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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 22 February 2018, Vol.554(7693), pp.423
    Keywords: Soil ; Plant Roots -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2016, Vol.407(1), pp.145-160
    Description: Aims and background Root growth creates a gradient in age at both the scale of the single root, from distal to proximal parts, but also at the root system level when young branch roots emerge from the axis or new nodal roots are emitted that may reach same soil domain as older roots. It is known that a number of root functions will vary with root type and root tissue age (e.g. respiration, exudation, ion uptake, root hydraulic conductance, mucilage release...) and so will the resulting rhizosphere properties. The impact of the distribution of root demography with depth, and related functions, on the overall functioning of the root system is fundamental for an integration of processes at the root system scale. Scope and conclusion Starting from methods for measuring root demography, we discuss the availability of data related to root age and its spatial distribution, considering plant types (monocot/dicot, perennial/annuals) which may exhibit different patterns. We then give a detailed review of variation of root/rhizosphere properties related to root age, focusing on root water uptake processes. We examine the type of response of certain properties to changes in age and whether a functional relationship can be derived. Integration of changing root properties with age into modelling approaches is shown from 3D models at the single plant scale to approaches at the field scale based on integrated root system age. Functional structural modelling combined with new development in non-invasive imaging of roots show promises for integrating influence of age on root properties, from the local to whole root system scales. However, experimental quantification of these properties, such as hydraulic conductance variation with root age and root types, or impact of mucilage and its degradation products on rhizosphere hydraulic properties, presently lag behind the theoretical developments and increase in computational power.
    Keywords: Root demography ; Rhizosphere ; Water relations ; Model
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Experimental Botany, 2018, Vol. 69(21), pp.4993-4996
    Description: This article comments on: Julia CC, Rose TJ, Pariasca-Tanaka J, Wissuwa M. 2018. Phosphorus uptake commences at the earliest stages of seedling development in rice. Journal of Experimental Botany 69, 5233–5240 .
    Keywords: Cereals ; Imaging ; Phosphorus ; Rhizosphere ; Root Age/Ontogeny ; Seedling Establishment ; Seeds ; Temporal And Spatial Resolution
    ISSN: 0022-0957
    E-ISSN: 1460-2431
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2015, Vol.204, p.32(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.03.052 Byline: Jessica Saatz, Doris Vetterlein, Jurgen Mattusch, Matthias Otto, Birgit Daus Abstract: Rare earth elements (REE) are expected to become pollutants by enriching in the environment due to their wide applications nowadays. The uptake and distribution of gadolinium and yttrium and its influence on biomass production and nutrient balance was investigated in hydroponic solution experiments with maize plants using increasing application doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg L.sup.-1. It could be shown that concentrations of up to 1 mg L.sup.-1 of Gd and Y did not reduce or enhance the plant growth or alter the nutrient balance. 10 mg L.sup.-1 Gd or Y resulted in REE concentrations of up to 1.2 weight-% in the roots and severe phosphate deficiency symptoms. Transfer rates showed that there was only little transport of Gd and Y from roots to shoots. Significant correlations were found between the concentration of Gd and Y in the nutrient solution and the root tissue concentration of Ca, Mg and P. Author Affiliation: (a) UFZ - Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany (b) UFZ - Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Soil Physics, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle, Germany (c) TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Leipziger Strasse 29, 09599 Freiberg, Germany Article History: Received 17 December 2014; Revised 6 March 2015; Accepted 30 March 2015
    Keywords: Corn ; Gadolinium ; Plants (Organisms) ; Rare Earth Metal Compounds ; Phosphates
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2010, Vol.330(1), pp.481-501
    Description: A modelling approach was used to extend the knowledge about the processes that affect the availability of the nutrient P and the toxic agent As V in the rhizosphere in the presence of a strong sorbent. Based on compartment system experiments in which Zea mays was grown the following hypothesis were assumed: a) measured P concentration gradients can be explained by the mobilisation of P by the root exudate citrate, and b) measured As V concentration gradients can be explained by the simultaneous effect of the competitive sorption of As V and P and the competitive uptake of As V and P. First, the feasibility of the applied description of soil chemical processes was justified. Then competitive uptake was implemented in the computer code using two different mathematical approaches. Our model calculation provided support for hypothesis a) and suggested that hypothesis b) has to be extended. The results show that the competitive uptake of As V and P has an influence on As V concentrations in the rhizosphere, but including competitive uptake was not sufficient to predict observed As V concentration profiles. Recent results on plant As-metabolism like As III efflux and Si As III interaction probably have to be included in addition for simulation of measured As V concentration profiles.
