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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 2011, Vol.166(1), pp.119-134
    Description: The paper describes a simplified carbon balance model, derived from the CANDY model, which works in annual time steps requiring only clay content, soil type of the German classification system “Reichsbodenschätzung”, average air temperature and rainfall as site characteristics, a value for organic carbon content as the initial value as well as crop yield and organic matter amendments as management data. The Candy Carbon Balance (CCB) model has been validated using a dataset from 40 long-term experiments situated in Central Europe including 391 treatments with a total number of 4794 C observations. Statistical measures to prove model validity were mean error (ME = − 0.001) and root mean square error (RMSE = 0.119). In addition a number of tests were performed to make sure that the model has no systematic error for different types of site conditions and management activities. After this successful validation the CCB model is considered applicable for advisory service for arable fields on a wide range of site conditions. Due to the poor representation of clay soils in this study some more model tests on these soils would be recommendable. ► Simplification of carbon modelling for arable fields to meet practical needs. ► CCB model was validated with data from 40 European long-term experiments. ► Minimum site characteristic: soil texture, precipitation and temperature. ► Minimum management: crop, yield, amount of organic amendments and irrigation.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Matter ; Carbon Turnover ; Long-Term Experiments ; Modelling ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2018, Vol.13(10)
    Description: A variety of biogas residues (BGRs) have been used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. The use of these residues affects the storage of soil organic matter (SOM). In most cases, SOM changes can only be determined in long-term observations. Therefore, predictive modeling can be an efficient alternative, provided that the parameters required by the model are known for the considered BGRs. This study was conducted as a first approach to estimating the organic matter (OM) turnover parameters of BGRs for process modeling. We used carbon mineralization data from six BGRs from an incubation experiment, representing a range of substrate inputs, to calculate a turnover coefficient k controlling the velocity of fresh organic matter (FOM) decay and a synthesis coefficient η describing the SOM creation from FOM. An SOM turnover model was applied in inverse mode to identify both parameters. In a second step, we related the parameters k and η to chemical properties of the corresponding BGRs using a linear regression model and applied them to a long-term scenario simulation. According to the results of the incubation experiment, the k values ranged between 0.28 and 0.58 d -1 depending on the chemical composition of the FOM. The estimated η values ranged between 0.8 and 0.89. The best linear relationship of k was found to occur with pH (R 2 = 0.863). Parameter η is related to the C t /N org ratio (R 2 = 0.696). Long-term scenario simulations emphasized the necessity of specific k and η values related to the chemical properties for each BGR. However, further research is needed to validate and improve these preliminary results.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Engineering And Technology ; Engineering And Technology ; Physical Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Physical Sciences ; Physical Sciences ; Earth Sciences ; Physical Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Physical Sciences ; Engineering And Technology ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Physical Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Atmospheric Environment, October 2016, Vol.143, pp.67-78
    Description: Process-oriented models have become important tools in terms of quantification of environmental changes, for filling measurement gaps, and building of future scenarios. It is especially important to couple model application directly with measurements for remote areas, such as Southern Amazonia, where direct measurements are difficult to perform continuously throughout the year. Processes and resulting matter fluxes may show combinations of steady and sudden reactions to external changes. The potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N O) is known for its sensitivity to e.g. precipitation events, resulting in intense but short-term peak events (hot moments). These peaks have to be captured for sound balancing. However, prediction of the effect of rainfall events on N O peaks is not trivial, even for areas under distinct wet and dry seasons. In this study, we used process-oriented models in both a pre-and post-measurement manner in order to (a) determine important periods for N O-N emissions under Amazonian conditions and (b) calibrate the models to Brazilian pastures based on measured data of environment conditions (soil moisture and C ) and measured N O-N fluxes. During the measurement period (early wet season), observed emissions from three cattle pastures did not react to precipitation events, as proposed by the models. Here both process understanding and models have to be improved by long-term data in high resolution in order to prove or disprove a lacking of N O-N peaks. We strongly recommend the application of models as planning tools for field campaigns, but we still suggest model combinations and simultaneous usage.
