Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Jan, 2011, Vol.10(1), p.17(16)
To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00136.x Byline: Richard W. Hartel (1), Roja Ergun (1), Sarah Vogel (1) Abstract: Abstract: It has been said that the key to making high-quality candy is understanding and controlling the transitions of sugar. Whether found as crystal, glass, or fluid solution, sugars impart the texture necessary to distinguish one confection from another and to provide a unique experience to the consumer. In principle, the phase/state transitions of sugars are best understood through careful application of the phase diagram. However, many, if not all, confections are not at equilibrium, meaning that the phase diagram is simply a starting point for understanding and controlling the state of sugars. An understanding of the thermodynamic driving forces that push a confection towards equilibrium and the kinetic constraints that control the rate of approaching that equilibrium are key elements to creating products with the desired texture, quality, and shelf life. In this review, we summarize the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of controlling phase/state transitions in sweeteners, with particular emphasis on applications to confectionery products. Author Affiliation: (1)Authors are with Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Hartel (e-mail:email@example.com). Article History: MS 20100588 Submitted 5/28/2010, Accepted 8/25/2010.
Candy ; Sweeteners ; Thermodynamics