    Keywords: Rhizosphere ; Modelling ; Speciation ; Phosphate ; Arsenate ; Goethite
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2010, Vol.329(1), pp.295-306
    Description: The classical concept of arsenic transfer into plants through arsenate uptake via phosphate transporters, reduction to arsenite, complexation and compartmentation within vacuoles is challenged by recent identification of bidirectional transporters for arsenite and their potential role in plant As status regulation. Soil-based studies with chemical analysis of soil solution require root mat formation amplifying root effects on their surroundings and additionally denying investigations along individual roots differing in age and function. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by using bioreporter bacteria to visualise the spatial distribution of inorganic arsenic along roots and to characterize inorganic arsenic gradients in the rhizosphere concurrent with root age and branching. Therefore we developed an agar-based carrier element ensuring intimate contact between bioreporters and root-soil system and enabling fast and easy reporter output analysis. We show that inorganic arsenic distribution is related to root development with the highest bioreporter signal induction around lateral roots, which are known to show the highest expression of transporters responsible for bidirectional arsenite flux. Since there is so far no evidence for an arsenate efflux mechanism this is a strong indicator that we observed rather arsenite than arsenate efflux. No signal was detected along the distal region of young adventitious roots, i.e. the region of extension growth and root hair formation. The novel bioreporter assay may thus complement conventional measurements by providing information on the spatial distribution of inorganic arsenic on mm to cm-scale.
    Keywords: Arsenic ; Bioreporter bacteria ; Rhizobox ; Rhizosphere ; Zea mays
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 7
    In: PLoS ONE, 2018, Vol.13(10)
    Description: Apple replant disease (ARD) is the phenomenon of soil decline occurring after repeated planting of apple trees at the same site. This study aimed to elucidate whether ARD is systemic, i.e. whether the contact of parts of the root system with ARD soil causes the whole plant to show poor shoot and root growth. A split-root experiment was conducted with seedlings of ‘M26’, offering the same plant for its root system the choice between the substrates ARD soil (+ARD), γ-sterilized ARD soil (-ARD) or soil from a grass parcel (Control) with the following combinations: +ARD/+ARD, -ARD/-ARD; +ARD/-ARD; +ARD/Control. Root growth was analysed throughout the 34-day growing period. Samples from bulk, rhizosphere and rhizoplane soil were collected separately for each compartment, and analysed by fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene or ITS fragments amplified from total community (TC) DNA. The response of the plant to +ARD was not systemic as root growth in -ARD compartment was always superior to root growth in +ARD soil. Crosswise 15 N-labelling of the N-fertilizer applied to the split-root compartments showed that nitrate-N uptake efficiency was higher for roots in -ARD soil compared to those in +ARD. Bacterial and fungal community composition in the rhizoplane and rhizosphere of the same plants differed significantly between the compartments containing +ARD/-ARD or +ARD/Control. The strongest differences between the bacterial fingerprints were observed in the rhizoplane and rhizosphere. Bacterial genera with increased abundance in response to ARD were mainly Streptomyces but also Sphingobium , Novosphingobium , Rhizobium , Lysobacter and Variovorax . The strongest differences between the fungal fingerprints were observed in bulk soil. Our data showed that the response of the apple plant to ARD soil is local and not systemic.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(3), p.e0193669
    Description: X-ray CT is a powerful technology to study root growth in soil in-situ. Root systems can be studied in its true 3D geometry over time. Hence, the same plant can be scanned multiple times during development. A downside is the potential of X-rays to interfere with biological processes and therefore plant growth. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of cumulative X-ray dose on Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare during a growth period of 17 days. One control treatment without X-ray scanning was compared to two treatments being scanned every two and four days, respectively. Scanned treatments received a maximum cumulative dose of less than 8 Gy. Plant species differed in their susceptibility to X-ray dose. For Vicia faba, mean total root length was reduced significantly. Leave growth was reduced as well. Number and length of second order laterals was reduced significantly, as well as length of first order laterals. Hordeum vulgare showed no negative impact of X-ray dose on any of the root parameters. Large differences between the two species investigated were detected in respect to susceptibility to X-ray dose. Results indicate that for X-ray CT studies involving temporal resolution a control treatment without scanning is required.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2004, Vol.258(1), pp.307-327