    Keywords: N2o-N Fluxes ; Modeling ; Cattle Pasture ; Southern Amazonia ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1352-2310
    E-ISSN: 1873-2844
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, March 2016, Vol.156, pp.83-90
    Description: An assessment of soil management impacts on carbon dynamics requires easily applicable tools. The carbon balance model CCB was applied to quantify the impact of different tillage systems on soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics. The model was able to describe the observed dynamics of SOM for conventional tillage (CT), but the correct simulation of ploughless soil management in the minimum tillage (MT) treatment required an adaptation of the calculation of the specific turnover conditions that are quantified as Biologic Active Time (BAT). We hypothesized a texture dependent reduction of the turnover activity with depth and calculated a site specific correction factor for the BAT of minimum-tilled soils where the topsoil is not mixed by ploughing. Without additional calibration we evaluated this approach using the data set of the field experiment in Fuchsenbigl (Austria) that was started in 1989 on a fine-sandy loamy Haplic Chernozem ( ). The model predicted a reduced turnover activity with a BAT of 13 d yr for the MT treatment versus 23 d yr for the CT treatment having significant correlations between the modeled pool size of active SOM and the microbiological properties substrate induced respiration and potential nitrogen mineralization.
    Keywords: Soil Cultivation ; Soil Organic Matter ; Biologic Activity ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    E-ISSN: 1879-3444
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 October 2017, Vol.303, pp.93-98
    Description: Soil organic matter (SOM) can be characterised by soil organic carbon (SOC) and/or total nitrogen (TN). The observed dynamics of SOC and TN in the topsoil of a 28-year-old fallow experiment on Haplic Chernozem was modelled using the Candy Carbon Balance (CCB) model. This study selected two treatments from this experiment where the soil was kept bare with mechanical or chemical (herbicides) treatments. The CCB model was improved to include the SOC related change of soil physical parameters and dynamic handling of the physically stabilised SOM pool. Over 28 years of bare fallow the top soil lost about 10 t/ha of SOC and 〉 1 t/ha of TN. The results from observation and modelling reflected the increased SOM turnover due to soil tillage. The modelled size of the physically stabilised SOC pool was about 55% of total SOC and only reduced slowly during the almost three decades, but the implementation of this effect improved simulation results and reduced the relative RMSD (unitless) from 0.051 to 0.044 for SOC and from 0.053 to 0.049 for TN error level. From these results we conclude that the larger the SOM change the more important is the integration of the turnover of physically stabilised SOM within the modelling approach.
    Keywords: Long-Term Field Experiment ; Stabile Som ; Bare Fallow ; Tillage Effect ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 July 2018, Vol.321, pp.15-21
    Description: In 1978, after 〉70 years of continuous management of the long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, a general change of soil management was implemented for several treatments. Experimental plots which had previously received a high input of organic matter (OM) now received only low OM input and vice versa. The resulting changes of SOC concentrations on different treatments vary from −0.1 to +0.1 g kg  yr . These trends were analyzed in order to explain the observed variations with the mean carbon input together with the quality of the different sources to build up new SOC. The results showed that this quality related carbon flux from fresh organic matter (FOM) into SOC, here defined as “carbon reproduction flux” (C ), is a useful indicator to explain changes in SOC trends. Moreover, it can be used to predict the amount of FOM carbon input that is needed to achieve a given sequestration rate. The results revealed that carbon sequestration requires less effort on plots that had already higher carbon input rates in the past because the SOC storage, still far from the equilibrium state, had already a positive trend. Therefore, it is important to consider not only SOC stock but also the direction of the current trend when selecting measures that increase SOC to achieve the goal of the “4‰ Initiative: soils for food security and climate” which was launched during the COP21 conference.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Soil Carbon Reproduction ; Soc Trend Prediction ; Indicator ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2015, Vol.178(2), pp.199-208
    Description: Global change scenarios predict an increased risk for declining amounts of soil organic matter (SOM) for Central Germany. Within this region the production of bioenergy is one important strategy to counteract the rising anthropogenic CO‐emissions. Both issues have a close connection: SOM is an important basis for soil productivity and requires a steady reproduction flux. Bioenergy production requires productive soils and partly consumes plant biomass C. Therefore, the available amount for SOM reproduction is reduced. This study provides a methodology for the large‐scale identification of areas with possible conflicts between bioenergy production and SOM reproduction based on (1) the prediction of climate change impact on SOM reproduction and (2) an analysis of the regional distribution of biogas plants. With the C demand index (CDI) and the capacity index (CAP), two indicators were developed which enable the identification of hot spots of high carbon demand for SOM reproduction due to climate change and the usage of bioenergy. As a result of low data requirements, the indicators are widely applicable and transferable to other large‐scale studies. The proposed methodology was applied to Central Germany as a pilot region. Results indicate a growing demand (10–40%) of fresh organic C from biomass for SOM production in comparison to the current level. The analysis reveals that the bioenergy C demand is not evenly distributed within the study region. It also shows some regional clustering. Furthermore, the analysis identifies certain hot spots of a high C demand, where a high capacity of biogas production may conflict with rising demands for biomass to mitigate climate change effects on SOM storage. The hot spot areas—identified and selected on a large scale—can subsequently be analyzed in more detail on a local to farm scale by using high‐resolution data and models which enable the quantification of soil C dynamics.
