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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Forestry, 10/01/2012, Vol.85(4), pp.539-550
    Description: Forest site productivity maps can be of great help for sustainable forest management. Site productivity maps, commonly representing the site index (SI) of a specific tree species, allow foresters to forecast wood production over the entire area of interest and hence select the most appropriate location for establishing a particular tree species mix. In many situations, forest SI cannot be directly measured from the dominant height and age of a stand and must therefore be directly estimated from relevant local site factors related to climate, topography and/or soil (attribute-based approach). Alternatively, estimations can also be made based on site information available for nearby locations (location-based approach). Also both approaches can be combined (hybrid approach). Since there is no straightforward procedure for selecting the most appropriate approach, the performance of five regionalization techniques was compared for predictive mapping of the SI of two important tree species in the temperate lowland region of Flanders (Belgium): one location-based technique (ordinary kriging), one attribute-based technique (regression) and three hybrid techniques (geomatching, ordinary co-kriging and regression kriging). From the findings of this case study, it cannot be concluded that one technique outperforms the others under all circumstances, but it was possible to build a decision tree providing guidance in selecting an appropriate SI mapping technique depending on the availability and characteristics of the data. ; p. 539-550.
    Keywords: Forests ; Wood ; Site Index ; Sustainable Forestry ; Kriging ; Case Studies ; Hybrids ; Topography ; Decision Support Systems ; Trees ; Foresters ; Climate ; Soil;
    ISSN: 0015-752X
    E-ISSN: 1464-3626
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Dendrochronologia, August 2002, Vol.20(F0020001), pp.159-174
    Description: Tree-rings are a unique source of long-term data and have often been used in studies aimed at understanding and quantifying the impact of air pollution on forests. A variety of approaches have been used, ranging from traditional dendrochronology to studies focussing on the chemical and physical properties of tree-rings. However, there are some issues to be considered when attempting to use tree-rings as a response indicator in air pollution studies and when inferences over large geographical scales are being made. These issues include the inherent ambiguity of tree-ring width as indicator of air pollution effects, the absence of reference data, the problems associated with integrating traditional dendrochronology with more complex ecosystem studies and the relatively poor attention paid to sound statistical design in some air pollution impact studies. Together with progress in specific disciplines like climatology, biochemistry, genetics, tree physiology, tree nutrition and soil science, the interdisciplinary and international collaboration in the analysis of environmental effects on tree growth will increase the research potential of tree-rings.
    Keywords: Tree - Rings ; Air Pollution ; Dendrochemistry ; Stable Isotopes ; Needle Trace Method Language: English ; Needle Trace Method
    ISSN: 1125-7865
    Source: IngentaConnect
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 January 2019, Vol.431, pp.54-62
    Description: Heavy harvesting leads to harmful soil compaction and negative effects of soil physical properties and rootability. We monitored the recovery of soil structure in a compacted forest soil, which had been treated with a combination of regeneration techniques (mulching, liming, planting of alder trees or a combination of those). Soil physical properties (relative apparent gas diffusion coefficient ( ), bulk density and the macropore volume) were measured in three successive campaigns, with two years between each, with fine root densities taken as a biological target variable. Distinct changes of soil physical properties were detected during the study period, mainly caused by the effects of the applied regeneration techniques. After four years, higher values of and macropores indicated significant improvements of soil aeration in the topsoil. The deeper soil showed no distinct evidence of regeneration, regardless of the regeneration technique applied. However, rather a negative impact of mulching on soil physical properties was detected. The measured physical parameters, , bulk density and macropore volume correlate highly with observed fine root densities. In the topsoil, root density increases with increasing soil gas permeability, while in the deeper horizons only few macropores are occupied by fine roots for gas exchange.
