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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 20 April 2012, Vol.14(2), pp.123-130
    Description: Human-mediated dispersal along the road network is a crucial process in the population dynamics of roadside vegetation and during plant invasions. The potential for a species to be dispersed by vehicles is, however, difficult to quantify. The predictive power of categorical classification schemes of human-mediated dispersal is limited as many species that are usually attributed to particular primary dispersal vectors may become subject to very different secondary dispersal vectors owing to human activity. Analysing seed traits that promote seed transport by human dispersal vectors could overcome these limitations. However, the analysis has to account for the divergent chance of seed transport that results from different propagule pressures along the transport corridor. To reveal the effects of seed traits and their interplay with propagule pressure on the chance and magnitude of human-mediated dispersal by vehicles, we compared traits and regional frequencies of a set of species that were dispersed by vehicles to a control set not dispersed but present in the same study area. We then used the same traits for a comparison of intentionally and unintentionally introduced species with the flora of Berlin. Different traits influenced the chance of vehicle dispersal and its magnitude. While propagule pressure was most important for determining the magnitude of seed transport, small seed mass and size best predicted the absolute chance of species dispersal by vehicles. The dispersal of nonnative species was least dependent on propagule pressure. Seed traits that were important in vehicle dispersal were similarly reflected in unintentionally introduced species in the Berlin flora. Mean seed size of these species was lower compared to the entire Berlin flora, whereas it was higher for intentionally introduced species. This suggests that unintentional introduction of nonnative plant species pre-selects for seed traits that promote further spread by human-mediated adhesive dispersal. Probability and magnitude of adhesive seed transport by vehicles can be predicted by dispersal-related plant traits. However, the effect size of plant traits on dispersal strongly depends on regional propagule pressure. This highlights the need to analyse interactions between species traits and propagule pressure.
    Keywords: Dispersal ; Biological Invasions ; Boosted Regression Trees ; Exotic Species ; Phylogenetic Independent Contrasts ; Roadside Vegetation ; Secondary Dispersal ; Botany
    ISSN: 1433-8319
    E-ISSN: 1618-0437
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biological Conservation, March, 2013, Vol.159, p.119(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.11.028 Byline: Leonie K. Fischer (a), Moritz von der Lippe (a), Matthias C. Rillig (b), Ingo Kowarik (a) Keywords: Mycorrhizal inoculation; Novel ecosystems; Regional provenance; Reintroduction; Shrinking cities; Urban restoration Abstract: Display Omitted Author Affiliation: (a) Technische Universitat Berlin, Ecosystem Science/Plant Ecology, Rothenburgstr. 12, D-12165 Berlin, Germany (b) Freie Universitat Berlin, Plant Ecology, Altensteinstr. 6, D-14195 Berlin, Germany Article History: Received 21 June 2012; Revised 23 November 2012; Accepted 29 November 2012
    Keywords: Grasslands ; Ecosystems
    ISSN: 0006-3207
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, September 2018, Vol.55(5), pp.2354-2361
    Description: In a rapidly urbanising world, the ability of plant species to survive and build self‐sustaining populations in urban environments is increasingly important for biodiversity conservation. Yet, the contribution of cities to biodiversity conservation remains unclear because ecologists have studied biodiversity patterns, largely without considering the population establishment of plants and the ways in which different kinds of urban ecosystems harbour native and endangered plant species. These limitations can mislead conservation policies for cities. To better understand how urban ecosystems can contribute to biodiversity conservation, we propose a framework that links the population status (casual or established) of plant species with ecosystem novelty and highlights barriers to population establishment in different types of urban ecosystems, from natural remnants to novel ecosystems. To quantify the relative importance of natural remnants vs. human‐shaped ecosystems for the conservation of self‐sustaining urban plant populations. we re‐analyse a unique dataset from a metropolitan region in Europe with information on the population status of 1,199 plant species. Results demonstrate that urban ecosystems harbour many established native and endangered species although a considerable share (37%) of species of conservation concern are confined to natural remnants. In hybrid and immature novel ecosystems, high species numbers reflect many species with only casual populations. The role of novel ecosystems as habitats for native and endangered plant species increases as novel ecosystems mature. Synthesis and applications. General information about plant species richness in urban environments may mislead conservation policies as different kinds of urban ecosystems can play different roles in harbouring species of conservation concern. Moreover, presence/absence data can mask establishment failures of species. This proposed framework helps to distinguish between casual and established populations of plant species, and highlights barriers to population persistence in urban ecosystems, reflecting different land uses and land use histories over time. Revealing the role of natural remnants vs. hybrid vs. novel ecosystems as habitats for species of conservation concern illustrates opportunities for biodiversity conservation in all urban ecosystems and can support setting priorities for conservation. General information about plant species richness in urban environments may mislead conservation policies as different kinds of urban ecosystems can play different roles in harbouring species of conservation concern. Moreover, presence/absence data can mask establishment failures of species. This proposed framework helps to distinguish between casual and established populations of plant species, and highlights barriers to population persistence in urban ecosystems, reflecting different land uses and land use histories over time. Revealing the role of natural remnants vs. hybrid vs. novel ecosystems as habitats for species of conservation concern illustrates opportunities for biodiversity conservation in all urban ecosystems and can support setting priorities for conservation.
