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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Europarättslig tidskrift, 2015(4), pp.939-956
    Keywords: Social Sciences ; Law ; Law (Excluding Law And Society) ; Samhällsvetenskap ; Juridik ; Juridik (Exklusive Juridik Och Samhälle)
    ISSN: 1403-8722
    Source: SwePub (National Library of Sweden)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, Nov 15, 2015, Vol.533, p.40(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.090 Byline: Diego Fernandez, Katharina Voss, Mirco Bundschuh, Jochen P. Zubrod, Ralf B. Schafer Abstract: Large amounts of fungicides are applied globally and partly enter freshwater ecosystems. A few laboratory studies examined their effects on decomposer communities and the ecosystem process of litter decomposition (LD), whereas the field situation remains largely unknown. We conducted a field study with 17 stream sites in a German vineyard area where fungicides represent the dominant pest control agent. Passive samplers were used to monitor 15 fungicides and 4 insecticides in streams and their toxicity was described using the toxic unit approach, whereas sediment samples were taken to characterise total copper concentrations. Microbial and leaf-shredding invertebrate community composition and related LD rates were assessed at each site. The structure of microbial and shredder communities as well as fungal biomass changed along the fungicide toxicity gradient. The changes in microbial endpoints were associated with a reduction of microbial LD rate of up to 40% in polluted streams. By contrast, neither the invertebrate LD rate nor in-situ measured gammarid feeding rates correlated with fungicide toxicity, but both were negatively associated with sediment copper concentrations. A subsequent laboratory experiment employing field fungicide concentrations suggested that the microbial community changes are causal. Overall, our results suggest that fungicides can affect LD under field conditions. Article History: Received 20 April 2015; Revised 22 June 2015; Accepted 22 June 2015 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: D. Barcelo
    Keywords: Fungicides – Analysis ; Vineyards – Analysis ; Wineries – Analysis ; Freshwater Ecosystems – Analysis ; Sediments (Geology) – Analysis
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 November 2017, Vol.598, pp.805-813
    Description: Incomplete removal during wastewater treatment leads to frequent detection of compounds such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products in municipal effluents. A fixed standard dilution factor of 10 for effluents entering receiving water bodies is used during the exposure assessment of several chemical risk assessments. However, the dilution potential of German receiving waters under low flow conditions is largely unknown and information is sparse for other European countries. We calculated dilution factors for two datasets differing in spatial extent and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) size: a national dataset comprising 1225 large WWTPs in Central and Northern Germany and a federal dataset for 678 WWTPs of a single state in Southwest Germany. We found that the fixed factor approach overestimates the dilution potential of 60% and 40% of receiving waters in the national and the federal dataset, with median dilution factors of 5 and 14.5, respectively. Under mean flow conditions, 8% of calculated dilution factors were below 10, with a median dilution factor of 106. We also calculated regional dilution factors that accounted for effluent inputs from upstream WWTPs. For the national and the federal dataset, 70% and 60% of calculated regional dilution factors fell below 10 under mean low flow conditions, respectively. Decrease of regional dilution potential in small receiving streams was mainly driven by the next WWTP upstream with a 2.5 fold drop of median regional dilution factors. Our results show that using the standard dilution factor of 10 would result in the underestimation of environmental concentrations for authorised chemicals by a factor of 3–5 for about 10% of WWTPs, especially during low flow conditions. Consequently, measured environmental concentrations might exceed predicted environmental concentrations and ecological risks posed by effluents could be much higher, suggesting that a revision of current risk assessment practices may be required.
    Keywords: Municipal Effluents ; Pharmaceuticals ; Personal Care Products ; Exposure Assessment ; Receiving Waters ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 November 2015, Vol.533, pp.40-48
    Description: Large amounts of fungicides are applied globally and partly enter freshwater ecosystems. A few laboratory studies examined their effects on decomposer communities and the ecosystem process of litter decomposition (LD), whereas the field situation remains largely unknown. We conducted a field study with 17 stream sites in a German vineyard area where fungicides represent the dominant pest control agent. Passive samplers were used to monitor 15 fungicides and 4 insecticides in streams and their toxicity was described using the toxic unit approach, whereas sediment samples were taken to characterise total copper concentrations. Microbial and leaf-shredding invertebrate community composition and related LD rates were assessed at each site. The structure of microbial and shredder communities as well as fungal biomass changed along the fungicide toxicity gradient. The changes in microbial endpoints were associated with a reduction of microbial LD rate of up to 40% in polluted streams. By contrast, neither the invertebrate LD rate nor in-situ measured gammarid feeding rates correlated with fungicide toxicity, but both were negatively associated with sediment copper concentrations. A subsequent laboratory experiment employing field fungicide concentrations suggested that the microbial community changes are causal. Overall, our results suggest that fungicides can affect LD under field conditions.