    Description: Soil solution composition changes with time and distance from the root surface as a result of mass flow, diffusion, plant nutrient uptake and root exudation. A model system was designed, consisting of a root compartment separated from the bulk soil compartment by a nylon net (30 μm mesh size), which enabled independent measurements of the change of soil solution composition and soil water content with increasing distance from the root surface (nylon net). K + concentration in the rhizosphere soil solution decreased during the initial growth stage (12 days after planting, DAP). Thereafter K + accumulated with time, due to mass flow as the dominating process. The extend of K + accumulation depended on the initial fertiliser application. As K + concentrations in soil solution increase, not only as a result of transport exceeding uptake, but also as a result of decreasing soil water content, it is hypothesised that K concentration in soil solution is not the only trigger for the activity of K transporters in membranes, but ABA accumulation in roots induced by decreasing soil matric potentials may add to the regulation. A strong decrease of rhizosphere pH with time is observed as a result of H + efflux from the roots in order to maintain cation-anion balance. In addition the K + to Ca 2+ ratio was altered continuously during the growing period, which has an impact on Ca 2+ uptake and thus firmness of cell walls, apoplast pH, membrane integrity and activity of membrane transporters. The value of osmotic potential in the rhizosphere soil solution increased with time indicating decreasing soil water availability. Modelling approaches based on the data obtained with the system might help to fill in the time gaps caused by the low temporal resolution of soil solution sampling method.
    Keywords: K ; matric potential ; osmotic potential ; pH ; rhizosphere ; soil solution
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2015, Vol.84, p.21(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.02.010 Byline: Hannes Schmidt, Doris Vetterlein, John M. Kohne, Thilo Eickhorst Abstract: X-ray Microfocused Computed Tomography (X-ray [mu]-CT) allows a non-destructive and three-dimensional observation of microbial habitats (i.e. pore space) in soil. A major premise for microbiological studies integrating X-ray [mu]-CT is that soil microorganisms are not affected by irradiation dose in terms of physiology and composition. However, the compatibility of X-ray [mu]-CT and soil biological experiments has been evaluated controversially. We performed an incubation experiment with packed microcosms to assess the effect of X-ray [mu]-CT on native microbial populations with emphasis on soil archaea and bacteria. Before (14 days) and after (1 and 14 days) scanning we analyzed (i) respiration, (ii) enzyme activity, (iii) microbial biomass, (iv) abundance and (v) community structure in scanned and control treatments. None of the microbial parameters exhibited significant differences among scanned and unscanned soil samples at all sampling times with the exception of lower archaeal cell numbers subsequent to X-ray [mu]-CT. Incubation time was the main factor that induced a significant alteration of microbial soil populations while irradiation had no or only very little effect thereupon. Taken together, three-dimensional in situ data obtained via X-ray [mu]-CT may well be combined with microbiological analyses in soil. Author Affiliation: (a) Soil Microbial Ecology, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany (b) Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, Division of Microbial Ecology, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria (c) Department of Soil Physics, UFZ - Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research, 06120 Halle, Germany Article History: Received 18 November 2014; Revised 7 February 2015; Accepted 9 February 2015
    Keywords: Enzymes – Physiological Aspects ; Enzymes – Analysis ; Soil Microbiology – Physiological Aspects ; Soil Microbiology – Analysis ; Bacteria – Physiological Aspects ; Bacteria – Analysis ; Cat Scans – Physiological Aspects ; Cat Scans – Analysis ; Ecosystems – Physiological Aspects ; Ecosystems – Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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