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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2017, Vol.180(3), pp.366-380
    Description: Paddy soil management is generally thought to promote the accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) and specifically lignin. Lignin is considered particularly susceptible to accumulation under these circumstances because of the recalcitrance of its aromatic structure to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions (., during inundation of paddy fields). The present study investigates the effect of paddy soil management on SOM composition in comparison to nearby agricultural soils that are not used for rice production (non‐paddy soils). Soil types typically used for rice cultivation were selected, including Alisol, Andosol and Vertisol sites in Indonesia (humid tropical climate of Java) and an Alisol site in China (humid subtropical climate, Jiangxi province). These soil types represent a range of soil properties to be expected in Asian paddy fields. All upper‐most A horizons were analysed for their SOM composition by solid‐state C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and for lignin‐derived phenols by the CuO oxidation method. The SOM composition was similar for all of the above named parent soil types (non‐paddy soils) and was also not affected by paddy soil management. A substantial proportion (up to 23%) of the total aryl‐carbon in some paddy and non‐paddy soils was found to originate from condensed aromatic‐carbon (., charcoal). This may be attributed to the burning of crop residues. On average, the proportion of lignin was low and made up 20% of the total SOM, and showed no differences between straw, particulate organic matter (POM), and the bulk soil material. The results from CuO oxidation are consistent with the data obtained from solid‐state C NMR spectroscopy. The extraction of lignin‐derived phenols revealed low VSC (vanillyl, syringyl, cinnamyl) values for all investigated soils in a range (4 to 12 g kg OC) that was typical for agricultural soils. In comparison to adjacent non‐paddy soils, the data do not provide evidence for a substantial accumulation of phenolic lignin‐derived structures in the paddy soils, even for those characterized by higher organic carbon (OC) contents (., Andosol‐ and Alisol (China)‐derived paddy soils). We conclude that the properties of the parent soil types are more important for the lignin content of the soils than the effect of paddy management itself.
    Keywords: Alisol ; Andosol ; Anthrosol ; Lignin‐Derived Phenols ; Soil Organic Matter Composition ; Rice Cultivation ; Solid‐State 13 C Nmr Spectroscopy ; Vertisol
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: 한국토양비료학회 학술발표회 초록집, 2014, Vol.2014(6), pp.127-128
    Keywords: Phases of Pedogenesis ; Paddy Soils ; Parent Soil Type ; Soil Organic Matter ; Soil Mineralogy
    Source: DBpia - 디비피아 (Nurimedia)
    Source: DBpia (Nurimedia)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 2009, Vol.15(8), pp.554-557
    Description: This study examined loneliness among caregivers of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). The sample included 70 caregivers (74% female; 96% spouses) who were currently living with the patient. A postal survey was sent to caregivers of persons with PD on the mailing list of a regional Parkinson association; response rate was 39%. Assessment instruments included the UCLA Loneliness Scale, Social Provisions Scale, Hoehn and Yahr (caregiver version), a perceived Self-Efficacy Scale developed previously for use with PD caregivers, and questions related to both patient and caregiver characteristics. Caregivers reported more loneliness than all similar normative groups except Alzheimer caregivers ( 〈 0.001 to = 0.011). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine whether patient or caregiver characteristics were more predictive of loneliness. Results indicated that patient variables accounted for only 12% of the variance in loneliness, whereas caregiver variables accounted for an additional 46% of the variance ( 〈 0.01). Among the significant individual caregiver predictors of greater loneliness were less education, lower perceived self-efficacy (both 〈 0.05) and poorer physical health ( 〈 0.01). It was also found that persons attending caregiver support groups reported less loneliness ( 〈 0.05) and more perceived support ( 〈 0.05) than those not attending support groups. Because loneliness was significantly predicted by caregiver rather than patient variables, it is possible that strategic interventions for caregivers could ameliorate loneliness.
    Keywords: Parkinson'S Disease ; Caregivers ; Loneliness ; Social Support ; Self-Efficacy ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1353-8020
    E-ISSN: 1873-5126
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 January 2019, Vol.333, pp.149-162
    Description: The capacity of soils to store organic carbon represents a key function of soils that is not only decisive for climate regulation but also affects other soil functions. Recent efforts to assess the impact of land management on soil functionality proposed that an indicator- or proxy-based approach is a promising alternative to quantify soil functions compared to time- and cost-intensive measurements, particularly when larger regions are targeted. The objective of this review is to identify measurable biotic or abiotic properties that control soil organic carbon (SOC) storage at different spatial scales and could serve as indicators for an efficient quantification of SOC. These indicators should enable both an estimation of actual SOC storage as well as a prediction of the SOC storage potential, which is an important aspect in land use and management planning. There are many environmental conditions that affect SOC storage at different spatial scales. We provide a thorough overview of factors from micro-scales (particles to pedons) to the global scale and discuss their suitability as indicators for SOC storage: clay mineralogy, specific surface area, metal oxides, Ca and Mg cations, microorganisms, soil fauna, aggregation, texture, soil type, natural vegetation, land use and management, topography, parent material and climate. As a result, we propose a set of indicators that allow for time- and cost-efficient estimates of actual and potential SOC storage from the local to the regional and subcontinental scale. As a key element, the fine mineral fraction was identified to determine SOC stabilization in most soils. The quantification of SOC can be further refined by including climatic proxies, particularly elevation, as well as information on land use, soil management and vegetation characteristics. To enhance its indicative power towards land management effects, further “functional soil characteristics”, particularly soil structural properties and changes in the soil microbial biomass pool should be included in this indicator system. The proposed system offers the potential to efficiently estimate the SOC storage capacity by means of simplified measures, such as soil fractionation procedures or infrared spectroscopic approaches.
    Keywords: Clay Mineralogy ; Specific Surface Area ; Metal Oxides ; Microorganisms ; Soil Fauna ; Soil Aggregation ; Soil Texture ; Soil Type ; Natural Vegetation ; Land Use and Management ; Topography ; Parent Material ; Climate ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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