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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, Nov 1, 2012, Vol.438, p.312(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.08.080 Byline: Alex Laini, Marco Bartoli, Lucrezia Lamastra, Ettore Capri, Matteo Balderacchi, Marco Trevisan Keywords: Lowland springs; Terbuthylazine; Desethylterbuthylazine; Spatial analysis; Groundwater-dependent ecosystems Abstract: Herbicides reduce the diversity of flora and fauna in freshwater ecosystems and also contaminate groundwater due to leaching. Herbicide contamination can be a serious threat for all groundwateradependent ecosystems (GDE), altering their chemical and biological quality. Successful management to protect GDE is dependent on detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of the surrounding environment. We consider the possible diffuse contamination by herbicides of groundwater and of GDE as lowland springs, semi-artificial ecosystems with elevated biodiversity. The main objectives of the present work were thus: (1) to map herbicide contamination in lowland springs, (2) to evaluate the potential risk for biota and (3) to quantify the extent of the area from which the herbicide use can affect the water quality of lowland springs. In June and August 2009, nearly 23 springs within the Po River Plain (Northern Italy) were sampled and analyzed for five herbicides used to control weeds in maize. Hydrogeological properties, half-lives of the herbicides and their concentrations in both groundwater and springs were used to quantify the area from which the contamination could originate. Such evaluation was performed by means of GIS techniques. Terbuthylazine were the only herbicide found, together with its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine. In 16 out of 84 measurements, their concentrations were above the threshold for drinking water; however, they were always below the ecotoxicological end-points of aquatic flora and fauna. Spatial analyses reveal that the theoretical area from which herbicides can contaminate spring water is within a distance varying between a few and 1800m. Our findings indicate that conservation plans should focus on the fields adjacent to or surrounding the springs and should address the optimization of irrigation practices, restoration of buffer strips, crop rotation and in general more sustainable agricultural practices in the proximity of these fragile GDE. Article History: Received 19 June 2012; Revised 18 August 2012; Accepted 19 August 2012
    Keywords: Water Resource Management -- Analysis ; Leaching -- Analysis ; Herbicides -- Analysis ; Groundwater -- Analysis ; Freshwater Ecosystems -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, Dec 15, 2013, Vol.141(4), p.4146(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.014 Byline: Nicoleta A. Suciu, Francesca Tiberto, Sotirios Vasileiadis, Lucrezia Lamastra, Marco Trevisan Abstract: acents Contaminant residues in food packaging pose a threat for consumers. acents Seventeen paperboard packaging were analysed for presence of organic contaminants. acents Bisphenol A was the only substance present in all paper and paperboard samples. acents Bisphenol A has the lowest migration quotients from paperboard to foods/food simulant. acents Tenax[R] food simulant simulates well contaminants migration from board to dry foods. Article History: Received 6 December 2012; Revised 15 May 2013; Accepted 2 July 2013
    Keywords: Bisphenol-a ; Paperboard ; Paper Products Industry ; Food Contamination
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(8), p.e42671
    Description: The novel multi-million read generating sequencing technologies are very promising for resolving the immense soil 16S rRNA gene bacterial diversity. Yet they have a limited maximum sequence length screening ability, restricting studies in screening DNA stretches of single 16S rRNA gene hypervariable (V) regions. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of properties of four consecutive V regions (V3-6) on commonly applied analytical methodologies in bacterial ecology studies. Using an in silico approach, the performance of each V region was compared with the complete 16S rRNA gene stretch. We assessed related properties of the soil derived bacterial sequence collection of the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database and concomitantly performed simulations based on published datasets. Results indicate that overall the most prominent V region for soil bacterial diversity studies was V3, even though it was outperformed in some of the tests. Despite its high performance during most tests, V4 was less conserved along flanking sites, thus reducing its ability for bacterial diversity coverage. V5 performed well in the non-redundant RDP database based analysis. However V5 did not resemble the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence results as well as V3 and V4 did when the natural sequence frequency and occurrence approximation was considered in the virtual experiment. Although, the highly conserved flanking sequence regions of V6 provide the ability to amplify partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from very diverse owners, it was demonstrated that V6 was the least informative compared to the rest examined V regions. Our results indicate that environment specific database exploration and theoretical assessment of the experimental approach are strongly suggested in 16S rRNA gene based bacterial diversity studies.