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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 June 2017, Vol.114(26), pp.6824-6829
    Description: The functions of many bacterial RNA-binding proteins remain obscure because of a lack of knowledge of their cellular ligands. Although well-studied cold-shock protein A (CspA) family members are induced and function at low temperature, others are highly expressed in infection-relevant conditions. Here, we have profiled transcripts bound in vivo by the CspA family members of serovar Typhimurium to link the constitutively expressed CspC and CspE proteins with virulence pathways. Phenotypic assays in vitro demonstrated a crucial role for these proteins in membrane stress, motility, and biofilm formation. Moreover, double deletion of and fully attenuates in systemic mouse infection. In other words, the RNA ligand-centric approach taken here overcomes a problematic molecular redundancy of CspC and CspE that likely explains why these proteins have evaded selection in previous virulence factor screens in animals. Our results highlight RNA-binding proteins as regulators of pathogenicity and potential targets of antimicrobial therapy. They also suggest that globally acting RNA-binding proteins are more common in bacteria than currently appreciated.
    Keywords: RNA-Binding Protein ; Salmonella ; Bacterial Pathogenesis ; Cold-Shock Protein ; Stress Response ; Bacterial Proteins ; Cold Shock Proteins and Peptides ; Heat-Shock Proteins ; RNA-Binding Proteins ; Salmonella Infections ; Salmonella Typhimurium ; Virulence Factors
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, November 2016, Vol.84(11), pp.3243-3251
    Description: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans, forms biofilms encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). Biofilms facilitate colonization and persistent infection in gallbladders of humans and mouse models of chronic carriage. Individual roles of matrix components have not been completely elucidated in vitro or in vivo To examine individual functions, strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the murine model of S Typhi, in which various ECM genes were deleted or added, were created to examine biofilm formation, colonization, and persistence in the gallbladder. Studies show that curli contributes most significantly to biofilm formation. Expression of Vi antigen decreased biofilm formation in vitro and virulence and bacterial survival in vivo without altering the examined gallbladder pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. Oppositely, loss of all ECM components (ΔwcaM ΔcsgA ΔyihO ΔbcsE) increased virulence and bacterial survival in vivo and reduced gallbladder interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Colanic acid and curli mutants had the largest defects in biofilm-forming ability and contributed most significantly to the virulence increase of the ΔwcaM ΔcsgA ΔyihO ΔbcsE mutant strain. While the ΔwcaM ΔcsgA ΔyihO ΔbcsE mutant was not altered in resistance to complement or growth in macrophages, it attached and invaded macrophages better than the wild-type (WT) strain. These data suggest that ECM components have various levels of importance in biofilm formation and gallbladder colonization and that the ECM diminishes disseminated disease in our model, perhaps by reducing cell attachment/invasion and dampening inflammation by maintaining/inducing IL-10 production. Understanding how ECM components aid acute disease and persistence could lead to improvements in therapeutic treatment of typhoid fever patients.
    Keywords: Biofilms -- Growth & Development ; Extracellular Matrix -- Metabolism ; Gallbladder -- Microbiology ; Salmonella Typhimurium -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Eukaryotic cell, July 2014, Vol.13(7), pp.933-46
    Description: In Candida albicans, the transcription factor Upc2 is central to the regulation of ergosterol biosynthesis. UPC2-activating mutations contribute to azole resistance, whereas disruption increases azole susceptibility. In the present study, we investigated the relationship of UPC2 to fluconazole susceptibility, particularly in azole-resistant strains. In addition to the reduced fluconazole MIC previously observed with UPC2 disruption, we observed a lower minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) for a upc2Δ/Δ mutant than for its azole-susceptible parent, SC5314. Moreover, the upc2Δ/Δ mutant was unable to grow on a solid medium containing 10 μg/ml fluconazole and exhibited increased susceptibility and a clear zone of inhibition by Etest. Time-kill analysis showed higher fungistatic activity against the upc2Δ/Δ mutant than against SC5314. UPC2 disruption in strains carrying specific resistance mutations also resulted in reduced MICs and MFCs. UPC2 disruption in a highly azole resistant clinical isolate containing multiple resistance mechanisms likewise resulted in a reduced MIC and MFC. This mutant was unable to grow on a solid medium containing 10 μg/ml fluconazole and exhibited increased susceptibility and a clear zone of inhibition by Etest. Time-kill analysis showed increased fungistatic activity against the upc2Δ/Δ mutant in the resistant background. Microarray analysis showed attenuated induction by fluconazole of genes involved in sterol biosynthesis, iron transport, or iron homeostasis in the absence of UPC2. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the UPC2 transcriptional network is universally essential for azole resistance in C. albicans and represents an attractive target for enhancing azole antifungal activity.