    Keywords: Compacted Forest Soils ; Relative Apparent Gas Diffusion Coefficient ; Bulk Density ; Macropore Volume ; Fine Roots Density ; Recovery of Soil Structure ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 2003, Vol.65(2), pp.115-127
    Description: In a field experiment, the ecochemical effects of soil amelioration withdolomite, phonolite rock powder and fertilization with potassium sulfate werecompared. By dolomite and phonolite the acid-neutralizing capacity of the soiland the pH level should be stabilized. In addition, the correction of a latentpotassium deficiency in spruce stands at acidified glacial loams was intended.In comparison to fertilizing with potassium sulfate liming as well as theapplication of phonolite rock powder showed a prominent improvement of the soilchemical status already within the first 4–5 years. Both treatmentsincreased the base saturation, the dolomite to a depth of 60 cm,the phonolite to a depth of 30 cm. At the limed plot, strongnitrate leaching occurred with peaks at 80 cm soil depth higherthan the EU threshold for drinking water. In the phonolite plot this alsooccurred, but the nitrate concentrations remained lower. The silicate rockpowder reacted more slowly than dolomite. Thus, we can state that silicate rockpowder can be an alternative to conventional liming in regions where the risk ofnitrate mobilization is high and especially at water preservation areas wherespecial care has to be observed. But the phonolite which was used in thisexperiment released a considerable amount of sodium, which disturbed theamelioration effect. In practice, it would be better to use a silicate rockpowder with a low sodium content. Fertilization with potassium sulfate provideda fast nutritional effect but displayed no potential for soil chemicalamelioration.
    Keywords: Dolomite ; Field conditions ; Nitrate leaching ; Phonolite ; Potassium deficiency ; Potassium sulfate ; Rock powder ; Soil chemical status
    ISSN: 1385-1314
    E-ISSN: 1573-0867
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Soil Science, Oct, 2009, Vol.60(5), p.792(15)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2009.01169.x Byline: H. Puhlmann (a), K. Von Wilpert (a), M. Lukes (a), W. Droge (b) Abstract: Summary Forest soils are under-represented throughout the existing soil hydraulic databases. Classical measurement methods for the hydraulic soil characteristics are very time-consuming and are not suited for routine application in the course of soil survey. We are presently engaged in establishing a database of the hydraulic properties of forest soils using multistep outflow experiments together with an inverse optimization of the Mualem/van Genuchten parameters from the tension and outflow measurements. The lower boundary in the multistep outflow experiments was modified such that, firstly, the experiment can be conducted as fast as possible and hence can be incorporated in the framework of routine soil monitoring. Secondly, the experimental design should be identical for a large texture range and therefore allow for a statistical comparison of the hydraulic properties of a broad variety of soils. Thirdly, the experiments must be designed such that they yield sufficient measurements for a unique and stable inverse parameter estimation. The inverse parameter estimates of the presently available 141 multistep outflow experiments were compared with predictions of two pedotransfer functions. For most soil samples, the PTF predictions differed highly from the MSO estimates. Reasons for this are, among others, insufficient hydraulic measurements included in the datasets used for establishing the PTFs and, specifically, insufficient information on water retention/conductivity in the range of the air entry value. Here, the MSO experiments can provide much more detailed information on the water retention and conductivity curves because they yield measurements over a continuous pressure range and are conducted such that the pressure range of the air entry value is covered by sufficient tension and outflow measurements. The presented research aims to: (i) introduce the measurement of soil hydraulic properties in an ongoing soil monitoring campaign, (ii) complement existing soil hydraulic databases with data from forest soils, and (iii) enhance the reliability of soil hydraulic databases through a standardization of the measuring approaches. Author Affiliation: (a)Forest Research Institute, Department of Soils and Environment, Wonnhaldestr. 4, 79100 Freiburg i. Br., Germany (b)Dresden University of Technology, Institute for Hydrology and Meteorology, Chair of Hydrology, Wurzburger Str. 46, 01187 Dresden, Germany Article History: Received 11 August 2008; revised version accepted 29 May 2009 Article note: H. Puhlmann. E-mail: heike.puhlmann@forst.bwl.de
    Keywords: Databases -- Usage ; Databases -- Analysis ; Forest Soils -- Analysis ; Hydrology -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1351-0754
    E-ISSN: 13652389
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Biogeochemistry, 2017, Vol.136(1), pp.5-29
