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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: FEMS microbiology ecology, December 2006, Vol.58(3), pp.529-37
    Description: The key role of telluric microorganisms in pesticide degradation is well recognized but the possible relationships between the biodiversity of soil microbial communities and their functions still remain poorly documented. If microorganisms influence the fate of pesticides, pesticide application may reciprocally affect soil microorganisms. The objective of our work was to estimate the impact of 2,4-D application on the genetic structure of bacterial communities and the 2,4-D-degrading genetic potential in relation to 2,4-D mineralization. Experiments combined isotope measurements with molecular analyses. The impact of 2,4-D on soil bacterial populations was followed with ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The 2,4-D degrading genetic potential was estimated by real-time PCR targeted on tfdA sequences coding an enzyme specifically involved in 2,4-D mineralization. The genetic structure of bacterial communities was significantly modified in response to 2,4-D application, but only during the intense phase of 2,4-D biodegradation. This effect disappeared 7 days after the treatment. The 2,4-D degrading genetic potential increased rapidly following 2,4-D application. There was a concomitant increase between the tfdA copy number and the 14C microbial biomass. The maximum of tfdA sequences corresponded to the maximum rate of 2,4-D mineralization. In this soil, 2,4-D degrading microbial communities seem preferentially to use the tfd pathway to degrade 2,4-D.
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology ; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid -- Pharmacology ; Bacteria -- Drug Effects
    ISSN: 0168-6496
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, April 2016, Vol.95, pp.180-188
    Description: Organic matter (OM) is known to affect the behaviour of pesticides in soil (transfer, degradation, retention). In cultivated soils, crops residues and compost incorporation by ploughing results in a heterogeneous OM distribution in soil with the formation of spots with a mm to dm size. This study aimed to compare the impact of OM (straw and compost) addition and its spatial distribution in soil on the total mineralization and the fate of isoproturon (IPU) in cm repacked soil cores. OM was homogeneously or heterogeneously (in small spots or in a larger spot) distributed in the soil cores. C IPU was uniformly added at the regular agronomic dose to the soil and OM. We followed total carbon mineralization, C IPU mineralization, and extractable and non-extractable C residues during a 43-days incubation. We analysed the fate of C at the core scale, and characterised what happened separately on soil and spots of OM after their separation. The results showed that i) the addition of exogenous OM stimulated microbial respiration, but the effect was similar regardless of the spatial distribution of OM in soil (13.9%–19.5% of the total organic carbon); ii) IPU degradation was negligible in OM but was significantly stimulated when OM was added to soil (compared to soil incubated alone) up to a factor of 2; iii) the fate of IPU was impacted by the OM spatial distribution in soil locally and at the core scale and degradation and mineralization was maximal when compost was homogeneously distributed in soil; and iv) these effects were different for maize straw and compost. The nature of OM and its spatial distribution that can be impacted by agricultural practices seem to be important factors to be considered to better understand the fate of pesticides in soil and their transfer to superficial or underground water.
    Keywords: Crop Residues ; Compost ; Spatial Distribution ; Microbial Respiration ; Pesticide Biodegradation ; Cultivated Soil ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2015, Vol.88, p.90(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.05.008 Byline: Marc Pinheiro, Patricia Garnier, Jeremy Beguet, Fabrice Martin Laurent, Laure Vieuble Gonod Abstract: The biodegradation of organic compounds in soil is a key process that has major implications for different ecosystem services such as soil fertility, air and water quality, and climate regulation. Due to the complexity of soil, the distributions of organic compounds and microorganisms are heterogeneous on sub-cm scales, and biodegradation is therefore partly controlled by the respective localizations of organic substrates and degraders. If they are not co-localized, transfer processes become crucial for the accessibility and availability of the substrate to degraders. This spatial interaction is still poorly understood, leading to poor predictions of organic compound dynamics in soils. The objectives of this work were to better understand how the mm-scale distribution of a model pesticide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and its degraders drives the fate of 2,4-D at the cm soil core scale. We constructed cm-scale soil cores combining sterilized and "natural" soil aggregates in which we controlled the initial distributions of 2,4-D and soil microorganisms with the following spatial distributions: i) a homogeneous distribution of microorganisms and 2,4-D at the core-scale, ii) a co-localized distribution of microorganisms and 2,4-D in a single spot (360 mm.sup.3) and iii) a disjoint localization of microorganisms and 2,4-D in 2 soil spots (360 mm.sup.3) separated by 2 cm. Two sets of experiments were performed: one used radiolabeled.sup.14C-2,4-D to study the fate of 2,4-D, and the other used.sup.12C-2,4-D to follow the dynamics of degraders. Microcosms were incubated at 20 [degrees]C and at field capacity (-31.6 kPa). At the core scale, we followed 2,4-D mineralization over time. On three dates, soil cores with microorganisms and 2,4-D localized in soil spots, were cut out in slices and then in 360 mm.sup.3 soil cubes. The individual soil cubes were then independently analysed for extractable and non-extractable.sup.14C and for degraders (quantitative PCR of tfdA genes). Knowing the initial position of each soil cube allowed us to establish 3D