    Keywords: Antifungal Agents -- Pharmacology ; Candida Albicans -- Metabolism ; Drug Resistance, Fungal -- Genetics ; Fluconazole -- Pharmacology ; Fungal Proteins -- Metabolism ; Transcription Factors -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 15359778
    E-ISSN: 1535-9786
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, November 2014, Vol.58(11), pp.6807-18
    Description: Azole antifungal agents such as fluconazole exhibit fungistatic activity against Candida albicans. Strategies to enhance azole antifungal activity would be therapeutically appealing. In an effort to identify transcriptional pathways that influence the killing activity of fluconazole, we sought to identify transcription factors (TFs) involved in this process. From a collection of C. albicans strains disrupted for genes encoding TFs (O. R. Homann, J. Dea, S. M. Noble, and A. D. Johnson, PLoS Genet. 5:e1000783, 2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000783), four strains exhibited marked reductions in minimum fungicidal concentration (MFCs) in both RPMI and yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) media. One of these genes, UPC2, was previously characterized with regard to its role in azole susceptibility. Of mutants representing the three remaining TF genes of interest, one (CAS5) was unable to recover from fluconazole exposure at concentrations as low as 2 μg/ml after 72 h in YPD medium. This mutant also showed reduced susceptibility and a clear zone of inhibition by Etest, was unable to grow on solid medium containing 10 μg/ml fluconazole, and exhibited increased susceptibility by time-kill analysis. CAS5 disruption in highly azole-resistant clinical isolates exhibiting multiple resistance mechanisms did not alter susceptibility. However, CAS5 disruption in strains with specific resistance mutations resulted in moderate reductions in MICs and MFCs. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed in the presence of fluconazole and was consistent with the suggested role of CAS5 in cell wall organization while also suggesting a role in iron transport and homeostasis. These findings suggest that Cas5 regulates a transcriptional network that influences the response of C. albicans to fluconazole. Further delineation of this transcriptional network may identify targets for potential cotherapeutic strategies to enhance the activity of the azole class of antifungals.
    Keywords: Antifungal Agents -- Pharmacology ; Candida Albicans -- Drug Effects ; Fluconazole -- Pharmacology ; Gene Expression Regulation -- Drug Effects ; Transcription Factors -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00664804
    E-ISSN: 1098-6596
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  • 5
    Description: Azole antifungal agents such as fluconazole exhibit fungistatic activity against Candida albicans. Strategies to enhance azole antifungal activity would be therapeutically appealing. In an effort to identify transcriptional pathways that influence the killing activity of fluconazole, we sought to identify transcription factors (TFs) involved in this process. From a collection of C. albicans strains disrupted for genes encoding TFs (Homann et al., PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000783), four exhibited a marked reduction in minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) in both RPMI and YPD media. One of these, UPC2, has been previously characterized with regard to its role in azole susceptibility. Of mutants representing the three remaining TF genes of interest, one (CAS5) was unable to recover from fluconazole exposure at concentrations as low as 2 μg/mL after 72 hours in YPD medium. This mutant also showed reduced susceptibility and a clear zone of inhibition by Etest, was unable to grow on solid media containing 10 μg/mL fluconazole, and exhibited increased susceptibility by time-kill analysis. CAS5 disruption in highly azole-resistant clinical isolates exhibiting multiple resistance mechanisms did not alter susceptibility. However, CAS5 disruption in strains with specific resistance mutations in ergosterol biosynthesis or efflux pumps resulted in a moderate reduction in MIC and MFC....
    Keywords: Biological Sciences Not Elsewhere Classified
    Source: DataCite
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  • 6
    Description: Azole antifungal agents such as fluconazole exhibit fungistatic activity against Candida albicans. Strategies to enhance azole antifungal activity would be therapeutically appealing. In an effort to identify transcriptional pathways that influence the killing activity of fluconazole, we sought to identify transcription factors (TFs) involved in this process. From a collection of C. albicans strains disrupted for genes encoding TFs (Homann et al., PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000783), four exhibited a marked reduction in minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) in both RPMI and YPD media. One of these, UPC2, has been previously characterized with regard to its role in azole susceptibility. Of mutants representing the three remaining TF genes of interest, one (CAS5) was unable to recover from fluconazole exposure at concentrations as low as 2 μg/mL after 72 hours in YPD medium. This mutant also showed reduced susceptibility and a clear zone of inhibition by Etest, was unable to grow on solid media containing 10 μg/mL fluconazole, and exhibited increased susceptibility by time-kill analysis. CAS5 disruption in highly azole-resistant clinical isolates exhibiting multiple resistance mechanisms did not alter susceptibility. However, CAS5 disruption in strains with specific resistance mutations in ergosterol biosynthesis or efflux pumps resulted in a moderate reduction in MIC and MFC....
    Keywords: Biological Sciences Not Elsewhere Classified
    Source: DataCite
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