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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 18 April 2014, Vol.344(6181), pp.313-9
    Description: Typical therapies try to reverse pathogenic mechanisms. Here, we describe treatment effects achieved by enhancing depression-causing mechanisms in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. In a social defeat stress model of depression, depressed (susceptible) mice display hyperactivity of VTA DA neurons, caused by an up-regulated hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)). Mice resilient to social defeat stress, however, exhibit stable normal firing of these neurons. Unexpectedly, resilient mice had an even larger I(h), which was observed in parallel with increased potassium (K(+)) channel currents. Experimentally further enhancing Ih or optogenetically increasing the hyperactivity of VTA DA neurons in susceptible mice completely reversed depression-related behaviors, an antidepressant effect achieved through resilience-like, projection-specific homeostatic plasticity. These results indicate a potential therapeutic path of promoting natural resilience for depression treatment.
    Keywords: Resilience, Psychological ; Depression -- Physiopathology ; Dopaminergic Neurons -- Physiology ; Stress, Psychological -- Physiopathology ; Ventral Tegmental Area -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Conservation biology, 2015, Vol.29(1), pp.88-98
    Description: A major justification of environmental management research is that it helps practitioners, yet previous studies show it is rarely used to inform their decisions. We tested whether conservation practitioners focusing on bird management were willing to use a synopsis of relevant scientific literature to inform their management decisions. This allowed us to examine whether the limited use of scientific information in management is due to a lack of access to the scientific literature or whether it is because practitioners are either not interested or unable to incorporate the research into their decisions. In on‐line surveys, we asked 92 conservation managers, predominantly from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, to provide opinions on 28 management techniques that could be applied to reduce predation on birds. We asked their opinions before and after giving them a summary of the literature about the interventions’ effectiveness. We scored the overall effectiveness and certainty of evidence for each intervention through an expert elicitation process—the Delphi method. We used the effectiveness scores to assess the practitioners’ level of understanding and awareness of the literature. On average, each survey participant changed their likelihood of using 45.7% of the interventions after reading the synopsis of the evidence. They were more likely to implement effective interventions and avoid ineffective actions, suggesting that their intended future management strategies may be more successful than current practice. More experienced practitioners were less likely to change their management practices than those with less experience, even though they were not more aware of the existing scientific information than less experienced practitioners. The practitioners’ willingness to change their management choices when provided with summarized scientific evidence suggests that improved accessibility to scientific information would benefit conservation management outcomes. ; p. 88-98.
    Keywords: Environmental Management ; Managers ; Predation ; Expert Opinion ; Surveys ; Information Management ; Birds
    ISSN: 0888-8892
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature, August 2018, Vol.560(7720), pp.589-594
    Description: Dysfunction in prosocial interactions is a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie sociability are poorly understood, limiting the rational development of therapies to treat social deficits. Here we show in mice that bidirectional modulation of the release of serotonin (5-HT) from dorsal raphe neurons in the nucleus accumbens bidirectionally modifies sociability. In a mouse model of a common genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder-a copy number variation on chromosome 16p11.2-genetic deletion of the syntenic region from 5-HT neurons induces deficits in social behaviour and decreases dorsal raphe 5-HT neuronal activity. These sociability deficits can be rescued by optogenetic activation of dorsal raphe 5-HT neurons, an effect requiring and mimicked by activation of 5-HT1b receptors in the nucleus accumbens. These results demonstrate an unexpected role for 5-HT action in the nucleus accumbens in social behaviours, and suggest that targeting this mechanism may prove therapeutically beneficial.
    Keywords: Serotonin – Research ; Social Skills – Research ; Pervasive Developmental Disorders – Research;
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, November 2014, Vol.29(11), pp.607-613
    Description: Making decisions informed by the best-available science is an objective for many organisations managing the environment or natural resources. Yet, available science is still not widely used in environmental policy and practice. We describe a ‘4S’ hierarchy for organising relevant science to inform decisions. This hierarchy has already revolutionised clinical practice. It is beginning to emerge for environmental management, although all four levels need substantial development before environmental decision-makers can reliably and efficiently find the evidence they need. We expose common bypass routes that currently lead to poor or biased representation of scientific knowledge. We argue that the least developed level of the hierarchy is that closest to decision-makers, placing synthesised scientific knowledge into environmental decision support systems.
