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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(11), p.e0143100
    Description: The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio) at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90%) baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560) versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7). Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication campaign with its goal to eradicate yaws by 2020.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(6)
    Description: Poxvirus infections in marine mammals have been mainly reported through their clinical lesions and electron microscopy (EM). Poxvirus particles in association with such lesions have been demonstrated by EM and were previously classified as two new viruses, cetacean poxvirus 1 (CePV-1) and cetacean poxvirus 2 (CePV-2). In this study, epidermal pox lesions in cetaceans stranded in South West England (Cornwall) between 2008 and 2012 were investigated by electron microscopy and molecular analysis. PCR and sequencing of a highly conserved region within the viral DNA polymerase gene ruled out both parapox- and orthopoxviruses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product clustered the sequences with those previously described as cetacean poxviruses. However, taking the close genetic distance of this gene fragment across the family of poxviridae into account, it is reasonable to postulate further, novel cetacean poxvirus species. The nucleotide similarity within each cluster (tentative species) detected ranged from 98.6% to 100%, whilst the similarity between the clusters was no more than 95%. The detection of several species of poxvirus in different cetacean species confirms the likelihood of a heterogeneous cetacean poxvirus genus, comparable to the heterogeneity observed in other poxvirus genera.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron Letters, 2009, Vol.50(23), pp.2762-2766
    Description: A novel approach to the synthesis of spirobicyclic Janovsky complexes is described. The complexes were prepared on silica and polystyrene polymeric supports as well as on a solution-borne poly(carbodiimide) polymer with 100% atom economy. A carbon-centered intramolecular de-aromatizing nucleophilic aromatic substitution ipso-cyclization mechanism describes the synthesis of these spirobicyclics. The molecules were characterized by solution and solid-state H and C NMR, IR, and MS.
    Keywords: Janovsky ; Spirobicyclic ; Solid-Phase Synthesis ; NMR ; Anionic Sigma Complex ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    E-ISSN: 1873-3581
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 15 July 1991, Vol.88(14), pp.6234-6238
    Description: The basic domain of Tat is required for trans-activation of viral gene expression. We have performed scanning peptide studies to demonstrate that only this domain is capable of binding to the TAR RNA stem-loop. Strikingly, the basic domain of the other human immunodeficiency virus trans-acting factor, Rev, but no other region, is also capable of binding to TAR. Peptide derivatives of Tat do not require the highly conserved glutamine residue at position 54 for TAR binding, since it may be substituted or deleted. In addition, the two lysine residues may be replaced by arginines. Analysis of binding and trans-activation demonstrated that homopolymers of arginine can completely substitute for the basic domain. Such homopolymers have high affinity for wild-type TAR RNA and lower affinity for mutant TAR. Homopolymers of six to nine arginines substituting for the basic domain of Tat enable full trans-activation in vivo. Homopolymers of at least seven arginines are required for detectable in vitro complex formation, although ≈30% trans-activation is achieved with a mutant Tat containing only five arginines.
    Keywords: Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- HIV ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics -- HIV ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- HIV ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Anatomy -- HIV ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics -- HIV ; Biological sciences -- Biochemistry -- Biomolecules -- HIV ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- HIV ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- HIV ; Applied sciences -- Materials science -- Materials -- HIV ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics -- HIV
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 27 January 2009, Vol.114(D2), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: An updated analysis of observed stratospheric temperature variability and trends is presented on the basis of satellite, radiosonde, and lidar observations. Satellite data include measurements from the series of NOAA operational instruments, including the Microwave Sounding Unit covering 1979–2007 and the Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) covering 1979–2005. Radiosonde results are compared for six different data sets, incorporating a variety of homogeneity adjustments to account for changes in instrumentation and observational practices. Temperature changes in the lower stratosphere show cooling of ∼0.5 K/decade over much of the globe for 1979–2007, with some differences in detail among the different radiosonde and satellite data sets. Substantially larger cooling trends are observed in the Antarctic lower stratosphere during spring and summer, in association with development of the Antarctic ozone hole. Trends in the lower stratosphere derived from radiosonde data are also analyzed for a longer record (back to 1958); trends for the presatellite era (1958–1978) have a large range among the different homogenized data sets, implying large trend uncertainties. Trends in the middle and upper stratosphere have been derived from updated SSU data, taking into account changes in the SSU weighting functions due to observed atmospheric CO increases. The results show mean cooling of 0.5–1.5 K/decade during 1979–2005, with the greatest cooling in the upper stratosphere near 40–50 km. Temperature anomalies throughout the stratosphere were relatively constant during the decade 1995–2005. Long records of lidar temperature measurements at a few locations show reasonable agreement with SSU trends, although sampling uncertainties are large in the localized lidar measurements. Updated estimates of the solar cycle influence on stratospheric temperatures show a statistically significant signal in the tropics (∼30°N–S), with an amplitude (solar maximum minus solar minimum) of ∼0.5 K (lower stratosphere) to ∼1.0 K (upper stratosphere).
