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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 23 October 2012, Vol.109(43), pp.17717-22
    Description: Cyclic photosynthetic electron flow (CEF) is crucial to photosynthesis because it participates in the control of chloroplast energy and redox metabolism, and it is particularly induced under adverse environmental conditions. Here we report that down-regulation of the chloroplast localized Ca(2+) sensor (CAS) protein by an RNAi approach in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii results in strong inhibition of CEF under anoxia. Importantly, this inhibition is rescued by an increase in the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration, inferring that CEF is Ca(2+)-dependent. Furthermore, we identified a protein, anaerobic response 1 (ANR1), that is also required for effective acclimation to anaerobiosis. Depletion of ANR1 by artificial microRNA expression mimics the CAS-depletion phenotype, and under anaerobic conditions the two proteins coexist within a large active photosystem I-cytochrome b(6)/f complex. Moreover, we provide evidence that CAS and ANR1 interact with each other as well as with PGR5-Like 1 (PGRL1) in vivo. Overall our data establish a Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of CEF via the combined function of ANR1, CAS, and PGRL1, associated with each other in a multiprotein complex.
    Keywords: Photosynthesis ; Caenorhabditis Elegans Proteins -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: BBA - Bioenergetics, September 2015, Vol.1847(9), pp.993-1003
    Description: The understanding of calcium as a second messenger in plants has been growing intensively over the last decades. Recently, attention has been drawn to the organelles, especially the chloroplast but focused on the stromal Ca transients in response to environmental stresses. Herein we will expand this view and discuss the role of Ca in photosynthesis. Moreover we address of how Ca is delivered to chloroplast stroma and thylakoids. Thereby, new light is shed on the regulation of photosynthetic electron flow and light-dependent metabolism by the interplay of Ca , thylakoid acidification and redox status. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast biogenesis.
    Keywords: Calcium ; Chloroplast ; Photosynthesis ; Linear Cyclic Electron Flow ; Calcium Transporter ; Metabolism ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0005-2728
    E-ISSN: 1879-2650
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology, June 2015, Vol.168(2), pp.615-34
    Description: In plants and algae, the serine/threonine kinase STN7/STT7, orthologous protein kinases in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), respectively, is an important regulator in acclimation to changing light environments. In this work, we assessed STT7-dependent protein phosphorylation under high light in C. reinhardtii, known to fully induce the expression of light-harvesting complex stress-related protein3 (LHCSR3) and a nonphotochemical quenching mechanism, in relationship to anoxia where the activity of cyclic electron flow is stimulated. Our quantitative proteomics data revealed numerous unique STT7 protein substrates and STT7-dependent protein phosphorylation variations that were reliant on the environmental condition. These results indicate that STT7-dependent phosphorylation is modulated by the environment and point to an intricate chloroplast phosphorylation network responding in a highly sensitive and dynamic manner to environmental cues and alterations in kinase function. Functionally, the absence of the STT7 kinase triggered changes in protein expression and photoinhibition of photosystem I (PSI) and resulted in the remodeling of photosynthetic complexes. This remodeling initiated a pronounced association of LHCSR3 with PSI-light harvesting complex I (LHCI)-ferredoxin-NADPH oxidoreductase supercomplexes. Lack of STT7 kinase strongly diminished PSII-LHCII supercomplexes, while PSII core complex phosphorylation and accumulation were significantly enhanced. In conclusion, our study provides strong evidence that the regulation of protein phosphorylation is critical for driving successful acclimation to high light and anoxic growth environments and gives new insights into acclimation strategies to these environmental conditions.