maps of 2,4-D residues and degraders in soil. The results indicated that microorganisms and pesticide localizations in soil are major driving factors of i) pesticide biodegradation, by regulating the accessibility of 2,4-D to degrading microorganisms (by diffusion); and ii) the formation of non-extractable residues (NER). These results also emphasized the dominant role of microorganisms in the formation and localization of biogenic NER at a mm-scale. To conclude, these results demonstrate the importance of considering micro-scale processes to better understand the fate of pesticides and more generally of soil organic substrates at upper scales in soil and suggest that such spatial heterogeneity should not be neglected when predicting the fate of organic compounds in soils. Author Affiliation: (a) INRA, UMR Environment et Grandes Cultures, Av. L. Bretignieres, 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (b) INRA, UMR Agroecologie, 17 rue Sully, BP 86510, 21065 Dijon Cedex, France (c) AgroParisTech, UMR Environment et Grandes Cultures, Av. L. Bretignieres, 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France Article History: Received 23 September 2014; Revised 6 May 2015; Accepted 8 May 2015
    Keywords: Herbicides – Analysis ; Soil Microbiology – Analysis ; Biodegradation – Analysis ; Growth Regulators – Analysis ; Soil Structure – Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, January 2018, Vol.191, pp.607-615
    Description: Spreading organic waste products (OWP) issued from sewage sludge or manures into soil may disseminate antibiotics with unknown risks for human health and environment. Our objectives were to compare the fate of two sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and its metabolite N-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (N-ac-SMX), and one fluoroquinolone, ciprofloxacin (CIP), in an unamended soil, and two soils regularly amended since 1998 with a sewage sludge and green waste compost and with farmyard manure respectively. Incubations of soil spiked with C labelled SMX or N-ac-SMX (0.02 mg kg ) or CIP (0.15 mg kg ) allowed a quantification of radiolabeled molecules in the mineralized, easily, hardly and non-extractable fractions after 3 and 156 days. Nature of C molecules was also analyzed by HPLC in extractable fractions after 3 and 156 days. SMX and N-ac-SMX dissipation was fast and due to i) mineralization (∼10% of recovered C after 156 days) or incomplete degradation (production of metabolites), ii) adsorption, even if both sulfonamides present low Kd (〈3 L kg ) and iii) formation of non-extractable residues (NER), representing more than 50% of recovered radioactivity. N-ac-SMX was more mineralized than SMX, and formed more progressively NER, after a step of deacetylation. Adsorption of CIP was fast and formed mainly NER (〉72%) whereas its mineralization was negligible. Repeated applications of OWP tend to enhance adsorption of antibiotics and lower their degradation, through the quantity and quality of the built up soil organic matter. If applications of sewage sludge compost favor adsorption and inhibit mineralization, applications of manure boost the formation of non-extractable residues.
    Keywords: Soil ; Antibiotic ; Metabolite ; Organic Waste Products ; Biodegradation ; Adsorption ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, September 2015, Vol.88, pp.90-100
    Description: The biodegradation of organic compounds in soil is a key process that has major implications for different ecosystem services such as soil fertility, air and water quality, and climate regulation. Due to the complexity of soil, the distributions of organic compounds and microorganisms are heterogeneous on sub-cm scales, and biodegradation is therefore partly controlled by the respective localizations of organic substrates and degraders. If they are not co-localized, transfer processes become crucial for the accessibility and availability of the substrate to degraders. This spatial interaction is still poorly understood, leading to poor predictions of organic compound dynamics in soils. The objectives of this work were to better understand how the mm-scale distribution of a model pesticide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and its degraders drives the fate of 2,4-D at the cm soil core scale. We constructed cm-scale soil cores combining sterilized and “natural” soil aggregates in which we controlled the initial distributions of 2,4-D and soil microorganisms with the following spatial distributions: i) a homogeneous distribution of microorganisms and 2,4-D at the core-scale, ii) a co-localized distribution of microorganisms and 2,4-D in a single spot (360 mm ) and iii) a disjoint localization of microorganisms and 2,4-D in 2 soil spots (360 mm ) separated by 2 cm. Two sets of experiments were performed: one used radiolabeled C-2,4-D to study the fate of 2,4-D, and the other used C-2,4-D to follow the dynamics of degraders. Microcosms were incubated at 20 °C and at field capacity (−31.6 kPa). At the core scale, we followed 2,4-D mineralization over time. On three dates, soil cores with microorganisms and 2,4-D localized in soil spots, were cut out in slices and then in 360 mm soil cubes. The individual soil cubes were then independently analysed for extractable and non-extractable C and for degraders (quantitative PCR of genes). Knowing the initial position of each soil cube allowed us to establish 3D maps of 2,4-D residues and degraders in soil. The results indicated that microorganisms and pesticide localizations in soil are major driving factors of i) pesticide biodegradation, by regulating the accessibility of 2,4-D to degrading microorganisms (by diffusion); and ii) the formation of non-extractable residues (NER). These results also emphasized the dominant role of microorganisms in the formation and localization of biogenic NER at a mm-scale. To conclude, these results demonstrate the importance of considering micro-scale processes to better understand the fate of pesticides and more generally of soil organic substrates at upper scales in soil and suggest that such spatial heterogeneity should not be neglected when predicting the fate of organic compounds in soils.
