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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, Sept, 2012, Vol.168, p.96(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2012.04.016 Byline: Markus Wehrer (a)(b), Philipp Jaesche (c), Kai Uwe Totsche (a) Abstract: A quantitative knowledge of the fate of deicing chemicals in the subsurface can be provided by joint analysis of lab experiments with numerical simulation models. In the present study, published experimental data of microbial degradation of the deicing chemical propylene glycol (PG) under flow conditions in soil columns were simulated inversely to receive the parameters of degradation. We evaluated different scenarios of an advection-dispersion model including different terms for degradation, such as zero order, first order and inclusion of a growing and decaying biomass for their ability to explain the data. The general break-through behavior of propylene glycol in soil columns can be simulated well using a coupled model of solute transport and degradation with growth and decay of biomass. The susceptibility of the model to non-unique solutions was investigated using systematical forward and inverse simulations. We found that the model tends to equifinal solutions under certain conditions. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Geosciences, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Burgweg 11, 07743 Jena, Germany (b) Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Smith Hall Room 136, 101 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102, United States (c) Weizbuhl 19, 95497 Goldkronach, Germany Article History: Received 9 November 2011; Revised 6 April 2012; Accepted 9 April 2012
    Keywords: Propylene -- Models ; Propylene -- Analysis ; Propylene Glycol -- Models ; Propylene Glycol -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, August, 2013, Vol.179, p.315(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.03.041 Byline: Markus Wehrer, Thilo Rennert, Kai Uwe Totsche Abstract: Mass transfer processes of pollutants from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) may control groundwater pollution at abandoned industrial sites. We studied release kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from fresh and aged tar phases using a dialysis tubing technique. Time for equilibration ranged from several days to more than three years. For fresh tar materials the release seems to be limited by retarded pore diffusion, while for two of three aged tars diffusion limited release influenced by dissolved organic matter (DOM) was assumed. The equilibration process was driven by solubilization thermodynamics expressed by Raoult's law. Yet, solubility enhancement was observed potentially due to the presence of organic mobile sorbents. The results show that the release of PAHs from tar phases is generally rate limited and partitioning according to Raoult's law is the driving mechanism of the exchanges process. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Geosciences, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Burgweg 11, 07743 Jena, Germany (b) Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Smith Hall Room 136, 101 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102, United States Article History: Received 31 October 2012; Revised 13 March 2013; Accepted 19 March 2013
    Keywords: Water Pollution ; Thermodynamics ; Groundwater ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Pollution Control
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, April 2017, Vol.172, pp.175-184
    Description: Fluorescence and UV/Vis spectra of aqueous solutions with numerous organic compounds are a superposition of single spectra of the chemical species present. Thus, an isolation of individual spectra with chemometrics is required for their quantification. We investigated UV/Vis spectra and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices of vanillic acid, salicylic acid, phenoxyacetic acid and phthalic acid with positive matrix factorization (PMF) and non-negativity constrained parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) in combination with the law of mass action. In consideration of the pH-dependent speciation of organic acids, we first reconstructed the pH-specific spectra of each compound. Using these spectra as known components in a constrained algorithm, we could successfully quantify species of multiple compounds and reconstruct the solution pH. In addition, we estimated the uncertainty of reconstructed spectra and concentrations in order to assess the most probable number of components for PMF/PARAFAC. Therefore, we could derive a framework to reconstruct the number of relevant species and their individual concentration present in spectroscopic data of aqueous solutions containing multiple organic compounds.