    Keywords: Pesticide ; Leaf Breakdown ; Shredder ; Microorganism ; Aquatic Toxicity ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Global Antitrust Review, 2013(6), pp.149-166
    Description: This article evaluates whether the principle of equality has a limiting effect on the Commission’s enforcement of EU competition law. An analysis of the Commission’s discretion during the enforcement of EU competition law and an examination of the principle of equality build the foundation for that evaluation....
    Keywords: Social Sciences ; Law ; Law (Excluding Law And Society) ; Samhällsvetenskap ; Juridik ; Juridik (Exklusive Juridik Och Samhälle) ; Competition Law ; Enforcement ; Principle Of Equality
    Source: SwePub (National Library of Sweden)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Europarättslig tidskrift, 2013(1), pp.28-43
    Description: The article suggests a way in which the European Commission could integrate corporate compliance programmes in their enforcement of EU competition law. For this purpose, Braithwaite's concept of responsive regulation is discussed and amanded in a way that it could accomondate the Commission's current...
    Keywords: Social Sciences ; Law ; Law (Excluding Law And Society) ; Samhällsvetenskap ; Juridik ; Juridik (Exklusive Juridik Och Samhälle)
    ISSN: 1403-8722
    Source: SwePub (National Library of Sweden)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Europarättslig tidskrift, 2015, Issue 4, pp. 939-956
    Keywords: Social Sciences ; Law ; Law (Excluding Law And Society) ; Samhällsvetenskap ; Juridik ; Juridik (Exklusive Juridik Och Samhälle)
    ISSN: 1403-8722
    Source: Uppsala University Library
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Global Antitrust Review, 2013, Issue 6, pp. 149-166
    Description: This article evaluates whether the principle of equality has a limiting effect on the Commission’s enforcement of EU competition law. An analysis of the Commission’s discretion during the enforcement of EU competition law and an examination of the principle of equality build the foundation for that evaluation. One can distinguish between situations where two parties to the same case are treated differently and where two parties to different cases are treated differently. In these two situations, the limitations of the principle of equality on the discretion of the Commission are discussed with regard to the remedies used and the magnitude of fines imposed. It is concluded that the principle of equality has very little influence on the Commissions actions in the field of EU competition law enforcement and some improvements are suggested to ensure transparency in the process of enforcement.
    Keywords: Competition Law ; Enforcement ; Principle Of Equality ; Social Sciences ; Law ; Law (Excluding Law And Society) ; Samhällsvetenskap ; Juridik ; Juridik (Exklusive Juridik Och Samhälle)
    Source: Uppsala University Library
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Europarättslig tidskrift, 2013, Issue 1, pp. 28-43
    Description: The article suggests a way in which the European Commission could integrate corporate compliance programmes in their enforcement of EU competition law. For this purpose, Braithwaite's concept of responsive regulation is discussed and amanded in a way that it could accomondate the Commission's current enforcement methods and use corporate compliance programmes.
    Keywords: Social Sciences ; Law ; Law (Excluding Law And Society) ; Samhällsvetenskap ; Juridik ; Juridik (Exklusive Juridik Och Samhälle)
    ISSN: 1403-8722
    Source: Uppsala University Library
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  • 10
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(1)
    Description: Background Although coronary revascularisation by coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is well documented, scientific knowledge on disability pension (DP) at the time of revascularisation is lacking. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of all-cause and diagnosis-specific DP at the time of a first coronary revascularisation, accounting for socio-demographic and medical factors. Materials and Methods A population-based cross-sectional study using Swedish registers was conducted including all 65,676 patients (80% men) who when aged 30–63 years, within 1994–2006, had a first CABG (n = 22,959) or PCI (n = 42,717) and did not have old-age pension. Associations between socio-demographic and medical factors and the probability of DP were estimated by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression analyses. Findings The prevalence of DP at time of revascularisation was 24%, mainly due to musculoskeletal diagnoses. Sixty-two percent had had DP for at least four years before the revascularisation. In the multivariable analyses, DP was more common in women (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 2.29–2.50), older patients (50–63 years); especially men aged 60–63 years with CABG (OR: 4.91; 95% CI: 4.27–5.66), lower educational level; especially men with PCI (OR: 2.96; 95% CI: 2.69–3.26), patients born outside Sweden; especially men with PCI (OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.96–2.27), and in women with an indication of other diagnoses than acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable angina pectoris for PCI (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.31–2.24). Conclusion About a quarter had DP at the time of revascularisation, often due to musculoskeletal diagnoses. More than half had had DP for at least four years before the intervention. DP was associated with female gender, older age, lower educational level, and being born outside Sweden.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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