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Microbiology ; Computational Biology ; Ecology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, August 15, 2014, Vol.490, p.748(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.063 Byline: Lucrezia Lamastra, Nicoleta Alina Suciu, Elisa Novelli, Marco Trevisan Abstract: Agriculture is the largest freshwater consumer, accounting for 70% of the world's water withdrawal. Water footprints (WFs) are being increasingly used to indicate the impacts of water use by production systems. A new methodology to assess WF of wine was developed in the framework of the V.I.V.A. project (Valutazione Impatto Viticoltura sull'Ambiente), launched by the Italian Ministry for the Environment in 2011 to improve the Italian wine sector's sustainability. The new methodology has been developed that enables different vines from the same winery to be compared. This was achieved by calculating the gray water footprint, following Tier III approach proposed by Hoekstra et al. (2011). The impact of water use during the life cycle of grape-wine production was assessed for six different wines from the same winery in Sicily, Italy using both the newly developed methodology (V.I.V.A.) and the classical methodology proposed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN). In all cases green water was the largest contributor to WF, but the new methodology also detected differences between vines of the same winery. Furthermore, V.I.V.A. methodology assesses water body contamination by pesticides application whereas the WFN methodology considers just fertilization. This fact ended highlights the highest WF of vineyard 4 calculated by V.I.V.A. if compared with the WF calculated with WFN methodology. Comparing the WF of wine produced with grapes from the six different wines, the factors most greatly influencing the results obtained in this study were: distance from the water body, fertilization rate, amount and eco-toxicological behavior of the active ingredients used. Article History: Received 29 January 2014; Revised 7 May 2014; Accepted 7 May 2014 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: Damia Barcelo
    Keywords: Water -- Case Studies ; Water -- Analysis ; Water Use -- Case Studies ; Water Use -- Analysis ; Wineries -- Case Studies ; Wineries -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 15 December 2013, Vol.141(4), pp.4146-4151
    Description: Contaminant residues in food packaging is a new challenge of our time, as it may pose a threat for consumers. Higher levels of contaminants were observed in food packaging made by recycled materials, even if little information is available for some groups of contaminants. The present study proposes a procedure for analyzing three different groups of organic contaminants in recycled paper and paperboard. Seventeen commercial samples were analyzed for the presence of bisphenol A (BPA), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NMP) and nonylphenol di-ethoxilate (NDP). Not all the samples contained all the contaminants; BPA was the only substance present in all the samples. The concentrations detected were quite high and, in most of the cases, in agreement with results reported in previous studies. Substance migration tests from spiked/non-spiked samples for two dry foods and Tenax® food simulant were undertaken. BPA migration quotients were always lower than 1%, whereas the migration quotients of DEHP were higher than 2.0%. The highest nonylphenols migration quotients were 6.5% for NMP and 8.2% for NDP. Tenax® simulates well the contaminants migration from paperboard to dry food, in some cases being even more severe than the food.
    Keywords: Food Packaging ; Recycled Paper ; Dry Food ; Migration ; Food Simulant ; Bisphenol A ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 February 2017, Vol.580, pp.136-146
    Description: Organisms are frequently exposed to mixtures of chemical contaminants in the environment, causing a potential “cocktail effect”, or combined effect. The joint action of different molecules with similar or different modes of action could result in a potentially unlimited number of additives, synergistic or antagonistic combinations. Since the large number of contaminants makes it impossible to perform ecotoxicity tests for each potential mixture, a robust approach for prospective environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures is needed. A number of recent publications by the European Commission and the authorities in charge prove the increasing interest that is spreading in the European community towards the topic of the assessment of chemical mixtures. The current EU regulation for Plant Protection Products authorization (Reg. 1107/2009 EC) explicitly requires the evaluation of the potential combined effects of active substances. We reviewed current methods and limitations of mixture assessment of pesticides (7 fungicides and 4 herbicides) through the analysis of the approaches adopted to investigate possible risks for different non-target organisms. The Concentration Addition (CA) approach was the most used approach to predict multiple toxicity to non-target organisms. The guidance for birds and mammals first introduced standard procedures to assess the multiple toxicity based on on CA concept. The recent aquatic EFSA guidance introduced some requirements to evaluate potential mixture toxicity, while the current guidance requirements for terrestrial organisms still lack clear indications on how to conduct the assessment. Moreover, new indications come from the draft guidance for the assessment of terrestrial plants and in-soil organisms. However, the approval and implementation of these new guidelines are still at a developmental stage. Some final considerations are drawn on the future possibilities to improve risk assessment procedures so as to identify harmful effects of pesticides mixtures on non-target organisms.