    Keywords: Parallel Factor Analysis (Parafac) ; Positive Matrix Factorization (Pmf) ; Organic Acid ; Environmental Tracer ; Number of Components ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Feb, 2014, Vol.69, p.187(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.10.040 Byline: Dorte Dibbern, Andreas Schmalwasser, Tillmann Lueders, Kai Uwe Totsche Abstract: Plants introduce abundant carbon into soils, where it is mineralised and sequestered. Proportions of this fresh organic carbon introduced to top soils can be relocated to deeper soil layers and even to groundwater by event-driven transport upon heavy rainfalls or after snowmelt. It is assumed that a significant fraction of this flux involves biocolloids and possibly microbial biomass itself. However, the nature of such transported microbes, their origin and the mechanisms of their mobilisation are still poorly understood. Here, we provide primary evidence that specific microbial populations are exported from top soils upon seepage events. At an experimental maize field, we have analysed the composition of mobilised bacterial communities collected in seepage water directly after snowmelt in winter at different depths (35 and 65 cm), and compared them to the corresponding bulk soil microbiota. Using T-RFLP fingerprinting and pyrotag sequencing, we reveal that mostly members of the Betaproteobacteria (Methylophilaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae), the Alphaproteobacteria (Sphingomonadaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae), the Gammaproteobacteria (Legionellaceae) and the Bacteroidetes (Sphingobacteriaceae) were mobilised, all characteristic taxa for the rhizoplane. This highlights the importance of preferential flow along root channels for the vertical mobilisation and transport of microbes. Although the estimated quantitative fluxes of bacterial biomass carbon appeared low, our study allows for an improved understanding of the links between top soil, subsoil, and groundwater microbiota, as well as carbon fluxes between soil compartments. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Groundwater Ecology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany (b) Institute of Geosciences, Department of Hydrogeology, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena, Burgweg 11, 07749 Jena, Germany Article History: Received 19 August 2013; Revised 16 October 2013; Accepted 17 October 2013
    Keywords: Hydrogeology ; Soil Microbiology ; Groundwater ; Soils ; Soil Carbon
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, April 1, 2015, Vol.81(7), pp.2384-2394
    Description: The article describes the linking of information on autotrophy (Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) with that from total microbial community analysis in groundwater at two superimposeduupper and lowerulimestone groundwater reservoirs (aquifers) to understand the role of lithoautotrophy in aquifer carbon flow. It was revealed by quantitative PCR that up to 17% of the microbial population had the genetic potential to fix C[O.sub.2] via the Calvin cycle, with abundances of cbbM and cbbL genes, encoding RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) forms I and II. Moreover, C[O.sub.2]-assimilating microbial population appeared to be involved in the oxidation of sulfur or nitrogen compounds and harbored both RubisCO forms I and II, allowing efficient C[O.sub.2] fixation in environments with strong oxygen and C[O.sub.2] fluctuations.
    Keywords: Autotrophs – Research ; Microbial Populations – Research ; Polymerase Chain Reaction – Usage
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, September 2018, Vol.124, pp.168-178
    Description: Substantial amounts of organic matter are mobilized from upper soil layers during extreme precipitation events. This results in considerable fluxes of carbon from plant-associated topsoil to deeper mineral soil and to groundwater. Microbes constitute an important part of this mobile organic matter (MOM) pool. Previous work has shown that specific bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of decaying maize roots were selectively transported with seepage water upon snowmelt in winter. However, effective mechanisms of mobilization and also possible distinctions to microbial transport for living root systems remain poorly understood. In the present study, bacteria in seepage water were sampled from lysimeters at an experimental maize field after extreme rain events in summer. We show that a distinctive subset of rhizoplane-associated bacterial populations was mobilized after summer rain, especially including abundant members of the , representing a microbial conduit for fresh plant-derived carbon inputs into deeper soil layers. Marked distinctions of seepage communities were not observed between lysimeters with a different relative contribution of preferential vs. matrix flow. Time-resolved analyses of seepage water during an artificial rain event revealed temporal patterns in the mobilization of certain lineages, with members of the , , and preferentially mobilized in early and late seepage fractions, and members of the candidate phyla and mobilized mostly in intermediate fractions. While average bacterial cell counts were at ∼10  ml in seepage water, the recovery of amended fluorescently labeled cells of was low (0.2–0.6%) over seepage events. Still, mobilized bacteria clearly have the potential to influence bacterial activities and communities in subsoils. These findings demonstrate that dynamic hydraulic events must be considered for a better understanding of the connectivities between microbial populations and communities in soil, as well as of the links between distinct carbon pools over depth.