    Keywords: Alien Plant Species ; Biodiversity Conservation ; Endangered Species ; Novel Ecosystems ; Plant Species Richness ; Population Establishment ; Urban Land Use ; Urbanisation
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
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  • 4
    In: Journal of Ecology, November 2013, Vol.101(6), pp.1623-1640
    Description: This account presents information on all aspects of the biology of Robinia pseudoacacia L. that are relevant to understanding its ecological characteristics and behaviour. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the Biological Flora of the British Isles: distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, and history and conservation. Robinia pseudoacacia, false acacia or black locust, is a deciduous, broad‐leaved tree native to North America. The medium‐sized, fast‐growing tree is armed with spines, and extensively suckering. It has become naturalized in grassland, semi‐natural woodlands and urban habitats. The tree is common in the south of the British Isles and in many other regions of Europe. Robinia pseudoacacia is a light‐demanding pioneer species, which occurs primarily in disturbed sites on fertile to poor soils. The tree does not tolerate wet or compacted soils. In contrast to its native range, where it rapidly colonizes forest gaps and is replaced after 15–30 years by more competitive tree species, populations in the secondary range can persist for a longer time, probably due to release from natural enemies. Robinia pseudoacacia reproduces sexually, and asexually by underground runners. Disturbance favours clonal growth and leads to an increase in the number of ramets. Mechanical stem damage and fires also lead to increased clonal recruitment. The tree benefits from di‐nitrogen fixation associated with symbiotic rhizobia in root nodules. Estimated symbiotic nitrogen fixation rates range widely from 23 to 300 kg ha−1 year−1. The nitrogen becomes available to other plants mainly by the rapid decay of nitrogen‐rich leaves. Robinia pseudoacacia is host to a wide range of fungi both in the native and introduced ranges. Megaherbivores are of minor significance in Europe but browsing by ungulates occurs in the native range. Among insects, the North American black locust gall midge (Obolodiplosis robiniae) is specific to Robinia and is spreading rapidly throughout Europe. In parts of Europe, Robinia pseudoacacia is considered an invasive non‐indigenous plant and the tree is controlled. Negative impacts include shading and changes of soil conditions as a result of nitrogen fixation. is a orth‐merican introduction that has become a widely naturalized tree in southern ritain and warmer parts of continental urope. It spreads clonally by root suckers and produces copious seeds. Its capacity for symbiotic di‐nitrogen fixing has facilitated invasive behaviour, and further spread is likely with climate warming. Nevertheless, it provides ecosystem services, notably nectar for honey production, timber and soil stabilization.
    Keywords: Climatic Limitation ; Ecophysiology ; Geographical And Altitudinal Distribution ; Germination ; Invasive ; Mycorrhiza ; Nitrogen Fixation ; Parasites And Diseases ; Reproductive Biology ; Soils
    ISSN: 0022-0477
    E-ISSN: 1365-2745
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(1), p.e52733
    Description: Human-mediated dispersal is known as an important driver of long-distance dispersal for plants but underlying mechanisms have rarely been assessed. Road corridors function as routes of secondary dispersal for many plant species but the extent to which vehicles support this process remains unclear. In this paper we quantify dispersal distances and seed deposition of plant species moved over the ground by the slipstream of passing cars. We exposed marked seeds of four species on a section of road and drove a car along the road at a speed of 48 km/h. By tracking seeds we quantified movement parallel as well as lateral to the road, resulting dispersal kernels, and the effect of repeated vehicle passes. Median distances travelled by seeds along the road were about eight meters for species with wind dispersal morphologies and one meter for species without such adaptations. Airflow created by the car lifted seeds and resulted in longitudinal dispersal. Single seeds reached our maximum measuring distance of 45 m and for some species exceeded distances under primary dispersal. Mathematical models were fit to dispersal kernels. The incremental effect of passing vehicles on longitudinal dispersal decreased with increasing number of passes as seeds accumulated at road verges. We conclude that dispersal by vehicle airflow facilitates seed movement along roads and accumulation of seeds in roadside habitats. Dispersal by vehicle airflow can aid the spread of plant species and thus has wide implications for roadside ecology, invasion biology and nature conservation.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(8)
    Description: The correct citation is: von der Lippe M, Bullock JM, Kowarik I, Knopp T, Wichmann MC (2013) Human-Mediated Dispersal of Seeds by the Airflow of Vehicles. Citation: von der Lippe M, Bullock JM, Kowarik I, Knopp T, Wichmann M (2013) Correction: Human-Mediated Dispersal of Seeds by the Airflow of Vehicles.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    ISSN: PLoS ONE
