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  • 1
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(8)
    Description: Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country’s productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country’s productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Social Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Physical Sciences ; People And Places ; Social Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Physical Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2018, Vol.13(8)
    Description: Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. It resides on the premise of hidden capabilities—fundamental endowments underlying the productive structure. In general, measuring the capabilities behind economic complexity directly is difficult, and indirect measures have been suggested which exploit the fact that the presence of the capabilities is expressed in a country’s mix of products. We complement these studies by introducing a probabilistic framework which leverages Bayesian non-parametric techniques to extract the dominant features behind the comparative advantage in exported products. Based on economic evidence and trade data, we place a restricted Indian Buffet Process on the distribution of countries’ capability endowment, appealing to a culinary metaphor to model the process of capability acquisition. The approach comes with a unique level of interpretability, as it produces a concise and economically plausible description of the instantiated capabilities.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Social Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Earth Sciences ; People And Places ; People And Places ; People And Places ; People And Places ; People And Places ; Social Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Physical Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, May, 2013, Vol.61(5), p.2048(12)
    Description: This paper introduces a communication model inspired by two practical scenarios. The first scenario is related to the concept of protocol coding, where information is encoded in the actions taken by an existing communication protocol. We investigate strategies for protocol coding via combinatorial reordering of the labelled user resources (packets, channels) in an existing, primary system. However, the degrees of freedom of the reordering are constrained by the operation of the primary system. The second scenario is related to communication systems with energy harvesting, where the transmitted signals are constrained by the energy that is available through the harvesting process. We have introduced a communication model that covers both scenarios and elicits their key feature, namely the constraints of the primary system or the harvesting process. We have shown how to compute the capacity of the channels pertaining to the communication model when the resources that can be reordered have binary values. The capacity result is valid under arbitrary error model in which errors in each resource (packet) occur independently. Inspired by the information-theoretic analysis, we have shown how to design practical error-correcting codes suited for the communication model. It turns out that the information-theoretic insights are instrumental for devising superior design of error-control codes.
    Keywords: Communications Protocols -- Models ; Direct Energy Conversion -- Technology Application ; Direct Energy Conversion -- Control
    ISSN: 0090-6778
    E-ISSN: 15580857
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  • 4
    Description: The vast existing wireless infrastructure features a variety of systems and standards. It is of significant practical value to introduce new features and devices without changing the physical layer/hardware infrastructure, but upgrade it only in software. A way to achieve it is to apply protocol coding: encode information in the actions taken by a certain (existing) communication protocol. In this work we investigate strategies for protocol coding via combinatorial ordering of the labelled user resources (packets, channels) in an existing, primary system. Such a protocol coding introduces a new secondary communication channel in the existing system, which has been considered in the prior work exclusively in a steganographic context. Instead, we focus on the use of secondary channel for reliable communication with newly introduced secondary devices, that are low-complexity versions of the primary devices, capable only to decode the robustly encoded header information in the primary signals. We introduce a suitable communication model, capable to capture the constraints that the primary system operation puts on protocol coding. We have derived the capacity of the secondary channel under arbitrary error models. The insights from the information-theoretic analysis are used in Part II of this work to design practical error-correcting mechanisms for secondary channels with protocol coding. Comment: Submitted to IEEE Trans. Communications. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1011.5739
    Keywords: Computer Science - Information Theory
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, August 2015, Vol.4(4), pp.445-448
    Description: Wireless systems are increasingly used for machine-type communication (MTC), where the users sporadically send very short messages. In such a setting, the overhead imposed by channel estimation is substantial, thereby demanding noncoherent communication. In this letter, we consider a noncoherent setup in which users randomly access the medium to send very short messages to a common receiver. We propose a transmission scheme based on Gabor frames, where each user has a dedicated codebook of M possible codewords, while the codebook simultaneously serves as an ID for the user. The scheme is used as a basis for a simple protocol for collision resolution.
