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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 15 September 2001, Vol.184(6), pp.789-793
    Description: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6B and 6A are important causes of infections, yet only 6B is included in current vaccines. It is, therefore, crucial to evaluate whether functional antibodies are produced against both types after vaccination. Concentration and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) of antibodies to 6B and 6A polysaccharides were determined in serum samples from infants immunized with 3 different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines containing serotype 6B. In all vaccine groups, a significant correlation was found between the anti-6B and -6A antibody concentration and OPA. However, OPA to the vaccine serotype was detectable more commonly than OPA to the cross-reactive type. Furthermore, 5%-15% of the serum samples showed high OPA against the 6B but not the 6A strain. On average, 2-6 times more anti-6B antibodies were needed for 50% opsonophagocytic killing of the type 6A than the type 6B strain. Although pneumococcal type 6B conjugate vaccines elicit antibodies that cross-react with type 6A, not all anti-6B antibodies are functionally cross-reactive.
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology ; Health sciences -- Medical treatment -- Biological therapy ; Health sciences -- Medical treatment -- Biological therapy ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology ; Social sciences -- Population studies -- Human populations ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology ; Social sciences -- Population studies -- Human populations ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2010, Vol. 78(12), p.5262
    Description: The polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae inhibits phagocytic killing by innate immune mechanisms. Certain serotypes are associated with invasive disease while others with a nasopharyngeal carriage. The invasiveness of serotypes may partly be explained by ability to resist deposition of complement (C3) on the bacterial surface and consequent opsonophagocytic killing. In our previous studies, we observed that clinical isolates of serotypes 1 and 5, which are rarely detected in asymptomatic carriage, were resistant to complement deposition and opsonophagocytosis, whereas serotypes 6B and 23F, both common in carriage, were more sensitive to deposition of C3 and opsonophagocytic killing. However, presence of significant variation in C3 deposition between isolates of the same serotype indicated that factors other than the capsule also affect complement resistance. To distinguish the relative effect of the capsular serotype and other virulence factors on C3 deposition, we compared capsule-switched mutants prepared in genetic backgrounds of pneumococcal strains TIGR4, 603, and 618. Clinical isolates which had the same multilocus sequence type but expressed different serotypes were also compared. We found that the serotype had a significant impact on complement resistance and that the more resistant the strain was to complement, the higher was the concentration of polysaccharide-specific antibodies required for opsonophagocytic killing. Comparison of strains expressing the same capsular polysaccharides in the different genetic backgrounds and various capsular mutants of the same strain suggests that while the genotype affects complement resistance, the serotype is the most important determinant. Differences between serotypes were more significant than the differences between strains.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2010, Vol. 78(12), p.5252
    Description: The polysaccharide capsule is a major virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae; it affects complement resistance and shields the bacterium from phagocytes. Certain capsular serotypes appear to be better able to cause invasive disease than others. Serotypes 1 and 5 are common causes of invasive disease but are rarely isolated from healthy carriers, whereas serotypes 6B and 23F are more frequently isolated from carriage than invasive disease. We have recently shown that serotypes 6B and 19F differ in resistance to complement C3 deposition and opsonophagocytic killing. In this study we assessed the complement resistance and susceptibility to opsonophagocytosis of several other serotypes targeted by the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Clinical isolates of serotypes 1, 4, 5, 14, 18C, and 23F were tested along reference strains of corresponding capsular types. The concentration of anticapsular antibodies required for opsonophagocytic killing correlated inversely with C3 deposition on the serotype. Serotype 1 was the most resistant of the clinical isolates to C3 deposition and, along with serotypes 5 and 19F, required the highest concentration of capsule antibodies for opsonophagocytic killing, whereas serotype 23F was the most sensitive to opsonophagocytosis. Sensitivity to C3 deposition and opsonophagocytosis was associated with serotype-specific mortality of invasive pneumococcal disease, suggesting that the primary pathogens, such as serotypes 1 and 5, are more resistant to complement and require a higher concentration of capsule antibodies for opsonophagocytic killing than the opportunistic serotypes such as 6B and 23F, which are associated with a more severe disease outcome.