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Landscape and Urban Planning, 2014, Vol.126, p.1(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.03.001 Byline: Marc-Rajan Koppler, Ingo Kowarik, Norbert Kuhn, Moritz von der Lippe Abstract: Author Affiliation: (a) Technische Universitat Berlin, Chair of Ecosystem Science/Plant Ecology, D-12165 Berlin, Germany (b) Technische Universitat Berlin, Chair of Vegetation Technique and Planting Design, D-14195 Berlin, Germany (c) Berlin-Brandenburg Institute of Advanced Biodiversity Research (BBIB), D-14195 Berlin, Germany Article History: Received 21 August 2013; Revised 28 January 2014; Accepted 3 March 2014
    Keywords: Ecosystems
    ISSN: 0169-2046
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    In: Conservation Biology, August 2007, Vol.21(4), pp.986-996
    Description: :  Roadsides are preferential migration corridors for invasive plant species and can act as starting points for plant invasions into adjacent habitats. Rapid spread and interrupted distribution patterns of introduced plant species indicate long‐distance dispersal along roads. The extent to which this process is due to species' migration along linear habitats or, alternatively, to seed transport by vehicles has not yet been tested systematically. We tested this by sampling seeds inside long motorway tunnels to exclude nontraffic dispersal. Vehicles transported large amounts of seeds. The annual seed rain caused by vehicles on the roadsides of five different tunnel lanes within three tunnels along a single urban motorway in Berlin, Germany, ranged from 635 to 1579 seeds/m2/year. Seeds of non‐native species accounted for 50.0% of the 204 species and 54.4% of the total 11,818 seeds trapped inside the tunnels. Among the samples were 39 (19.1%) highly invasive species that exhibit detrimental effects on native biodiversity in some parts of the world. By comparing the flora in the tunnel with that adjacent to the tunnel entrances we confirmed long‐distance dispersal events (〉250 m) for 32.3% of the sampled species. Seed sources in a radius of 100 m around the entrances of the tunnels had no significant effect on species richness and species composition of seed samples from inside the tunnels, indicating a strong effect of long‐distance dispersal by vehicles. Consistently, the species composition of the tunnel seeds was more similar to the regional roadside flora of Berlin than to the local flora around the tunnel entrances. Long‐distance dispersal occurred significantly more frequently in seeds of non‐native (mean share 38.5%) than native species (mean share 4.1%). Our results showed that long‐distance dispersal by vehicles was a routine rather than an occasional mechanism. Dispersal of plants by vehicles will thus accelerate plant invasions and induce rapid changes in biodiversity patterns.
    Keywords: Long‐Distance Plant Dispersal ; Plant Invasions ; Roadside Flora ; Seed Rain ; Vehicle Plant Dispersal ; Dispersión De Plantas A Larga Distancia ; Dispersión De Plantas Por Vehículos ; Flora Ruderal ; Invasión De Plantas ; Lluvia De Semillas
    ISSN: 0888-8892
    E-ISSN: 1523-1739
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, May 2018, Vol.32, pp.113-122
    Description: Cultural ecosystem services related to urban green spaces contribute significantly to liveable cities. While previous studies highlight the intersection of cultural ecosystem services with societal values, spiritual or religious values associated with urban nature have received less attention. In India, as in other parts of the world, sacred sites are known for their biological richness, but analyses from urban sacred sites are largely missing. Based on a stratified random sampling approach, we analysed the cultivated and wild plant species assemblages of 69 sacred sites in the megacity of Bengaluru, India, in relation to biological and cultural features, and parameters related to the urban matrix and type of sacred sites (temple vs. katte). Unlike other urban studies, we found a dominance of native species in the cultivated and spontaneous species pools (121 species in total), with and as most frequently planted species. Culturally relevant species prevailed in the species pool (89%), with overlaps between religious (36%), medicinal (50%) and ornamental (62%) plants; only 11% of species were weeds. Urban matrix parameters (age of development, housing density) and size and type of sacred sites were related to differences in species assemblages. We identified key species for different classes of age and housing density, and for types of sacred sites. Our study demonstrates that urban sacred sites have an important potential in harbouring both native and culturally significant species that can support urban livelihoods in developing countries by a range of cultural and provisioning ecosystem services, including medicinal uses. As such sites are conserved by communities for spiritual or cultural beliefs, local biodiversity can be enhanced, e.g. by adapting management practices through community participation. This would strengthen the important contribution of sacred sites within the green infrastructure of rapidly growing megacities.