    Description: Phosphorus availability may shape plant–microorganism–soil interactions in forest ecosystems. Our aim was to quantify the interactions between soil P availability and P nutrition strategies of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) forests. We assumed that plants and microorganisms of P-rich forests carry over mineral-bound P into the biogeochemical P cycle (acquiring strategy). In contrast, P-poor ecosystems establish tight P cycles to sustain their P demand (recycling strategy). We tested if this conceptual model on supply-controlled P nutrition strategies was consistent with data from five European beech forest ecosystems with different parent materials (geosequence), covering a wide range of total soil P stocks (160–900 g P m −2 ; 〈1 m depth). We analyzed numerous soil chemical and biological properties. Especially P-rich beech ecosystems accumulated P in topsoil horizons in moderately labile forms. Forest floor turnover rates decreased with decreasing total P stocks (from 1/5 to 1/40 per year) while ratios between organic carbon and organic phosphorus (C:P org ) increased from 110 to 984 (A horizons). High proportions of fine-root biomass in forest floors seemed to favor tight P recycling. Phosphorus in fine-root biomass increased relative to microbial P with decreasing P stocks. Concomitantly, phosphodiesterase activity decreased, which might explain increasing proportions of diester-P remaining in the soil organic matter. With decreasing P supply indicator values for P acquisition decreased and those for recycling increased, implying adjustment of plant–microorganism–soil feedbacks to soil P availability. Intense recycling improves the P use efficiency of beech forests.
    Keywords: Forest ecosystem nutrition ; P geosequence ; P acquiring ; P-recycling
    ISSN: 0168-2563
    E-ISSN: 1573-515X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Hydrological Processes, 15 February 2001, Vol.15(2), pp.183-199
    Description: The importance and interaction of various hydrological pathways and identification of runoff source areas involved in solute transport are still under considerable debate in catchment hydrology. To reveal stormflow generating areas and flow paths, hydrometric behaviour of throughfall, soil water from various depths, runoff, and respective concentrations of the environmental tracers O, Si, K, SO and dissolved organic carbon were monitored for a 14‐week period in a steep headwater catchment in the Black Forest Mountains, Germany. Two stormflow hydrographs were selected and, based on O and Si, chemically separated into three flow components. Their sources were defined using mixing diagrams. Additional information about stormflow generating mechanisms was derived from recession analyses of the basin's complete 5‐year hydrograph record. By providing insight into storage properties and residence times of outflowing reservoirs of the basin, recession analysis proved to be a valuable tool in runoff model conceptualization. Its results agreed well with hydrometric and hydrochemical data. Supported by evaluation of 30 hillslope soil profiles a coherent concept of stormflow generation could be derived: whereas in many steeply sloped basins in the temperate region soil water from hillslopes appears to have an immediate effect on the shape of the stormflow hydrograph, its role at this basin is basically restricted to the recharge of the groundwater reservoir in the near‐channel area. Storm hydrograph peaks appear to be derived from a small direct runoff component supplemented by a fast delivery of baseflow from the groundwater reservoir in the valley bottom. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Tracers ; Conceptual Runoff Model ; Recession Analysis ; Hydrograph Separation ; Mixing Analysis
    ISSN: 0885-6087
    E-ISSN: 1099-1085
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of plant physiology, 2004, Vol.161(4), pp.423-437
    Description: Biochemical, physiological and ultrastructural changes of the chloroplasts were examined in the course of the rapid yellowing process of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) at a Mg-deficient and ozone polluted mountain site (Schollkopf mountain, Central Black Forest, Germany, 840 m a.s.l.). While at an early stage of yellowing the chlorophyll (Chl) content of the needles decreased slowly, significant changes occurred in the chloroplasts: The lability of the light-harvesting Chl a/b protein complex LHC II increased; the thylakoid cross-sectional area of chloroplasts in the outer mesophyll of the needles decreased, and their Chl fluorescence showed typical changes like the decrease of Fv/Fm and the increase of the photoinhibitory Fv quenching. Later on, the Chl content decreased rapidly, the changes in the chloroplasts continued and the needles turned yellow. Lutein and the pigments of the xanthophyll cycle were enhanced in relation to Chl a. Light and dark reactions of the xanthophyll cycle were highly active indicating efficient proton pumping and NADPH formation. The ratio of non-appressed to appressed thylakoid membranes increased with decreasing Fv/Fm suggesting that structural and fluorescence properties of the chloroplasts were related. The response of the needles to defined shading and improved Mg supply was also examined. The combined effects of strong sun light, low levels of non-Chl-bound Mg (Mg'free') and ozone concentrations exceeding 80 microgram m-3 are shown to be necessary to induce the rapid yellowing process. For needles with Mg'free' 〈0.12 mg g-1 needle dry matter, the lability of the LHC II was correlated with the ozone concentration suggesting that the destabilization of the LHC II plays a central role in the rapid yellowing process. ; Includes references ; p. 423-437.
