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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Pathology, 2011, Vol.43, pp.S74-S74
    Description: Salmonella infections cause severe diarrhoea. Detection of positive specimen employing standard procedures takes at least 2 days. Faster approaches are necessary to start respective therapies earlier. AimThe aim of our work was the development of a rapid approach for the detection of Salmonella. MethodsA small piece of the stool sample was incubated in selective media, e.g., selenit bouillon, for 20h at 37°C. Subsequently, 150μL from the top of the culture supernatant was taken and directly applied to 1mL pure water. Bacteria were collected by centrifugation. Pellets were re-suspended in 1mL water and centrifuged again. This washing step was repeated once. After air drying, bacteria were transferred onto a MALDI target, overlaid with HCCA matrix and subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Spectra were evaluated by MALDI Biotyper software. Experiments employing spiked stool samples were performed to establish the method. Subsequently, this approach was applied to routine samples and compared to the standard procedure. ResultsOver a time frame of 3 months, 1220 samples were analysed in parallel to the standard routine procedure. In total, 33 positive samples were identified. Fifteen of these were already positive after the direct streak of the stool sample and could be identified from the plate by MALDI Biotyper. Eighteen specimens were positive the same day by MALDI Biotyper analysis after the selective enrichment. No positive sample was missed by the novel approach which allowed detection of Salmonella after just one day of incubation.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0031-3025
    E-ISSN: 14653931
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2012, Vol. 50(3), p.927
    Description: Resistance against β-lactam antibiotics is a growing challenge for managing severe bacterial infections. The rapid and cost-efficient determination of β-lactam resistance is an important prerequisite for the choice of an adequate antibiotic therapy. β-Lactam resistance is based mainly on the expression/overexpression of β-lactamases, which destroy the central β-lactam ring of these drugs by hydrolysis. Hydrolysis corresponds to a mass shift of +18 Da, which can be easily detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Therefore, a MALDI-TOF MS-based assay was set up to investigate different enterobacteria for resistance against different β-lactam antibiotics: ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem. β-Lactamases are enzymes that have a high turnover rate. Therefore, hydrolysis can be detected by MALDI-TOF MS already after a few hours of incubation of the bacteria to be tested with the given antibiotic. The comparison of the MS-derived data with the data from the routine procedure revealed identical classification of the bacteria according to sensitivity and resistance. The MALDI-TOF MS-based assay delivers the results on the same day. The approved routine procedures require at least an additional overnight incubation.
    Keywords: Beta-Lactam Resistance ; Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Chemistry ; Bacteria -- Enzymology ; Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization -- Methods ; Beta-Lactams -- Chemistry;
    ISSN: 1098-660X
    ISSN: 1098660X
    ISSN: 00951137
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2010, Vol.332(1), pp.163-176
    Description: Water flow from soil to plants depends on the properties of the soil next to roots, the rhizosphere. Although several studies showed that the rhizosphere has different properties than the bulk soil, effects of the rhizosphere on root water uptake are commonly neglected. To investigate the rhizosphere’s properties we used neutron radiography to image water content distributions in soil samples planted with lupins during drying and subsequent rewetting. During drying, the water content in the rhizosphere was 0.05 larger than in the bulk soil. Immediately after rewetting, the picture reversed and the rhizosphere remained markedly dry. During the following days the water content of the rhizosphere increased and after 60 h it exceeded that of the bulk soil. The rhizosphere’s thickness was approximately 1.5 mm. Based on the observed dynamics, we derived the distinct, hysteretic and time-dependent water retention curve of the rhizosphere. Our hypothesis is that the rhizosphere’s water retention curve was determined by mucilage exuded by roots. The rhizosphere properties reduce water depletion around roots and weaken the drop of water potential towards roots, therefore favoring water uptake under dry conditions, as demonstrated by means of analytical calculation of water flow to a single root.