    Keywords: Environment ; Photosynthesis ; Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii -- Metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes -- Metabolism ; Plant Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00320889
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, 13 March 2014(85)
    Description: The introduced protocol provides a tool for the analysis of multiprotein complexes in the thylakoid membrane, by revealing insights into complex composition under different conditions. In this protocol the approach is demonstrated by comparing the composition of the protein complex responsible for cyclic electron flow (CEF) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, isolated from genetically different strains. The procedure comprises the isolation of thylakoid membranes, followed by their separation into multiprotein complexes by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, SDS-PAGE, immunodetection and comparative, quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) based on differential metabolic labeling ((14)N/(15)N) of the analyzed strains. Detergent solubilized thylakoid membranes are loaded on sucrose density gradients at equal chlorophyll concentration. After ultracentrifugation, the gradients are separated into fractions, which are analyzed by mass-spectrometry based on equal volume. This approach allows the investigation of the composition within the gradient fractions and moreover to analyze the migration behavior of different proteins, especially focusing on ANR1, CAS, and PGRL1. Furthermore, this method is demonstrated by confirming the results with immunoblotting and additionally by supporting the findings from previous studies (the identification and PSI-dependent migration of proteins that were previously described to be part of the CEF-supercomplex such as PGRL1, FNR, and cyt f). Notably, this approach is applicable to address a broad range of questions for which this protocol can be adopted and e.g. used for comparative analyses of multiprotein complex composition isolated from distinct environmental conditions.
    Keywords: Mass Spectrometry -- Methods ; Multiprotein Complexes -- Analysis
    E-ISSN: 1940-087X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Plant cell, August 2011, Vol.23(8), pp.2950-63
    Description: The plant-specific calcium binding protein CAS (calcium sensor) has been localized in chloroplast thylakoid membranes of vascular plants and green algae. To elucidate the function of CAS in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we generated and analyzed eight independent CAS knockdown C. reinhardtii lines (cas-kd). Upon transfer to high-light (HL) growth conditions, cas-kd lines were unable to properly induce the expression of LHCSR3 protein that is crucial for nonphotochemical quenching. Prolonged exposure to HL revealed a severe light sensitivity of cas-kd lines and caused diminished activity and recovery of photosystem II (PSII). Remarkably, the induction of LHCSR3, the growth of cas-kd lines under HL, and the performance of PSII were fully rescued by increasing the calcium concentration in the growth media. Moreover, perturbing cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis by application of the calmodulin antagonist W7 or the G-protein activator mastoparan impaired the induction of LHCSR3 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that CAS and Ca(2+) are critically involved in the regulation of the HL response and particularly in the control of LHCSR3 expression.
    Keywords: Light ; Adaptation, Physiological -- Radiation Effects ; Calcium -- Pharmacology ; Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii -- Physiology ; Chloroplasts -- Metabolism ; Plant Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 10404651
    E-ISSN: 1532-298X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of proteome research, 05 August 2011, Vol.10(8), pp.3830-9
    Description: Cilia are disassembled prior to cell division, which is proposed to regulate proper cell cycle progression. The signaling pathways that regulate cilia disassembly are not well-understood. Recent biochemical and genetic data demonstrate that protein phosphorylation plays important roles in cilia disassembly. Here, we analyzed the phosphoproteins in the membrane/matrix fraction of flagella undergoing shortening as well as flagella from steady state cells of Chlamydomonas. The phosphopeptides were enriched by a combination of IMAC and titanium dioxide chromatography with a strategy of sequential elution from IMAC (SIMAC) and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 224 phosphoproteins derived from 1296 spectral counts of phosphopeptides were identified. Among the identified phosphoproteins are flagellar motility proteins such as outer dynein arm, intraflagellar transport proteins as well as signaling molecules including protein kinases, phosphatases, G proteins, and ion channels. Eighty-nine of these phosphoproteins were only detected in shortening flagella, whereas 29 were solely in flagella of steady growing cells, indicating dramatic changes of protein phosphorylation during flagellar shortening. Our data indicates that protein phosphorylation is a key event in flagellar disassembly, and paves the way for further study of flagellar assembly and disassembly controlled by protein phosphorylation.
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii -- Metabolism ; Flagella -- Metabolism ; Phosphoproteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 15353893
    E-ISSN: 1535-3907
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