    Keywords: Receivers ; Decoding ; Fading ; Noise ; Channel Estimation ; Encoding ; Sparks ; Engineering
    ISSN: 2162-2337
    E-ISSN: 2162-2345
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  • 6
    Description: We use the term protocol coding to denote the communication strategies in which information is encoded through the actions taken by a certain communication protocol. In this work we investigate strategies for protocol coding via combinatorial ordering of the labelled user resources (packets, channels) in an existing, primary system. This introduces a new, secondary communication channel in the existing system, which has been considered in the prior work exclusively in a steganographic context. Instead, we focus on the use of secondary channel for reliable communication with newly introduced secondary devices, that are low-complexity versions of the primary devices, capable only to decode the robustly encoded header information in the primary signals. In Part I of the work we have characterized the capacity of the secondary channel through information-theoretic analysis. In this paper we consider practical strategies for protocol coding inspired by the information-theoretic analysis. It turns out that the insights from Part I are instrumental for devising superior design of error-control codes. This is demonstrated by comparing the error performance to the "na"{\i}ve" strategy which is presumably available without carrying out the analysis in Part I. These results are clearly outlining both the conceptual novelty behind the discussed concept of secondary channel as well as its practical applicability. Comment: Submitted to IEEE Trans. Communications
    Keywords: Computer Science - Information Theory
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: IEEE Signal Processing Letters, January 2017, Vol.24(1), pp.17-21
    Description: Cloud-radio access network (C-RAN) is characterized by a hierarchical structure, in which the baseband-processing functionalities of remote radio heads (RRHs) are implemented by means of cloud computing at a central unit (CU). A key limitation of C-RANs is given by the capacity constraints of the fronthaul links connecting RRHs to the CU. In this letter, the impact of this architectural constraint is investigated for the fundamental functions of random access and active user equipment (UE) identification in the presence of a potentially massive number of UEs. In particular, the standard C-RAN approach based on quantize-and-forward and centralized detection is compared to a scheme based on an alternative CU-RRH functional split that enables local detection. Both techniques leverage Bayesian sparse detection. Numerical results illustrate the relative merits of the two schemes as a function of the system parameters.
    Keywords: Fading Channels ; Quantization (Signal) ; Baseband ; Cloud Computing ; Standards ; Bayes Methods ; Time-Frequency Analysis ; C-Ran ; Fronthaul Limitations ; Random Access ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1070-9908
    E-ISSN: 1558-2361
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Physical review. E, May 2018, Vol.97(5-1), pp.052305
    Description: We introduce a framework for studying social dilemmas in networked societies where individuals follow a simple state-based behavioral mechanism based on generalized reciprocity, which is rooted in the principle "help anyone if helped by someone." Within this general framework, which applies to a wide range of social dilemmas including, among others, public goods, donation, and snowdrift games, we study the cooperation dynamics on a variety of complex network examples. By interpreting the studied model through the lenses of nonlinear dynamical systems, we show that cooperation through generalized reciprocity always emerges as the unique attractor in which the overall level of cooperation is maximized, while simultaneously exploitation of the participating individuals is prevented. The analysis elucidates the role of the network structure, here captured by a local centrality measure which uniquely quantifies the propensity of the network structure to cooperation by dictating the degree of cooperation displayed both at the microscopic and macroscopic level. We demonstrate the applicability of the analysis on a practical example by considering an interaction structure that couples a donation process with a public goods game.
    Keywords: Cooperative Behavior ; Game Theory
    ISSN: 24700045
    E-ISSN: 2470-0053
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Physical review. E, August 2017, Vol.96(2-1), pp.022315
    Description: A growing body of empirical evidence indicates that social and cooperative behavior can be affected by cognitive and neurological factors, suggesting the existence of state-based decision-making mechanisms that may have emerged by evolution. Motivated by these observations, we propose a simple mechanism of anonymous network interactions identified as a form of generalized reciprocity-a concept organized around the premise "help anyone if helped by someone'-and study its dynamics on random graphs. In the presence of such a mechanism, the evolution of cooperation is related to the dynamics of the levels of investments (i.e., probabilities of cooperation) of the individual nodes engaging in interactions. We demonstrate that the propensity for cooperation is determined by a network centrality measure here referred to as neighborhood importance index and discuss relevant implications to natural and artificial systems. To address the robustness of the state-based strategies to an invasion of defectors, we additionally provide an analysis which redefines the results for the case when a fraction of the nodes behave as unconditional defectors.
    Keywords: Quantitative Biology - Populations And Evolution;
    ISSN: 24700045
    E-ISSN: 2470-0053
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  • 10
    Description: While there are continuous efforts to introduce new communication systems and standards, it is legitimate to ask the question: how can one send additional bits by minimally changing the systems that are already operating? This is of a significant practical interest, since it has a potential to generate additional value of the systems through, for example, introduction of new devices and only a software update of the access points or base stations, without incurring additional cost for infrastructure hardware installation. The place to look for such an opportunity is the communication protocol and we use the term *protocol coding* to refer to strategies for sending information by using the degrees of freedom available when one needs to decide the actions taken by a particular communication protocol. In this paper we consider protocol coding that gives a rise to *secondary communication channels*, defined by combinatorial ordering of the user resources (packets, channels) in a primary (legacy) communication system. We introduce communication models that enable us to compute the capacity of such secondary channels under suitable restrictions imposed by the primary systems. We first show the relation to the capacity of channels with causal channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT), originally considered by Shannon. By using the specific communication setup, we develop an alternative framework for achieving the capacity and we discuss coding strategies that need to be used over the secondary channels. We also discuss some practical features of the secondary channels and their applications that add value to the existing wireless systems. Comment: Replaced with a two-part paper
    Keywords: Computer Science - Information Theory ; Computer Science - Networking And Internet Architecture
    Source: Cornell University
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