    Keywords: Root water uptake ; Water retention curve ; Rhizosphere ; Neutron radiography ; Mucilage ; Hysteresis
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 4
    In: New Phytologist, November 2011, Vol.192(3), pp.653-663
    Description: • Despite the importance of rhizosphere properties for water flow from soil to roots, there is limited quantitative information on the distribution of water in the rhizosphere of plants. • Here, we used neutron tomography to quantify and visualize the water content in the rhizosphere of the plant species chickpea (Cicer arietinum), white lupin (Lupinus albus), and maize (Zea mays) 12 d after planting. • We clearly observed increasing soil water contents (θ) towards the root surface for all three plant species, as opposed to the usual assumption of decreasing water content. This was true for tap roots and lateral roots of both upper and lower parts of the root system. Furthermore, water gradients around the lower part of the roots were smaller and extended further into bulk soil compared with the upper part, where the gradients in water content were steeper. • Incorporating the hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters of the rhizosphere into our model, we could simulate the gradual changes of θ towards the root surface, in agreement with the observations. The modelling result suggests that roots in their rhizosphere may modify the hydraulic properties of soil in a way that improves uptake under dry conditions.
    Keywords: Extent Of Rhizosphere ; Modelling ; Neutron Tomography ; Rhizosphere Hydraulic Properties ; Root Water Uptake ; Soil Moisture Profile ; Water Distribution
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Computers and Geosciences, 2010, Vol.36(10), pp.1246-1251
    Description: For many analyses, grey scale images from X-ray tomography and other sources need to be segmented into objects and background which often is a difficult task and afflicted by an arbitrary and subjective choice of threshold values. This is especially true if the volume fraction of objects is small and the histogram becomes unimodal. Bi-level segmentation based on region growing is a promising approach to cope with the fuzzy transition zone between object and background due to the partial volume effect, but until now there is no method to properly determine the required thresholds in case of unimodality. We propose an automatic and robust technique for threshold selection based on edge detection. The method uses gradient masks which are defined as regions of interest for the determination of threshold values. Its robustness is analysed by a systematic performance test and finally demonstrated for the segmentation of pores in different soils using images from X-ray tomography.
    Keywords: Segmentation ; Thresholding ; Edge Detection ; Region Growing ; Tomography
    ISSN: 0098-3004
    E-ISSN: 18737803
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2012, Vol.11(3), p.0
    Description: Recently, a new approach was introduced to directly measure unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in flux-controlled experiments--the multistep flux experiment. Thereby an overshoot in matric potential h (sub m) across drainage and infiltration fronts was observed. We extended this experimental approach to simultaneously measure the volumetric water content Theta within the sample and applied the method to a sand and a clay loam soil. The detailed trajectories within the h (sub m) -Theta space were obtained during a number of decreasing and increasing steps in infiltration rate. This clearly demonstrates the type and magnitude of hydraulic nonequilibrium under transient conditions where water content and matric potential deviate from a well-defined static relation. We also compared the directly measured hydraulic conductivities with those obtained from classical multistep outflow experiments and found that nonequilibrium dynamics might lead to an underestimation of hydraulic conductivity when obtained from an inverse solution of Richards" equation. We provide a qualitative explanation of nonequilibrium that depends on the structure of the material and the type and magnitude of external forcing. The new experimental setup is considered to be a valuable tool to actually quantify nonequilibrium effects. This will make it possible to represent this relevant phenomenon in future modeling concepts.
    Keywords: Hydrogeology ; Aquifers ; Climate Forcing ; Discharge ; Drainage ; Experimental Studies ; Ground Water ; Hydraulic Conductivity ; Hydrodynamics ; Hysteresis ; Infiltration ; Models ; Richards Equation ; Saturation ; Soil Mechanics ; Solute Transport ; Transport ; Unsaturated Zone;
    ISSN: Vadose Zone Journal
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 7
    Language: German
    In: Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin, 12/2012, Vol.5(4), pp.36-37
    ISSN: 1866-1424
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 06/2011, Vol.174(3), pp.395-403
    ISSN: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science
    E-ISSN: 14368730
    E-ISSN: 15222624
    Source: Wiley (via CrossRef)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Neurology, 2009, Vol.256(10), pp.1756-1758
    Description: Long-term survival of patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma is a rare event with figures in the range of 2–3% for 5-year survival (Scott et al. in Ann Neurol 46:183-188, 1999; McLendon and Halperin in Cancer 98:1745-1748, 2003; Krex et al. in Brain 130:2596-2606, 2007). Prognosis and further clinical course of these patients beyond 5 years after diagnosis are in essence unknown with only anecdotal reports of patients surviving for 10 years or more (Salvati et al. J Neurooncol 36:61-64, 1998). We here report on the extended follow-up (mean, 139.4 months) of a cohort of glioblastoma long-term survivors. Very late relapses occurred in many patients even after more than 10 years of progression-free survival.