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Soil Organic Matter Reproduction ; Carbon Competition ; Bioenergy Crop Production ; Carbon Demand Index ; Capacity Index ; Bioenergy Production Units
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 8
    In: JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, 2018, Vol.7(2)
    ISSN: 23342404
    E-ISSN: 23342412
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Water Resources Management, 2012, Vol.26(3), pp.775-798
    Description: One major scientific challenge posed by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the design of a decision support process that meets the Directive’s requirement to achieve “good status” for all water bodies using a cost-effective combination of measures. This paper presents BAS IN FORM, a new decision methodology for selecting cost-effective management measures, developed in close co-operation with the water authorities and tested in the 5,154 km² mesoscale river Weisse Elster in central Germany. BAS IN FORM comprises (i) a procedure for framing the specific problems in the water bodies, including quantification of the need for action, (ii) modelling tools for quantifying the impacts of management measures, and (iii) a method for selecting cost-effective combinations of measures. One innovative feature of BAS IN FORM is that it structures the complex decision problems appropriately for practical use and provides an easy-to-use framework for integrating scientific and practical knowledge. A trial run applying BAS IN FORM to the Weisse Elster catchment revealed that good surface water status with respect to nutrient levels cannot be achieved if only the “standard” actions of current water management are taken to reduce point sources (sewage treatment) and diffuse agricultural sources. It also became clear that the nutrient-reduction measures available will generate considerable costs. The application of BAS IN FORM in this case study demonstrated its practical applicability in the WFD implementation process. Beyond the case study described here BAS IN FORM is currently being used for practical implementation of the WFD in the German Federal State of Thuringia.
    Keywords: EU water framework directive ; Cost effectiveness ; Decision support system ; Decision making ; Point and non-point pollution ; BASINFORM ; Meta-CANDY ; WASP 5
    ISSN: 0920-4741
    E-ISSN: 1573-1650
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Sept, 2013, Vol.132, p.41(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2013.05.001 Byline: Katrin Kuka, Uwe Franko, Kathleen Hanke, Petra Finkenbein Abstract: Giant spoil dumps originate in the course of open-cast mining. The initial properties of Triassic spoil as well as pedogenesis are characterized by weathering processes. Due to the poor conditions in dump spoil a natural succession of plants or a re-vegetation is a lengthy process. The Chinh Bac field experiment (Ha Long City, Quang Ninh province, Vietnam) was planned to investigate the possible impacts of three amendments - charred rice straw, power station ashes and fine material originating from the mining area in combination with sieved spoil of substrate quality - to enhance plant growth. The main focus of this study was directed towards the impact of added amendments on spoil chemical parameters. The investigations demonstrated that simply sieving the spoil leads to better substrate conditions. It increases the fine material which in turn leads to easier plantation conditions. At the same time oxidative processes and leaching acid products are stimulated which raises the pH values afterwards. The application of charred rice straw increased the amount of alkaline cations, in particular potassium, boosting the pH value. This led to an enhanced supply of nutrients for the plants in comparison to the other amendment variations which were very poor in nutrient availability. Adding power station ash resulted in a short-term pH value increase, however potential pollution caused by heavy metals cannot be ruled out. The pyrite containing fine material was identified as the poorest amendment. It may allow vegetation to grow quickly, however the proceeding weathering processes cause a strong acidification. This mobilizes heavy metal and aluminum ions which prevent healthy plant growth. Article History: Received 21 September 2012; Accepted 19 May 2013
    Keywords: Heavy Metals -- Investigations
    ISSN: 0375-6742
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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