    Keywords: Complement Activation -- Immunology ; Phagocytosis -- Immunology ; Pneumococcal Infections -- Microbiology ; Streptococcus Pneumoniae -- Pathogenicity;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 4
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2010, Vol. 78(5), p.2089
    Description: The pneumococcal histidine triad (Pht) proteins PhtA, PhtB, PhtD, and PhtE form a group of conserved pneumococcal surface proteins. Humans produce antibodies to Pht proteins upon exposure to pneumococcus, and immunization of mice has provided protective immunity against sepsis and pneumonia and reduced nasopharyngeal colonization. Pht proteins are candidates for inclusion in multicomponent pneumococcal protein vaccines. Their biological function in pneumococcal infections is not clear, but a role in complement inhibition has been suggested. We measured complement deposition on wild-type and Pht mutant strains in four genetic backgrounds: Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 (serotype 2) and R36A (unencapsulated derivative of D39) and strains of serotypes 3, 4, and 19F. PspA and PspC single and double mutants were compared to the wild-type and Pht-deficient D39 strains. Factor H binding was measured to bacterial cells, lysates, and protein antigens. Deletion of all four Pht proteins (Pht(-)) resulted in increased C3 deposition on the serotype 4 strain but not on the other strains. Pht antigens did not bind factor H, and deletion of Pht proteins did not affect factor H binding by bacterial lysates. The Pht(-) mutant serotype 4 strain bound slightly less factor H than the wild-type strain when binding was measured by flow cytometry. Pht proteins may play a role in immune evasion, but the mechanism of function is unlikely to be mediated by factor H binding. The relative contribution of Pht proteins to the inhibition of complement deposition is likely to be affected by the presence of other pneumococcal proteins and to depend on the genetic background.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Complement C3 -- Metabolism ; Complement Factor H -- Metabolism ; Hydrolases -- Metabolism ; Streptococcus Pneumoniae -- Immunology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Pediatrics, 2010, Vol.157(5), pp.778-783.e1
    Description: To determine whether pneumococcal carriage at the time of 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-11) administration interferes with immune response in infants. A total of 1111 Filipino infants recruited into an immunogenicity and carriage study, nested in an efficacy trial, received PCV-11 or saline solution placebo at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Antibody concentrations to the most frequently carried vaccine serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F were measured by enzyme immunoassay from sera obtained at 18 weeks and 9 months of age. Serotype-specific antibody concentration was compared between groups of children among PCV-11 recipients stratified according to their carriage status at 6 weeks of age. Antibody concentrations to 6B, 19F, and 23F were significantly lower at 18 weeks and 9 months of age among children who were carriers of the specific serotype at 6 weeks of age than among non-carriers of the serotype. The hyporesponsiveness was specific to the carried serotype. The specific antibody concentrations induced by PCV-11 among carriers did not differ significantly from those in placebo recipients, whereas the differences were highly significant among noncarriers. Pneumococcal carriage, prevalent in Filipino infants, interferes with serotype-specific immune response to primary series of PCV and has potential implications for immunization programs.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-3476
    E-ISSN: 1097-6833
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Biologics : targets & therapy, 2016, Vol.10, pp.67-73
    Description: Monitoring of anti-drug antibodies (ADAbs) or serum concentrations of biologicals in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis could provide an explanation for a loss of efficacy and help in the choice of subsequent medication. Current clinical practices do not generally include such monitoring of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α blockers on a routine basis. The main aims of this study were to estimate the probabilities of optimal and nonoptimal treatment decisions if infliximab or adalimumab drug trough level (DL) and ADAbs are tested or not in rheumatoid arthritis, and to model cost-effectiveness of performing such monitoring on a routine basis. Data on DLs and ADAbs concentrations were obtained in Finland from clinically requested monitoring analyses of 486 and 1,137 samples from patients on adalimumab and infliximab, respectively. DL was within the target range in 42% of samples from adalimumab- and 50.4% of infliximab-treated patients. ADAbs were detected in approximately 20% and 13.5% of samples from adalimumab- and infliximab-treated patients, respectively. ADAbs were found in 52.3% and 41.3% of those with low adalimumab or infliximab DLs, respectively. The monitoring data were incorporated into probabilities for making the optimal treatment decision. Economic impact of clinical decision-making was modeled in a short-term (3-6 months) scenario with 100 hypothetical patients. In the model, the combined measurement of DLs and ADAbs was cost-saving compared to the nontesting scenario when the monitoring results affected the treatment decision in at least 2-5 of 100 patients, a proportion which is easily exceeded in real-life clinical practice. This study indicates that routine monitoring of drug level and ADAbs is cost-beneficial in clinical practice, thereby improving the decision-making process in using TNF-α blockers.
