Repressor Proteins -- Metabolism ; Signal Transduction -- Immunology ; Trans-Activators -- Metabolism ; Transcription Factors -- Metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0022-1767
    E-ISSN: 13652567
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 01 July 2012, Vol.189(1), pp.253-60
    Description: During cellular differentiation, mRNA transcription and translation require precise coordination. The mechanisms controlling this are not well defined. IL-21 is an important regulator of plasma cell differentiation, and it controls the master regulator of plasma cell differentiation, B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP-1), via STAT3 and IRF4. Among the other targets of STAT3 is microRNA-21 (miR-21). miR-21 is the most frequently deregulated microRNA in malignancy, including B cell lymphomas, and it has oncogenic potential downstream of STAT3. However, the regulation and function of miR-21 during plasma cell differentiation are not characterized. In contrast to the induction of miR-21 observed in response to STAT3 activation in other systems, we demonstrate that miR-21 is repressed during IL-21-driven plasma cell differentiation. We explored the molecular basis for this repression and identify primary miR-21 transcription as a direct target of BLIMP-1-dependent repression, despite continued STAT3 activation and phospho-STAT3 binding to the primary miR-21 promoter. Thus, STAT3 and BLIMP-1 constitute an incoherent feed-forward loop downstream of IL-21 that can coordinate microRNA with mRNA expression during plasma cell differentiation.
    Keywords: Cell Differentiation -- Immunology ; Feedback, Physiological -- Physiology ; Micrornas -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Plasma Cells -- Immunology ; Repressor Proteins -- Physiology ; Stat3 Transcription Factor -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00221767
    E-ISSN: 1550-6606
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Scientific Reports, 01 September 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.1-11
    Description: Abstract The unfolded protein response (UPR) and activation of XBP1 is necessary for high secretory efficiency and functional differentiation of antibody secreting cells (ASCs). The UPR additionally includes a branch in which membrane-bound transcription factors, exemplified by ATF6, undergo intramembrane-proteolysis by the sequential action of site-1 (MBTPS1/S1P) and site-2 proteases (MBTPS2/S2P) and release of the cytoplasmic domain as an active transcription factor. Such regulation is shared with a family of CREB3-related transcription factors and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). Of these, we identify that the CREB3 family member CREB3L2 is strongly induced and activated during the transition from B-cell to plasma cell state. Inhibition of site-1 protease leads to a profound reduction in plasmablast number linked to induction of autophagy. Plasmablasts generated in the presence of site-1 protease inhibitor segregated into CD38high and CD38low populations, the latter characterized by a marked reduction in the capacity to secrete IgG. Site-1 protease inhibition is accompanied by a distinctive change in gene expression associated with amino acid, steroid and fatty acid synthesis pathways. These results demonstrate that transcriptional control of metabolic programs necessary for secretory activity can be targeted via site-1 protease inhibition during ASC differentiation.
    Keywords: Biology
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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