    Keywords: Glioblastomas -- Care And Treatment ; Glioblastomas -- Patient Outcomes ; Recurrence (Disease) -- Risk Factors ; Recurrence (Disease) -- Prevention;
    ISSN: 0340-5354
    E-ISSN: 1432-1459
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  • 10
    Language: German
    In: MMW - Fortschritte der Medizin, 2015, Vol.157, pp.25-31
    Description: Das Palliativnetz Bielefeld e. V. ist eine Kooperation von Hausärzten und Palliativmedizinern auf Grundlage der „Vereinbarung zur Umsetzung der ambulanten palliativmedizinischen Versorgung von unheilbar erkrankten Patienten im häuslichen Umfeld“. Maßgeblich unterstützt werden die Ärzte von Koordinatoren, die regelmäßigen Kontakt zu den Patienten bzw. Zugehörigen halten und je nach Bedarf andere Kooperationspartner (Pflegedienste, ambulante Hospizdienste, Physiotherapeuten, Psychologen oder Seelsorger) hinzuziehen.Um Daten zum Leistungsumfang und zur Qualität der Arbeit des Palliativnetzes zu erheben, wurde den Zugehörigen vier Wochen nach dem Versterben des Patienten ein Fragebogen zugeschickt.Insgesamt wurden 105 Zugehörige befragt, 94 Fragebögen konnten zurückerhalten werden. 65% der im Netz eingeschriebenen Patienten verstarben zu Hause. Jeder zweite eingeschriebene Patient war länger als einen Monat betreut worden. Täglich zum Einsatz kamen am häufigsten der allgemeine und der Palliativpflegedienst (52% bzw. 41%), mehrmals pro Woche wurde am häufigsten der Hausarzt in Anspruch genommen (26%). „Sehr zufrieden“ oder „zufrieden“ mit der Betreuung durch die Koordinatoren waren 87% der Befragten, mit den Hausund Palliativärzten 73% bzw. 74% und mit den allgemeinen und Palliativpflegediensten je 60%. Die Wahrnehmung der Bedürfnisse und eine schnelle Reaktion auf Beschwerden erfolgte zu über 90% „immer “oder „überwiegend“.Korrelationen zwischen den deskriptiven Ergebnissen können aufgrund der Stichprobengröße und der teils unvollständigen Antwortfrequenz statistisch nicht sinnvoll berechnet werden, es sind jedoch einige Trends erkennbar. Die Gesamtzufriedenheit scheint mit steigendem Anteil am Versterben zu Hause und mit der Betreuungsdauer durch das Palliativnetz zuzunehmen, was den weiteren Ausbau dieser Strukturen begründen kann.The Palliative Network Bielefeld e. V. is a cooperation between family doctors and palliative care doctors based on the “agreement to implement palliative home care for terminally ill patients”. The doctors are supported by coordinators, who regularly communicate with the patients resp. their family members and call in other co-operation partners (nursing services, ambulant hospice services, physiotherapists, psychologists or pastors) as required.In order to collect data about the scope of services and the quality of work of the palliative network a questionnaire was sent to the family members 4 weeks after the patient had passed away.A total of 105 family members were asked, 94 completed questionnaires could be retrieved. 65% of the included patients died at home. Every other included patient had been taken care of for longer than a month. Of all professional groups who came into operation every day, nusring service and palliative nursing service were asked most frequently (52% resp. 41%), of those who came into operation several times a week, family doctors were asked most frequently (26%). 87% of the interviewees were “very content” or “content” with the coordinators, 73% resp. 74% with the family and palliative care doctors and 60% resp. with the nursing services and palliative nursing services. More than 90% of the interviewees stated that needs were realised and disorders were quickly acted on “at all times” or “predominantly”.Correlations between the descriptive results could not be evaluated statistically because of sample size and incomplete frequency of answers. Nevertheless some trends can be shown. Overall contentment seems to increase as much as the percentage of patients who die at home and the duration of care in palliative network grow. The palliative network should be enhanced.
    Keywords: palliative network ; home-care setting ; palliative care ; family doctor
    ISSN: 1438-3276
    E-ISSN: 1613-3560
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