    Keywords: Anti-Tnf Drugs ; Anti-Drug Antibodies ; Trough Level Measurement
    ISSN: 1177-5475
    E-ISSN: 11775491
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  • 7
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2009, Vol. 77(2), p.676
    Description: The polysaccharide capsule is a major virulence mechanism of Streptococcus pneumoniae, shielding the bacterium from phagocytes. Capsule types may differ in their abilities to resist immune defense. Antibody-mediated complement activation and opsonophagocytosis are crucial in protection against pneumococcus. Conjugate vaccine trials suggest imperfect protection against 19F. We have previously shown that significantly more anti-19F than anti-6B antibody is needed for killing in the opsonophagocytic assay (OPA). In this study, we explored whether the amount of C3 deposited on serotype 6B and 19F pneumococcal strains reflects their sensitivity to opsonophagocytosis. We compared clinical 6B and 19F nasopharyngeal, middle ear, and blood isolates as well as reference OPA strains (n = 16) for their sensitivity to opsonophagocytosis and C3 deposition. Sixfold anticapsular antibody concentrations were required for 50% opsonophagocytic killing of 19F compared to that of 6B strains. Serotype 19F was more resistant to C3 deposition than 6B. Complement deposition and opsonophagocytosis were dependent on the concentration of anticapsular antibodies. Differences between pneumococcal serotypes in antibody-mediated protection may partly be explained by the abilities of the capsules to resist complement deposition. These findings support previous studies suggesting that higher antibody concentrations to the capsular polysaccharide are needed for protection against disease caused by serotype 19F than that caused by 6B.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1 November 2001, Vol.184(9), pp.1211-1215
    Description: Finnish and Israeli infants received an 11-valent mixed-carrier pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with or without aluminum adjuvant at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age. The relative avidity of serotype 1-, 5-, 6B-, 14-, 19F-, and 23F-specific IgG antibodies in serum obtained at 7,12, and 13 months of age was measured by EIA, using thiocyanate as a chaotropic agent. For all serotypes, except 14, avidity increased between the ages of 7 and 12 months. After boosting at 12 months, avidity further increased for all serotypes. The adjuvant improved antibody avidity against serotype 5. The IgG antibodies produced were mainly IgGl subclass, although some infants also produced IgG2 after boosting. In conclusion, the immunization of infants with this 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine increased avidity of IgG, suggesting successful immunologic priming.
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology ; Health sciences -- Medical treatment -- Biological therapy ; Health sciences -- Medical treatment -- Biological therapy ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology ; Health sciences -- Medical treatment -- Biological therapy ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical elements ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 9
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2003, Vol. 71(10), p.5994
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi previously has been shown to inhibit the phagocytosis of both secondary targets and itself by certain cells in vitro. Wild-type H. ducreyi strain 35000HP contains two genes, lspA1 and lspA2, whose encoded protein products are predicted to be 456 and 543 kDa, respectively. An isogenic mutant of H. ducreyi 35000HP with inactivated lspA1 and lspA2 genes has been shown to exhibit substantially decreased virulence in the temperature-dependent rabbit model for chancroid. This lspA1 lspA2 mutant was tested for its ability to inhibit phagocytosis of immunoglobulin G-opsonized particles by differentiated HL-60 and U-937 cells and by J774A.1 cells. The wild-type strain H. ducreyi 35000HP readily inhibited phagocytosis, whereas the lspA1 lspA2 mutant was unable to inhibit phagocytosis. Similarly, the wild-type strain was resistant to phagocytosis, whereas the lspA1 lspA2 mutant was readily engulfed by phagocytes. This inhibitory effect of wild-type H. ducreyi on phagocytic activity was primarily associated with live bacterial cells but could also be found, under certain conditions, in concentrated H. ducreyi culture supernatant fluids that lacked detectable outer membrane fragments. Both the wild-type strain and the lspA1 lspA2 mutant attached to phagocytes at similar levels. These results indicate that the LspA1 and LspA2 proteins of H. ducreyi are involved, directly or indirectly, in the antiphagocytic activity of this pathogen, and they provide a possible explanation for the greatly reduced virulence of the lspA1 lspA2 mutant.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 2011, Vol.29(10), pp.1929-1934
    Description: We evaluated the effect of aging on the functional activity of naturally acquired anti-pneumococcal antibodies, the function of neutrophils in phagocytic killing of opsonized pneumococci, and the complement activity. Opsonic activities of antibodies to all tested pneumococcal serotypes were significantly lower and phagocytic killing of pneumococci by neutrophils was significantly impaired among the elderly, whereas the complement activity was slightly higher in the elderly than in the young adults. The reduced functional activity of serotype-specific antibodies and the compromised function of neutrophils in the opsonophagocytosis of pneumococci are likely to contribute to the increased susceptibility of the elderly to pneumococcal diseases.
    Keywords: Pneumococcal ; Aging ; Immune Function ; Medicine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2518
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