    Keywords: Cultural Ecosystem Services ; Plant Invasions ; Spiritual-Religious Values ; Urban Biodiversity ; Urbanization ; Agriculture ; Architecture
    ISSN: 1618-8667
    E-ISSN: 1610-8167
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Basic and Applied Ecology, 2011, Vol.12(1), pp.29-37
    Description: Urbanization particularly promotes habitat fragmentation, which in turn strongly affects biodiversity patterns. A major driver of species loss in isolated habitat patches is dispersal limitation. The relative importance of dispersal ability of species, spatial habitat configuration and local environmental conditions for predicting species composition is still unclear though. Addressing urban abandoned railway areas as study areas, we analyzed the relative importance of environmental versus landscape predictors (e.g. proportions of sealed, built-up and ruderal areas) using variation partitioning methods. To add the perspective of individual species dispersal ability, we characterized the effect of species traits on explained variation in species occurrence with a regression tree. The difference in explained variation in the occurrence of individual species (ΔCfit) between a CCA with environmental predictors and environmental and landscape predictors together was analyzed. The results revealed that environmental predictors explained a slightly larger amount of variation than landscape predictors. Adding landscape predictors to the analysis with environmental predictors resulted in a sizeable increase in explained variation. The most important predictors in the CCA were photosynthetically active radiation, C/N-ratio in the soil and the proportion of ruderal habitats in the surroundings of the plots. The regression tree model showed higher ΔCfit values for species with a long-term persistent soil seed bank. The lowest ΔCfit values were found for species with a transient seed bank and long seeds. Linking dispersal-related traits to the predictability of species occurrence is a promising approach to reveal the interdependencies between environmental conditions, landscape configuration and species-specific dispersal abilities. Our results suggest that in fragmented urban habitats, a persistent seed bank is advantageous because it allows for stable populations once habitat patches have been colonized. Das Wachstum von Städten fördert die Fragmentierung von Lebensräumen. Ungeklärt ist bislang, zu welchen Anteilen einerseits Umwelteigenschaften (Boden und Mikroklima) und andererseits Landschaftseigenschaften (z. B. Anteile versiegelter, bebauter und ruderaler Flächen) die Artenzusammensetzung fragmentierter urbaner Lebensräume steuern und wie ausbreitungsrelevante Arteigenschaften das Vorkommen von Arten in diesen Lebensräumen beeinflussen. Am Beispiel räumlich fragmentierter Bahnbrachen analysierten wir die relative Bedeutung von Umwelt- und Landschaftseigenschaften mit Varianzpartitionierungen. Um die Perspektive der Ausbreitungsfähigkeit einzelner Arten zu ergänzen, charakterisierten wir den Effekt ausbreitungsrelevanter Arteigenschaften auf die erklärte Varianz in den Artvorkommen mit Hilfe von Regressionsbäumen. Dabei wurde die Differenz der erklärten Varianz in den Vorkommen einzelner Arten zwischen einer CCA mit Umweltprädiktoren und einer CCA mit Umwelt- und Landschaftsprädiktoren (ΔCfit) analysiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass Umweltprädiktoren einen geringfügig größeren Teil der Varianz in den Artvorkommen erklären als Landschaftsprädiktoren. Das Hinzunehmen von Landschaftsprädiktoren in die Analyse mit Umweltprädiktoren ergab eine deutliche Zunahme der erklärten Varianz. Die wichtigsten Prädiktoren der CCA waren die photosynthetisch aktive Strahlung, das C/N-Verhältnis und der Anteil ruderaler Habitate. Der Regressionsbaum zeigte hohe ΔCfit Werte für Arten mit persistenter Samenbank. Die geringsten ΔCfit Werte wurden für Arten mit kurzlebiger Samenbank und langen Samen gefunden. Die Verbindung von Ausbreitungsmerkmalen mit der Vorhersagbarkeit von Artvorkommen in multivariaten Verfahren ist ein viel versprechender Ansatz, um die Wechselbeziehungen von artspezifischer Ausbreitungsfähigkeit, Umwelt- und Landschaftsprädiktoren zu zeigen. Unsere Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass in fragmentierten urbanen Habitaten die Ausbildung einer persistenten Samenbank begünstigend ist, weil sie in einmal besiedelten Habitaten stabile Populationen ermöglicht.
    Keywords: Abandoned Railway Area ; Brownfield ; CCA ; Cfit Values ; Dispersal Limitation ; Fragmentation ; Habitat Connectivity ; Predictability ; Species Traits ; Urban Ecology ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 1439-1791
    E-ISSN: 16180089
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