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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental health perspectives, December 2011, Vol.119(12), pp.A506-7; author reply A508-9
    Description: In their review “Enhancing Credibility of Chemical Safety Studies: Emerging Consensus on Key Assessment Criteria”, Conrad and Becker (2011) proposed the application of 10 criteria to individual studies as a means of assessing a study’s “credibility.” They characterized the 10 criteria as an “emerging consensus” and “encouraging convergence” that can solve “this problem of legitimacy in chemical evaluation … regardless of its funding source.” Conrad and Becker explicitly excluded funding by industry as a criterion for evaluating studies, labeling funding-based criteria as “unscientific”; they also dismissed outright consideration of developing potentially unbiased, third-party mechanisms for chemical safety testing as “too costly and complicated.” We agree with Conrad and Becker that there is an urgent unmet need to address the problem of conflict of interest in the science that underlies the regulation of chemicals used in commerce. However, Conrad and Becker’s 10 criteria fall short of what is needed in several critical ways.
    Keywords: Environmental Health -- Standards ; Environmental Pollutants -- Toxicity
    ISSN: 00916765
    E-ISSN: 1552-9924
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Health affairs (Project Hope), May 2011, Vol.30(5), pp.898-905
    Description: The Toxic Substances Control Act gives the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to regulate industrial chemicals not covered by other statutes. Today there are more than 83,000 such chemicals. However, the law is widely perceived as weak and outdated, and various stakeholders have called for its reform, citing the EPA's inability to regulate the use of asbestos, among other substances. We analyze the flaws in the act and suggest ways in which the EPA might better position itself to manage chemical risks and protect the public's health. In addition to the new tools and technologies it is adopting, the agency needs new allies-both inside and outside the government-in its efforts to identify and control hazardous chemicals.
    Keywords: Environmental Policy -- Legislation & Jurisprudence ; Environmental Pollution -- Legislation & Jurisprudence ; Hazardous Substances -- Toxicity ; United States Environmental Protection Agency -- Legislation & Jurisprudence
    ISSN: 02782715
    E-ISSN: 1544-5208
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Issues in Science and Technology, 1 July 2011, Vol.27(4), pp.16-17
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Health and wellness -- Public health ; Law -- Administrative law -- Commercial law ; Law -- Administrative law -- Environmental law ; Social sciences -- Human geography -- Housing ; Business -- Industry -- Industrial sectors ; Law -- Administrative law -- Economic regulation
    ISSN: 07485492
    E-ISSN: 19381557
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  • 4
    In: Environmental Health Perspectives, 2011, Vol.119(12), p.a506-a507
    Keywords: Correspondence
    ISSN: 0091-6765
    E-ISSN: 1552-9924
    Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: American journal of public health, November 2009, Vol.99 Suppl 3, pp.S559-66
    Description: Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic chemical used in the production of plastics since the 1950s and a known endocrine disruptor, is a ubiquitous component of the material environment and human body. New research on very-low-dose exposure to BPA suggests an association with adverse health effects, including breast and prostate cancer, obesity, neurobehavioral problems, and reproductive abnormalities. These findings challenge the long-standing scientific and legal presumption of BPA's safety. The history of how BPA's safety was defined and defended provides critical insight into the questions now facing lawmakers and regulators: is BPA safe, and if not, what steps must be taken to protect the public's health? Answers to both questions involve reforms in chemical policy, with implications beyond BPA.
    Keywords: Occupational Health ; Occupational Exposure -- Legislation & Jurisprudence ; Phenols -- Adverse Effects ; Plastics -- Adverse Effects
    E-ISSN: 1541-0048
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  • 6
    Book
    Book
    Berkeley: University of California Press
    Language: German
    Description: We are all just a little bit plastic. Traces of bisphenol A or BPA, a chemical used in plastics production, are widely detected in our bodies and environment. Is this chemical, and its presence in the human body, safe? What is meant by safety? Who defines it, and according to what information? Is It Safe? narrates how the meaning of the safety of industrial chemicals has been historically produced by breakthroughs in environmental health research, which in turn trigger contests among trade associations, lawyers, politicians, and citizen activists to set new regulatory standards. Drawing on archival research and extensive interviews, author Sarah Vogel explores the roots of the contemporary debate over the safety of BPA, and the concerns presented by its estrogen-like effects even at low doses. Ultimately, she contends that science alone cannot resolve the political and economic conflicts at play in the definition of safety. To strike a sustainable balance between the interests of commerce and public health requires recognition that powerful interests will always try to shape the criteria for defining safety, and that the agenda for environmental health research should be protected from capture by any single interest group.
    Keywords: Phenols ; Economics ; Endocrine Disruptors ; Environmental Exposure ; Politics;
    ISBN: 9780520273573
    E-ISSN: 97805209
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Jan, 2011, Vol.10(1), p.17(16)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00136.x Byline: Richard W. Hartel (1), Roja Ergun (1), Sarah Vogel (1) Abstract: Abstract: It has been said that the key to making high-quality candy is understanding and controlling the transitions of sugar. Whether found as crystal, glass, or fluid solution, sugars impart the texture necessary to distinguish one confection from another and to provide a unique experience to the consumer. In principle, the phase/state transitions of sugars are best understood through careful application of the phase diagram. However, many, if not all, confections are not at equilibrium, meaning that the phase diagram is simply a starting point for understanding and controlling the state of sugars. An understanding of the thermodynamic driving forces that push a confection towards equilibrium and the kinetic constraints that control the rate of approaching that equilibrium are key elements to creating products with the desired texture, quality, and shelf life. In this review, we summarize the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of controlling phase/state transitions in sweeteners, with particular emphasis on applications to confectionery products. Author Affiliation: (1)Authors are with Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Hartel (e-mail:rwhartel@wisc.edu). Article History: MS 20100588 Submitted 5/28/2010, Accepted 8/25/2010.
    Keywords: Candy ; Sweeteners ; Thermodynamics
    ISSN: 1541-4337
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Biology, 01 December 2017, Vol.15(12), p.e2003578
    Description: The American diet has changed dramatically since 1958, when Congress gave the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to ensure the safety of chemicals in food. Since then, thousands of chemicals have entered the food system. Yet their long-term, chronic effects have...
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1544-9173
    E-ISSN: 1545-7885
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Biomacromolecules, 10 October 2016, Vol.17(10), pp.3252-3261
    Description: Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) modulate cellular processes via their interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. We revealed a direct binding of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) to the endocytic receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP-1) clusters II and IV using surface plasmon resonance. Sulfated hyaluronan (sHA) and chondroitin sulfate (sCS) derivatives interfered with TIMP-3/LRP-1 complex formation in a sulfation-dependent manner stronger than heparin. Electrostatic potential calculations suggested a competition between negatively charged GAGs and highly negatively charged complement-like domains of LRP-1 for the binding to a positively charged area of TIMP-3 as an underlying mechanism. In vitro studies revealed increased amounts of pericellular TIMP-3 in the presence of sHA as a consequence of the blocked protein uptake. GAG derivatives as part of biomaterials might post-translationally modulate TIMP-3 levels stronger than native GAGs, thus exhibiting catabolic effects on the ECM, which could prevent extensive pathological matrix degradation and promote wound healing.
    Keywords: Glycosaminoglycans -- Administration & Dosage ; Hyaluronic Acid -- Administration & Dosage ; Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 -- Biosynthesis ; Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 -- Biosynthesis
    ISSN: 15257797
    E-ISSN: 1526-4602
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Perspectives on Fluency and Fluency Disorders, 05/01/2011, Vol.21(2), p.59
    ISSN: 1940-7599
    Source: CrossRef
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