    Keywords: Pesticide ; Spatial Heterogeneity ; Biodegradation ; Biogenic and Abiotic Non-Extractable Residues ; Diffusion ; Mm and Cm-Scale ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, September 2010, Vol.42(9), pp.1640-1642
    Description: A miniaturised method developed to measure the mineralisation of C-labelled organic compounds in small soil samples is presented. Soil samples (〈0.5 g) were placed in wells of microtiter plates with CO traps (NaOH-soaked glass microfiber filters) and amended with C-labelled substrate. The microtiter plate was covered with a seal and placed in a microplate clamp system to ensure that each well was airtight. After incubation, the CO traps were transferred to tightly sealed glass phials under CO -free atmosphere and the C-labelled CO was released by addition of H PO . The CO was measured by micro-GC and its isotopic signature was determined using a GC-IRMS. The qualitative and quantitative efficiency of the microplate system was demonstrated by comparison with direct measurement of CO in the headspace of phials in which similarly treated soil samples had been incubated. The two methods showed similar mineralisation rates for added C-substrates but the apparent mineralisation of soil organic matter was greater with the microtiter plate method. The microplate system presented here is suitable for studying the mineralisation of different kinds of C-labelled substrates in small soil samples and allows analysis of functional and molecular characteristics on the same micro-samples.
    Keywords: 13c-Labelling ; Co2 Trap ; Acid Release ; Mineralisation ; Microbial Scale ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 16 September 2016, Vol.232, pp.165-178
    Description: The objective was to develop a multi-criteria tool to compare fertilizing practices either based on mineral fertilizer (CONT + N) or repeated applications of exogenous organic matter (EOM) and considering the positive but also the negative impacts of these practices. Three urban composts (a municipal solid waste or MSW, a co-compost of sewage sludge and green waste (GWS), and biowaste (BIO)) and a farmyard manure (FYM) have been applied biennially over 14 years. Soils and crops were sampled repeatedly and 〉100 parameters measured. The development of different quality indices (QI) was used to provide a quantitative tool for assessing the overall effects of recycling different types of EOM. A minimum data set was determined and 7 indices of soil and crop quality were calculated using linear scoring functions: soil fertility, soil biodiversity, soil biological activities, soil physical properties, soil contamination (⿿available⿿ and ⿿total⿿) and crop productivity. All QI varied between 0 and 1, 1 being the best score. EOM amendments significantly increased soil biodiversity, biological activities and physical properties with intensity generally depending on their characteristics. FYM was the most efficient EOM to improve soil biological properties. EOM application lead to similar yields as mineral fertilizers but grain quality was slightly decreased. Thus, mineral fertilizers remained more efficient at improving crop productivity index (QI = 0.88) than EOM although BIO was not significantly different than CONT + N. All EOM improved soil fertility but only BIO was significantly higher (QI = 0.86). EOM added a range of nutrients but an excess of P (e.g. GWS) can negatively impact the soil fertility index. EOM negatively affected the soil contamination index when considering total concentrations but decreased available fractions and consequently the risks of transfer. BIO was the most efficient EOM for most indices including improving the index of ⿿available⿿ soil contamination. This study demonstrated the positive impact of repeated EOM applications on soil and crop quality in a loamy soil.
    Keywords: Compost ; Farmyard Manure ; Mineral Fertilizer ; Long Term Effect ; Quality Index ; Aggregated Method ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 8
    Language: French
    In: Journée Microbiologie Environnementale - Rôle des micro-organismes dans les bioprocédés de dépollution et les sites pollués, Fédération Île-de-France de Recherche sur l'Environnement (FIRE), 2010
    Description: absent
    Keywords: Life Sciences
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2009, Vol.41(12), p.2558–2567
    Description: Organic wastes addition may impact the pesticide behaviour in soils. Furthermore the incorporation of crop residues or organic amendments by ploughing can induce a heterogeneous spatial distribution of the added organic matter in the tilled layer. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of soil...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; Soil Study ; Organic Amendments ; Pesticide Biodegradation ; Microbial Biomass ; Spatial Variability ; Ploughing ; Boues D'Epuration ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 2012, Vol.179/180, pp.38-45
    Description: We proposed to use micromorphology to help identify coarse-sized organic matter (OM) in X-ray computed tomography (CT) images of fresh undisturbed soil cores. We sampled three soil columns (5-cm diameter, 5-cm height) in the interfurrows...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Ecology, Environment ; Soil Organic Matter ; Micromorphology ; X-Ray Computed Tomography ; Undisturbed Soil Samples ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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