    Keywords: Evidence ; Evidence-Based Conservation ; Information ; Policy ; Practice ; Environmental Management ; Environmental Decision-Making ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0169-5347
    E-ISSN: 1872-8383
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 29 September 2017, Vol.357(6358), pp.1406-1411
    Description: The reward generated by social interactions is critical for promoting prosocial behaviors. Here we present evidence that oxytocin (OXT) release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key node of the brain's reward circuitry, is necessary to elicit social reward. During social interactions, activity in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) OXT neurons increased. Direct activation of these neurons in the PVN or their terminals in the VTA enhanced prosocial behaviors. Conversely, inhibition of PVN OXT axon terminals in the VTA decreased social interactions. OXT increased excitatory drive onto reward-specific VTA dopamine (DA) neurons. These results demonstrate that OXT promotes prosocial behavior through direct effects on VTA DA neurons, thus providing mechanistic insight into how social interactions can generate rewarding experiences.
    Keywords: Interpersonal Relations ; Reward ; Social Behavior ; Dopaminergic Neurons -- Physiology ; Oxytocin -- Metabolism ; Ventral Tegmental Area -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 03 October 2018, Vol.61(7), pp.775-789
    Description: Since Hurricane Katrina there has been a movement across the U.S. to examine best practice for disaster response within the aging population. However, little is known about the experience of natural disasters from the perspective of family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease and...
    Keywords: Alzheimer'S Disease ; Dementia ; Caregiving ; Natural Disaster ; Disaster Response ; Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0163-4372
    E-ISSN: 1540-4048
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  • 7
    In: Conservation Biology, February 2015, Vol.29(1), pp.88-98
    Description: A major justification of environmental management research is that it helps practitioners, yet previous studies show it is rarely used to inform their decisions. We tested whether conservation practitioners focusing on bird management were willing to use a synopsis of relevant scientific literature to inform their management decisions. This allowed us to examine whether the limited use of scientific information in management is due to a lack of access to the scientific literature or whether it is because practitioners are either not interested or unable to incorporate the research into their decisions. In on‐line surveys, we asked 92 conservation managers, predominantly from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, to provide opinions on 28 management techniques that could be applied to reduce predation on birds. We asked their opinions before and after giving them a summary of the literature about the interventions’ effectiveness. We scored the overall effectiveness and certainty of evidence for each intervention through an expert elicitation process—the Delphi method. We used the effectiveness scores to assess the practitioners’ level of understanding and awareness of the literature. On average, each survey participant changed their likelihood of using 45.7% of the interventions after reading the synopsis of the evidence. They were more likely to implement effective interventions and avoid ineffective actions, suggesting that their intended future management strategies may be more successful than current practice. More experienced practitioners were less likely to change their management practices than those with less experience, even though they were not more aware of the existing scientific information than less experienced practitioners. The practitioners’ willingness to change their management choices when provided with summarized scientific evidence suggests that improved accessibility to scientific information would benefit conservation management outcomes. El Efecto de la Evidencia Científica sobre las Decisiones de Manejo de Quienes Practican la Conservación Una justificación mayor de la investigación en el manejo ambiental es que ayuda a quienes lo practican, aunque estudios previos muestran que rara vez se usa para informar sus decisiones. Probamos si quienes practican la conservación enfocada en el manejo de aves estaban dispuestos a usar una sinopsis de literatura científica relevante para informar sus decisiones de manejo. Esto permitió que examináramos si el uso limitado de información científica en el manejo se debe a una falta de acceso a la literatura científica o si se debe a que quienes practican la conservación no están interesados o no son capaces de incorporar la investigación a sus decisiones. En encuestas en línea les preguntamos a 92 practicantes de la conservación, la