    Keywords: Natural Rain ; Artificial Rain ; Preferential Flow ; Seepage Water ; Soil Bacterial Communities ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, September 2012, Vol.168, pp.96-106
    Description: A quantitative knowledge of the fate of deicing chemicals in the subsurface can be provided by joint analysis of lab experiments with numerical simulation models. In the present study, published experimental data of microbial degradation of the deicing chemical propylene glycol (PG) under flow conditions in soil columns were simulated inversely to receive the parameters of degradation. We evaluated different scenarios of an advection-dispersion model including different terms for degradation, such as zero order, first order and inclusion of a growing and decaying biomass for their ability to explain the data. The general break-through behavior of propylene glycol in soil columns can be simulated well using a coupled model of solute transport and degradation with growth and decay of biomass. The susceptibility of the model to non-unique solutions was investigated using systematical forward and inverse simulations. We found that the model tends to equifinal solutions under certain conditions. ► Inverse modeling of hydrocarbon degradation and transport in a soil column. ► Modeling degradation of propylene glycol requires a dynamic biomass approach. ► Equifinality evaluation of inverse estimates of biodegradation parameters. Modeling transport and degradation of propylene glycol in porous media requires a dynamically reacting biomass.
    Keywords: Propylene Glycol ; Monod Kinetics ; Column Experiment ; Airfield Soil ; Equifinality ; Airport Winter Operation ; Biodegradation ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental pollution, 2012, Vol.168, pp.96-106
    Description: A quantitative knowledge of the fate of deicing chemicals in the subsurface can be provided by joint analysis of lab experiments with numerical simulation models. In the present study, published experimental data of microbial degradation of the deicing chemical propylene glycol (PG) under flow conditions in soil columns were simulated inversely to receive the parameters of degradation. We evaluated different scenarios of an advection-dispersion model including different terms for degradation, such as zero order, first order and inclusion of a growing and decaying biomass for their ability to explain the data. The general break-through behavior of propylene glycol in soil columns can be simulated well using a coupled model of solute transport and degradation with growth and decay of biomass. The susceptibility of the model to non-unique solutions was investigated using systematical forward and inverse simulations. We found that the model tends to equifinal solutions under certain conditions. ; p. 96-106.
    Keywords: Biodegradation ; Propylene Glycol ; Porous Media ; Biomass ; Deicing Agents ; Solutes ; Mathematical Models ; Simulation Models ; Soil
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental pollution, 2013, Vol.179, pp.315-325
    Description: Mass transfer processes of pollutants from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) may control groundwater pollution at abandoned industrial sites. We studied release kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from fresh and aged tar phases using a dialysis tubing technique. Time for equilibration ranged from several days to more than three years. For fresh tar materials the release seems to be limited by retarded pore diffusion, while for two of three aged tars diffusion limited release influenced by dissolved organic matter (DOM) was assumed. The equilibration process was driven by solubilization thermodynamics expressed by Raoult's law. Yet, solubility enhancement was observed potentially due to the presence of organic mobile sorbents. The results show that the release of PAHs from tar phases is generally rate limited and partitioning according to Raoult's law is the driving mechanism of the exchanges process. ; p. 315-325.
    Keywords: Nonaqueous Phase Liquids ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Dialysis ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Solubilization ; Solubility ; Mass Transfer ; Thermodynamics ; Groundwater Contamination
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, August 2013, Vol.179, pp.315-325
    Description: Mass transfer processes of pollutants from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) may control groundwater pollution at abandoned industrial sites. We studied release kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from fresh and aged tar phases using a dialysis tubing technique. Time for equilibration ranged from several days to more than three years. For fresh tar materials the release seems to be limited by retarded pore diffusion, while for two of three aged tars diffusion limited release influenced by dissolved organic matter (DOM) was assumed. The equilibration process was driven by solubilization thermodynamics expressed by Raoult's law. Yet, solubility enhancement was observed potentially due to the presence of organic mobile sorbents. The results show that the release of PAHs from tar phases is generally rate limited and partitioning according to Raoult's law is the driving mechanism of the exchanges process. Release of PAHs from tar phases is severely restricted by retarded pore diffusion.
    Keywords: Aging ; Coal Tar ; Manufactured Gas Plant Sites ; Tar Processing Facilities ; Reactive Transport ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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