    Keywords: Ecological Risk Assessment ; Combined Exposure ; Pesticides ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 November 2014, Vol.499, pp.413-413
    Description: Aquifers are facing severe pressure from water extraction and irrigation. In many regions groundwater tables have declined considerably and aquifers have become polluted by various pollutants such as nitrates. The changes observed in groundwater quantity and quality are a threat (i) to...
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 August 2014, Vol.490, pp.748-756
    Description: Agriculture is the largest freshwater consumer, accounting for 70% of the world's water withdrawal. Water footprints (WFs) are being increasingly used to indicate the impacts of water use by production systems. A new methodology to assess WF of wine was developed in the framework of the V.I.V.A. project (Valutazione Impatto Viticoltura sull'Ambiente), launched by the Italian Ministry for the Environment in 2011 to improve the Italian wine sector's sustainability. The new methodology has been developed that enables different vines from the same winery to be compared. This was achieved by calculating the gray water footprint, following Tier III approach proposed by . The impact of water use during the life cycle of grape-wine production was assessed for six different wines from the same winery in Sicily, Italy using both the newly developed methodology (V.I.V.A.) and the classical methodology proposed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN). In all cases green water was the largest contributor to WF, but the new methodology also detected differences between vines of the same winery. Furthermore, V.I.V.A. methodology assesses water body contamination by pesticides application whereas the WFN methodology considers just fertilization. This fact ended highlights the highest WF of vineyard 4 calculated by V.I.V.A. if compared with the WF calculated with WFN methodology. Comparing the WF of wine produced with grapes from the six different wines, the factors most greatly influencing the results obtained in this study were: distance from the water body, fertilization rate, amount and eco-toxicological behavior of the active ingredients used.
    Keywords: Water Footprint ; Italian Wine ; Environmental Indicator ; Gray Water Footprint ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 10 March 2018, Vol.71(11), pp.A715-A715
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 November 2012, Vol.438, pp.312-318
    Description: Herbicides reduce the diversity of flora and fauna in freshwater ecosystems and also contaminate groundwater due to leaching. Herbicide contamination can be a serious threat for all groundwater‐dependent ecosystems (GDE), altering their chemical and biological quality. Successful management to protect GDE is dependent on detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of the surrounding environment. We consider the possible diffuse contamination by herbicides of groundwater and of GDE as lowland springs, semi-artificial ecosystems with elevated biodiversity. The main objectives of the present work were thus: (1) to map herbicide contamination in lowland springs, (2) to evaluate the potential risk for biota and (3) to quantify the extent of the area from which the herbicide use can affect the water quality of lowland springs. In June and August 2009, nearly 23 springs within the Po River Plain (Northern Italy) were sampled and analyzed for five herbicides used to control weeds in maize. Hydrogeological properties, half-lives of the herbicides and their concentrations in both groundwater and springs were used to quantify the area from which the contamination could originate. Such evaluation was performed by means of GIS techniques. Terbuthylazine were the only herbicide found, together with its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine. In 16 out of 84 measurements, their concentrations were above the threshold for drinking water; however, they were always below the ecotoxicological end-points of aquatic flora and fauna. Spatial analyses reveal that the theoretical area from which herbicides can contaminate spring water is within a distance varying between a few and 1800 m. Our findings indicate that conservation plans should focus on the fields adjacent to or surrounding the springs and should address the optimization of irrigation practices, restoration of buffer strips, crop rotation and in general more sustainable agricultural practices in the proximity of these fragile GDE. ► We evaluated herbicide contamination and dispersion pattern in lowland springs. ► Terbuthylazine were the only herbicide found, together with its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine. ► Herbicide in spring water could originate up to 1800 m in the recharge basin. ► Detected herbicide concentrations were not a direct threat for the biota.
    Keywords: Lowland Springs ; Terbuthylazine ; Desethylterbuthylazine ; Spatial Analysis ; Groundwater-Dependent Ecosystems ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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