mayoría de Australia, Nueva Zelanda y el Reino Unido, que nos proporcionaran opiniones sobre 28 técnicas de manejo que podrían aplicarse para reducir la depredación de aves. Les pedimos sus opiniones antes y después de darles un resumen de la literatura sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones. Calificamos la efectividad general y la certidumbre de la evidencia para cada intervención por medio de un proceso de extracción por expertos – el método Delphi. Usamos las calificaciones de la efectividad para evaluar el nivel de entendimiento y de percatación de la literatura de quienes practican la conservación. En promedio, cada participante de la encuesta cambió su probabilidad de usar 45.7% de las intervenciones después de leer la sinopsis de la evidencia. Fue más probable que implementaran intervenciones efectivas y evitar acciones poco efectivas, lo que sugiere que sus estrategias de manejo futuras puedan ser más exitosas que las de práctica actual. Los practicantes con mayor experiencia tuvieron una menor probabilidad de cambiar sus prácticas de manejo que aquellos con menos experiencia, aunque no estuvieron más conscientes de la información científica existente que quienes tenían menos experiencia. La disponibilidad de los practicantes para cambiar sus opciones de manejo al proporcionárseles evidencia científica resumida sugiere que el acceso mejorado a la información científica podría beneficiar los resultados del manejo de la conservación.
    Keywords: Behavior Change ; Bird Predation ; Conservation Synopsis ; Delphi Method ; Evidence‐Based Conservation ; Implementation Gap ; Invasive Species ; Knowledge Use ; Cambio Conductual ; Conservación Basada En Evidencia ; Depredación De Aves ; Especies Invasoras ; Falta De Datos De Implementación ; Método Delphi ; Sinopsis De Conservación ; Uso Del Conocimiento
    ISSN: 0888-8892
    E-ISSN: 1523-1739
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  • 8
    In: Ecological Applications, July 2016, Vol.26(5), pp.1295-1301
    Description: Reliability of scientific findings is important, especially if they directly impact decision making, such as in environmental management. In the 1990s, assessments of reliability in the medical field resulted in the development of evidence‐based practice. Ten years later, evidence‐based practice was translated into conservation, but so far no guidelines exist on how to assess the evidence of individual studies. Assessing the evidence of individual studies is essential to appropriately identify and synthesize the confidence in research findings. We develop a tool to assess the strength of evidence of ecosystem services and conservation studies. This tool consists of (1) a hierarchy of evidence, based on the experimental design of studies and (2) a critical‐appraisal checklist that identifies the quality of research implementation. The application is illustrated with 13 examples and we suggest further steps to move towards more evidence‐based environmental management.
    Keywords: Governance ; Quality Checklist ; Quantification ; Rigour ; Valuation
    ISSN: 1051-0761
    E-ISSN: 1939-5582
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Applications, 12/17/2015
    ISSN: 1051-0761
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    In: Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist, 2013, Vol.6(1), p.87-110
    Description: . Herein we clarify the taxonomy of Fluminicola coloradensis Morrison (1940), which was described for populations in the Green River and Bonneville basins but has also been treated as restricted to the former watershed and conspecific with (currently unassigned) Snake River basin populations of Fluminicola hindsi sensu Taylor (1966). Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences from 2 mitochondrial genes congruently resolved F. coloradensis and Snake River basin populations of F. hindsi sensu Taylor as a strongly supported, shallowly structured clade. Haplotypes were extensively shared by Bonneville, Snake River and Green River populations; AMOVA did not detect significant variation among basins for either gene. Morphological variation was minor. Based on these results, we assign the Snake River basin populations to F. coloradensis. We attribute the limited differentiation of widely ranging F. coloradensis to its well-integrated habitats and to dispersal mediated by geologically recent drainage transfers. The broadly disjunct population in the Owyhee River drainage may be a product of translocation, as evidenced by detection of only the most common haplotypes in these snails. Our finding that F. coloradensis is more widely distributed than previously thought suggests that it may not require conservation attention rangewide, although some geographic subunits may be at risk.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 1527-0904
    E-ISSN: 1545-0228
    E-ISSN: 19448236
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