    Keywords: Nutrient Availability ; Magnesium ; Leaf Development ; Plant Pigments ; Forest Trees ; Conifer Needles ; Chlorophyll ; Ultrastructure ; Ozone ; Soil Chemical Properties ; Soil Nutrients ; Fluorescence ; Plant Anatomy ; Picea Abies ; Light Harvesting Complex ; Physiological Response ; Plant Nutrition ; Chloroplasts
    ISSN: 0176-1617
    E-ISSN: 16181328
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  • 9
    Language: German
    In: Forst und Holz, 1996, Vol.(24), pp.796-801
    Description: Summaries (De, En) ; 1 ill., 10 graphs, 2 tables; 27 ref.
    Keywords: Picea Abies ; Forest Ecology ; Ammonium Compounds ; Pollution ; Air Pollution ; Picea Abies ; Ecologie Forestiere ; Compose De L'Ammonium ; Pollution ; Pollution Atmospherique ; Picea Abies ; Ecologia Forestal ; Compuestos De Amonio ; Polucion ; Polucion Del Aire ; 161 ; 111.74 ; 174.7 ; Bodenkunde ; Oekosystemare Fallstudien ; Stofffluesse ; Stoff-Bilanzen ; Messreihen ; Standortfaktor ; Pufferleistung Waldboden ; Unterboden Oberboden ; Stickstoffeintraege ; Atmogene, Interne Saeurebildung ; Niederschlaege ; Frachtraten ; Sickerwasser ; Durchwurzelungsintensitaet ; Waldbauliche Massnahmen ; Wurzelzone Speichervermoegen ; Stoffbilanztyp ; Stoffflussmessnetze ; Kriterien ; Station Ochsenhausen
    ISSN: 0932-9315
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 10
    Language: German
    In: Schriften aus der Forstlichen Fakultaet der Univ. Goettingen und der Niedersaechsischen Forstlichen Versuchsanstalt, 1992, Vol.
    Description: 8 graphs; 8 ref. Summaries (De, En)
    Keywords: Picea Abies ; Pinus Sylvestris ; Wood Anatomy ; Bonsai ; Growth ; Growth Rings/ Drought Stress ; Picea Abies ; Pinus Sylvestris ; Anatomie Du Bois ; Bonsai ; Croissance ; Cerne/ Stress Du A La Secheresse ; Picea Abies ; Pinus Sylvestris ; Anatomia De La Madera ; Bonsai ; Crecimiento ; Anillo De Crecimiento/ Estres De Sequia ; 811.11 ; 811.15 ; 811.41 ; 811.42 ; 181.312 ; 174.7 Picea Abies ; 174.7 Pinus Sylvestris ; Holzanatomische Merkmale ; Tracheidendurchmesser ; Wasserstress ; Jahrringbreite ; Zuwachs
    ISBN: 3-7939-5106-5
    ISSN: 0344-5666
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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