    Keywords: Stratosphere ; Trends
    ISSN: 0148-0227
    E-ISSN: 2156-2202
    E-ISSN: 21698996
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic Acids Research, 1993, Vol.21(1), pp.151-154
    Description: Transactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gene expression requires binding of the viral Tat protein to a RNA hairpin-loop structure (TAR) which contains a two or three-nucleotide bulge. Tat binds in the vicinity of the bulge and the two adjacent duplex stems, recognising both specific sequence and structural features of TAR. Binding is mediated by an arginine-rich domain, placing Tat in the family of arginine-rich RNA binding proteins that includes other transactivators, virus capsid proteins and ribosome binding proteins. In order to determine what features of TAR allow Tat to bind efficiently to RNA but not DNA forms, we examined Tat binding to a series of RNA-DNA hybrids. We found that only one specific strand in each duplex stem region needs to be RNA, implying that interaction between Tat and a given stem may be solely or predominantly with one of the two strands. However, the essential strand is not the same one for each stem, suggesting a switch in the bound strand on opposing sides of the bulge. Images
    Keywords: Gene Expression ; RNA-Binding Protein ; RNA ; Tat Protein ; Hybrids ; Ribonucleotides ; DNA ; Ribosomes ; Stems ; Capsid Protein ; Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 ; RNA ; AIDS and HIV;
    ISSN: 0305-1048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Cancer causes & control : CCC, May 2009, Vol.20(4), pp.497-504
    Description: To examine the association between breast cancer risk and the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in prediagnostic serum samples. We analyzed the fatty acid composition in 130 incident postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 257 matched controls nested within the beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial Cohort. The fatty acid composition was measured by gas chromatography. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for the risk of breast cancer were estimated using logistic regression. Stratified analysis was conducted by smoking status. There were no associations with breast cancer risk for total saturated, monounsaturated, n-3, n-6, or trans fatty acids among all women. For individual fatty acids, we observed an inverse association with the trans linoleic acid, 18:2n6tt (p(trend)=0.0002). Among current smokers, long-chain saturated fatty acids (22:0 and 24:0) and total 16:1 trans fatty acids were positively associated with the risk of breast cancer, whereas these fatty acids showed no association among former smokers. Overall, we observed no significant association between serum phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk, except for the trans linoleic acid isomer 18:2n6tt, which was unexpected. Our finding of a positive association of long-chain saturated fatty acids (22:0 and 24:0) and total 16:1 trans fatty acids with the risk of breast cancer only in current smokers may suggest an effect modification by smoking status. Our findings need to be replicated in future epidemiologic studies.
    Keywords: Breast Neoplasms -- Blood ; Fatty Acids -- Blood ; Phospholipids -- Blood ; Smoking -- Adverse Effects
    ISSN: 09575243
    E-ISSN: 1573-7225
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Causes & Control, 2009, Vol.20(4), pp.497-504
    Keywords: Fatty acid ; Breast cancer ; Postmenopausal women ; Smoking
    ISSN: 0957-5243
    E-ISSN: 1573-7225
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 9
    Book
    Book
    Ostfïldern-Ruit bei Stuttgart: Hatje ; New York: Hatje
    Description: 126 p.
    Description: Catalog of an exhibition held at the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, 29 June-8 Sept. 1996; Camden Arts Center, London, 20 Sept.-10 Nov. 1996; Kunstmuseum Bern, 3 Dec. 1996-26 Jan. 1997 and the Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna 13 Feb.-20 Apr. 1997
    Description: Bibliography: p. 122
    Keywords: Newman, Barnett--Exhibitions
    ISBN: 3775706097
    ISBN: 9783775706094
    Source: HathiTrust
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Description: CERN-LHC-ATLAS. Measurement of the 95% CL limit on the fiducial production cross-section times branching ratio of a Higgs-like resonance decaying into two photons, as a function of the resonance mass mX. The resonance is assumed to be narrow. The narrow width assumption is valid for natural widths smaller than about 0.09 GeV + 0.01*mX. The interference of the resonance with the continuum background is neglected. The cross-section is reported for a fiducial volume defined as follows: photon |eta| 22 GeV and E2 〉 22 GeV for mX 110 GeV, mass-dependent cuts are applied on top: E1/mgg 〉 0.4 and E2/mgg 〉 0.3, where mgg is the diphoton invariant mass. The particle-level isolation within a cone of size DR=0.4 around each photon is required to be less than 14 GeV....
    Keywords: P P --〉 Gamma Gamma X ; Sig ; Inclusive ; Integrated Cross Section ; Cross Section ; Proton-Proton Scattering ; 8000.0
    Source: DataCite
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